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5
votes
0answers
96 views

Has a scientific consensus been reached concerning the formation of the Grand Canyon?

new student of Oceanography here! I'm studying Earth Science right now, and I found conflicting reporting re: the formation of the Grand Canyon; whether it was formed singularly by the Colorado ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

How to transfer surface roughness from the unit mm into Strickler coefficient m1/3 per second

I have a hydrodynamic model to simulate flash floods. This model expects roughness data in the Strickler coefficient format (kst) in the unit m1/3 per second. I got a table with roughness values I'm ...
3
votes
3answers
270 views

Do we know anything about the nature of Earth's core that hasn't come from magnetic or seismic measurements?

There is much known about Earth's core from painstaking analysis of seismic data, and from detailed magnetic field maps and trends over time. Are there any other measurements that have contributed to ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Ice Water Content from GFS file

I am working my way through this paper: http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2017/8707234.pdf Equations 10 and 11 require the ice water content. I can't find it in the GFS grib2 file ...
2
votes
0answers
86 views

Modeling the total water inflow across multiple reservoirs

I'm new to hydrology and I have a question regarding the modeling of multiple reservoirs. I need to estimate the total water inflow to multiple reservoirs that will be observed tomorrow, conditional ...
1
vote
3answers
86 views

Derivative of Exner function

In chapter 13.1 in 'Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes' (Markowski and Richardson,2011) they use a Bernoulli equation and the hydrostatic equation and a lot of assumptions to derive an equation ...
13
votes
1answer
2k views

Why don't iron meteorites on Mars rust or oxidize? Why are they shiny?

Wikipedia's WikiNews' 2005 article Mars Rover’s Basketball-Shaped Discovery Stirs Controversy says: The surface of the meteorite was found to be remarkably free of corrosion. Researchers are as yet ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Digital alternative to hand analyzed maps

I am a staunch believer in the benefit of hand analyzing maps to get a good feel for the state of the atmosphere before getting into my forecast. With Covid-19 keeping us out of the office, one of the ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Storing borehole interval data (logs) in netcdf

I have a number of datasets that describe geological properties as intervals down a borehole (e.g. unit codes, sample results) In a database, or a flat ASCII file, I would describe these with a ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Extratropical transition of tropical cyclone

I am a beginner of learning Tropical Cyclone. I would like to represent the extratropical transition of a tropical cyclone. But I can't understand on what actually in need to focus. For a tropical ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

What is the difference between MOD16A2 and MOD16A2GF products?

I want to use the evapotranspiration product, which one will be the suitable to show net evapotranspiration on large and arid area? Thanks
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Q factor estimation from VSP

in seismic data processing there is a step of calculating the absorption represented By Q value which is Q factor , how we can estimate it from VSP ! thank you.
7
votes
1answer
93 views

What are these river/canyon-like carvings in the ocean?

Browsing around Google Maps, I came across this off the south-west coast of Ireland It looks very consistent with the shape rivers and their tributaries might make, but it has me puzzled since it's ...
4
votes
1answer
49 views

How will air quality, weather and climate improve because of the containment, social distancing and lockdown during the COVID-19 outbreak?

The actions taken to contain the corona-virus epidemic is closing any form of human activities in the world. Schools are closed in most cities of the world, people are told to stay at home and it ...
3
votes
1answer
50 views

Why does upwards lightning use only one path but downward lightning uses multiple paths?

My question pops-up from this question "Why does lightning strike from the ground-up" which I consider partially unanswered. Why do I consider it partially unanswered? Because only one ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

Does the heat of reentry affect the reliability of radiometric dating of meteorites?

This may be more of an age-dating question. When a meteorite travels through the Earth's atmosphere, I assume that it gets really hot. Is the temperature of reentry hot enough to effect the ...
27
votes
2answers
6k views

Is there a name for the great circle where latitude and longitude are equal?

Is there a name for the great circle where latitude and longitude are equal? I have attempted a google search but only the equator and the prime meridian are defined in the sources I can find. ( It is ...
2
votes
3answers
70 views

stretch phenomena after NMO application on seismic data

after the NMO application we have stretch for far offset , i read a lot of articles but i can't have a complete idea how this phenomena is really created ! any one have a rich explanation ?
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Why does Morocco have so much phosphate?

I read that Morocco/Western Sahara has 75% of the world's known phosphate reserves, but I couldn't find an explanation of what mineral is responsible for it and how it all ended up there
2
votes
0answers
23 views

Coloring maps by feature orientation

I live in the SF Bay Area where many, but not all, geological features are oriented parallel to the San Andreas Fault. I was wondering if there’s a type of map where ridges are colored by compass ...
4
votes
0answers
69 views

Given the movement of the tectonic plates in the past 5,000 years, how can the alignments of megaliths around the planet still be accurate?

Many of the worlds oldest megaliths are aligned with the cardinal points like the Great Pyramid which is said to be within an accuracy of better than four minutes of arc, or one-fifteenth of one ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

How can I create netcdf file from my emission data in wrfinput_d01 format

I have some emission data files in netcdf format in diffrent files. I would like to write them in netcdf file as my wrfchemi_d01 to use them for runing wrf_chem. How can I create netcdf file from my ...
4
votes
1answer
57 views

Could the 5.7 earthquake in Utah be a precursor to a larger one?

Trying to verify the validity of a rumor. https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/uu60363602/executive
1
vote
1answer
245 views

Why is the pressure on the poles higher in Summer and lower in Winter?

Just to give context, this was not my original question but one that I ended up stuck with while trying to find a cause for the following observation (which is almost universally true for temperate ...
4
votes
1answer
97 views

Would pollution really take a lot of years to disappear from the atmosphere once people stop producing them?

From a comment in another question here, Oh, and a third factor: the added atmospheric CO2 does not magically go away once all the fossil fuels are burned. It will stay in the atmosphere for ...
4
votes
1answer
262 views

“steep slope” when cold fronts encounter warm fronts: Confusing sentence in textbook

I'm currently reading a university textbook on processes that result in rainfall events. In the current processes, I'm reading there is a cold front that basically pushes warm air upwards which ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Recycling census plastic bags [closed]

Yesterday, I received my census questionnaire. So have many millions of other Americans, recently. These bags are not labeled for recycling, but are they recyclable? Can I put them in the deposits at ...
3
votes
1answer
91 views

What causes this arc in the night sky where the background is brighter on one side than the other?

This comment to Did nobody in the Astronomy community think 12,000 new satellites in LEO might be a problem? links to Phys.org's New ESO study evaluates impact of satellite constellations on ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Have fossil-containing gastroliths been found inside other fossils?

This article describes gastroliths ("stomach stones"). It says that gastroliths have been found inside the rib cages of fossilized creatures such as dinosaurs. It also says that gastroliths sometimes ...
0
votes
2answers
136 views

How was the onset of the Cambrian period dated?

What dating method was used to determine the beginning of the Cambrian, and what was its margin of error? Was only one fossil dated, or were a number of similar fossils used?
0
votes
0answers
51 views

how can I write my netCDF file in my wrfinput_d01 format

I have a netCDF data file as my emmission data in netCDF format. I have interpolated it in my wrfinput_d01 resolution by using CDO. I can write my data to a netCDF ...
4
votes
2answers
89 views

How do the slow and fast carbon cycles influence climate change?

I understand that the slow and fast carbon cycles are involved in the transport and storing of carbon, but how much of an influence do each of these cycles have on climate change, and how?
6
votes
1answer
147 views

How to convert mol/m^2 to total mass ( e.g gram, kg etc )?

I want to calculate the total $\rm{NO_2}$ amount in a year using satellite Sentinel-5p NO2 dataset. But the problem is sentinel satellite data stored in $\rm\frac{mol}{m^2}$ unit. But I have to ...
4
votes
1answer
56 views

Why does exhaust smells linger some days?

Some days I can smell bad smelling exhaust 50 meters or more away from the bus stop. I think the air is usually moist those days. Does exhaust gases linger longer if the air is moist near the ground?...
5
votes
2answers
92 views

Has there ever been a case where we have found what appears to be a prehistoric fossil but have no way of dating it?

I find that when ever I learn of a new fossil, the age of said fossil is always mentioned. This perplexes me given how intuitively rare it seems to have radioactive material to date a formation. I ...
4
votes
0answers
120 views

Wind rose WRF-PYTHON

I'm trying to plot a windrose but I don't know how to get the variables ws and wd. Is there any variable in the wrf output that can be used to make a windrose? I tried with 'wspd' et 'wdir' but I ...
1
vote
0answers
82 views

Earth-like conditions on Titan: is it feasible that Titan once had seas and lakes of liquid water?

Given that: 1) Four billion years ago Saturn was hotter and radiated strongly in the infra-red. . . . . . . . . . 2) Like Earth's moon, Titan was then closer to its planet. . . . . . . . . . 3) Like ...
5
votes
2answers
265 views

Geomorphological feature identification

I was studying a satellite map of Iceland and came across an interesting, but unnamed feature located between Vatnajökull glacier and Trölladyngja volcano (between 64°50'35"N, 17°11'21"W and 64°48'33"...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

The effect of the 2019-2020 bushfires/wildfires in Australia

What was the total damage of the 2019-2020 bushfires/wildfires in Australia?
1
vote
1answer
34 views

How do they get “deep lunar mantle” samples?

Phys.org's Study suggests Earth and Moon not identical oxygen twins says They found that the oxygen isotopic composition varied depending on the type of rock tested. This may be due to the degree of ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Landsat 8 acquisition time and date

The the meta data text file that comes with Landsat scenes, contains an acquisition date and a scene center time in successive lines. I wanted to know if the image is recorded at the scene center time ...
4
votes
4answers
99 views

Why isn't the side of the earth facing the sun completely illuminated by sunlight from the north to the south pole every day of the year?

We all know that the earth rotates every 24 hours, that it is tilted 23.5 degrees, that it circles the sun every 365 days, and that it is located approximately 148,600,000 km (92,333,000 miles) from ...
4
votes
1answer
45 views

can wet winters require more home heating than colder winters, in same place?

This winter in UK has been wet and windy but rarely below freezing. Last winter was colder with snow but less rain and wind. My storage heating seems to need to be set higher this year. I suspect the ...
4
votes
2answers
178 views

How many days has it been since the Cambrian explosion?

I want to know how to calculate the number of days since an event in Earth's past, and am using the Cambrian explosion as an example. I define a day to be one rotation of Earth with respect to the ...
4
votes
1answer
100 views

What is the use of HV or VH polarization in Radar?

Radar is a common tool in remote sensing, it is a so-called active instrument, hence it emits and receives energy. Modern Syntethic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are capable of both transmitting and ...
4
votes
1answer
73 views

Performing time-frequency analysis (FTAN)

I am trying to do ambient noise tomography and I am quite confused on how to perform time-frequency analysis (FTAN) as shown in figure 13b and 13d of this paper by Bensen et al.. I am using Python and ...
1
vote
2answers
115 views

What has been the influence of the moon on Earth's temperature?

What proportion of Earth's internal heat is generated by tidal flexion as a result of the orbiting moon, and would it have been significantly greater four billion years ago when the moon was closer? ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Why is Venus so cracked?

Wired.com's Space Photos of the Week: Perfectly Safe Celestial Coronas includes radar images of the surface of Venus taken from spacecraft in orbit around it. One of them shown below. What causes ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

How to calculate gps location based on direction and distance?

I need to calculate the gps coordinates of a point "North 52° West 2.67 chains" from a known location. What's the process to make this calculation? If possible, start with 37N-91W. There's an answer ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

What sort of a plate is the Sunda plate?

I have read that the islands of Sumatra & Java have resulted from the subduction of oceanic crust of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Sunda plate. I want to know whether this boundary is ...

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