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77 views

Peninsula vs Cape [closed]

I know that Peninsula is much larger than a cape, but is there a definite way to differentiate them? I.e. by area- if the total area is larger than 30 sqkm, any headland is classified as peninsula..
0
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2answers
46 views

Sea cave vs Sea arch

How do you distinguish sea cave from sea arch? If I want to classify a crack of sea cliff as sea cave, has it to have a dead end? Would you call a geological formation as a sea cave even a kayak can ...
1
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2answers
103 views

What could cause a turn from global warming to global cooling?

Except a hypothesized orbital forcing! Ice cores shows that there are several irregular sharp temperature peaks in between of the big 100,000 years glaciations. What could cause those peaks? Almost ...
3
votes
0answers
58 views

Initiation of Rossby waves during MJO

I am trying to understand the basic dynamics of MJO, where I find several studies which relate it to the initiation of equatorial Rossby and Kelvin waves. Though MJO is an eastward propagating wave, I ...
4
votes
1answer
94 views

Why can't we dig deeper?

I recently read on another SE site that there's a limitation on how deep we can dig into the earth. A Google search reveals that temperature is the problem. I quote from a Popular Mechanics article ...
5
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2answers
61 views

Can I interpolate rainfall data from stations outside of watershed for the watershed?

I have only few station inside the watershed so I want to use the stations outside if I can to get better results
3
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0answers
36 views

Coral Reef and Volcanic Islands

I have two questions regarding coral reef and volcanic islands. When a new volcanic island is formed, how much time generaly passes before a coral reef starts to form around the island? Another ...
0
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1answer
32 views

UK Mineral identification help [closed]

Can anyone help me identify these minerals please? I found them on a beach in northern England. The first has tiny angular crystals, some slightly pinkish maybe in certain lighting conditions but grey ...
4
votes
2answers
95 views

Is there a place where the sea floor descends into the mantle of the earth?

My understanding of plate tectonics is that in the middle of the oceans magma rises from the mantle of the earth, cools and then spreads out, building up the sea floor. These places are pretty obvious ...
1
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1answer
80 views

Can you please help me to identify this thing I found inside a rock in the Almanzora riverbed Spain

Can someone please help me identify this thing I found inside a rock in the Almanzora riverbed Spain
2
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0answers
56 views

Characteristics of saddle points in stream line charts

I am trying to locate saddle points or commonly known as "col" in synoptic meteorology. This is "z" in the following figure. References Here are some of the references regarding this. a). http://www....
4
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1answer
43 views

What exactly are “ambient aerosols”?

I see this term being used everywhere, but I have not been able to find a formal definition for "ambient aerosols".
2
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3answers
89 views

Looking for counter-arguments concerning the melting of glaciers in the alps in the context of global warming

I've recently listend to a talk of Prof. Gernot Patzelt, Austrian Geographer and High Altitude Mountain Researcher. In this talk he describes that scientists find rests of trees and moorland apearing ...
0
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0answers
25 views

3D fold coverage calculation

I have a configuration for which the nominal fold is 16 (i.e. 48 channel streamer, 1m group interval, 1.5m SP interval). I have been asked to calculate the fold coverage with the following criteria: ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

If matter is constantly being cycled through an ecosystem, does that mean a given ecosystem has a fixed mass?

Due to the food chain and the cycle of life, matter is constantly moved between plants, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and so on, until the consumers die, giving matter they consumed back to ...
3
votes
1answer
91 views

Locating shearlines or deformation zones in a map

I am looking for a way to detect shearlines or confluence regions such as that shown in the figure below (red dashed line). I was able to derive the stretching, shear, and total deformations. The ...
1
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0answers
30 views

How to transform level 2 satellite retrievals to level 3 gridded data

Usually, I use level-3 gridded satellite data to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of atmospheric compositions. However, there were some data sources which only afford level 2 product. For ...
6
votes
2answers
59 views

Is there a widely accepted reason for the formation of tafoni?

Expansion of tafoni seems to be based on weathering (seems reasonable enough.) But what creates them in the first place? There are a number of explanations online (Wikipedia lists eight plausible ...
0
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0answers
24 views

Moisture flux convergence/divergence calculation in Grads

I want to calculate moisture flux divergence/convergence in 850 hpa for the summer and I have monthly mean gridded data sdfopen shum.mon.mean.nc sdfopen uwind.mon.mean.nc sdfopen vwind.mon.mean.nc ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Which is worse, plastic or styrofoam cups?

Which disposable cup between plastic and styrofoam harm the environment the most? Which is the most unhealthy to use for the Earth for humans and animals?
5
votes
1answer
52 views

Is sterescope still used to do cartography with orthophotography?

I used this tool at my degree a couple of lusters ago to do cartography with aerial orthophotos. We used it on cartography and geomorphology subjets. Source: gumtree.com The method consists ...
0
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0answers
27 views

Estimating Diurnal Temperature Changes for a region due to Climate change?

I am working on UHI related studies. I am wondering is it possible to estimate how diurnal temperature cycle would change for a typical day of given season. Edit: Based on comment I am trying to add ...
2
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0answers
43 views

Is it an egg? What type of rock please? [closed]

This stone was found by my uncle in Western Queensland. It’s light brown in colour and smooth. It's very heavy for its size. 780 grams. Pocket knife doesn’t scratch it. many thanks.
1
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0answers
21 views

Turbulence strength from turbulence intensity?

I do not have a lot of knowledge in aerodynamics but I need to be able to derive turbulence strength (Cv2 and Ct2 - so called turbulence structural parameters I think) from turbulence intensity. Does ...
0
votes
1answer
69 views

Help me identify my rock is it jade?

Found this rock it looks like a vein of Jade but I have no idea. This is the inside of the rock. I found it already broke the rock is wet in the pic. It's is a hard rough texture and the green in the ...
0
votes
1answer
141 views

Error trying to download ERA5 data: Exception: Missing/incomplete configuration file: C:\Users\username/.cdsapirc

I am new with Python so please be kind. I want to download data from ERA5 and so far I have installed the CDS API package and followed all the instructions from https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/api-...
9
votes
1answer
189 views

Rock identification?

This stone is part of a rock mass found in one of the plains of Iran. There are no rocky mountains around these rocks. I'm geologist and I guess it's part of the meteorite, what do you think? Color: ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

Amount of scattered vs. direct UV light from the Sun

I was wondering about the common saying that on a sunny, cloud-free day, depending on location, you can get a sunburn even when spending the whole day in the shadows. Already our blue sky provides ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

How big of an event is needed to trigger a long winter?

Could a small meteor or natural nuclear explosion melt an ice cap on Earth to trigger a mini ice age without the event being observed by people? Can the Earth have an overlaying thermal cycle that ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

reverse time migration for wave equation PDE using SBP-SAT

I'm stuck implementing a reverse time migration technique, the PDE(partial differential equation) being implemented is an acoustic wave equation, The numerical method being used is a FD(finite ...
1
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0answers
50 views

FOSSILZED WOODEN TOOL [closed]

My son found a fossil on the beach at the foot of the cliff face at Robin Hoods Bay in the UK. It is definitely a fossilized piece of wood, but we would like to know what type, and also if it was ...
5
votes
1answer
121 views

Are these plane trails seen from satellite

Here are photos from West of Normandy, at 7-9am after sunrise on the 14th of may, from the visible satellite. It's a bit strange that they are visible from space, they are 2-3 miles wide? Are they jet ...
1
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0answers
47 views

what type of rock is this? blue/green and brown [closed]

I found this rock while up in the mountains and I have no idea what type of rock it is.
0
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0answers
26 views

What are “young thrust faults” and why are they significant on the Moon?

The abstract of the new Nature Geoscience paper Shallow seismic activity and young thrust faults on the Moon reads: The discovery of young thrust faults on the Moon is evidence of recent tectonic ...
1
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0answers
88 views

Does this weather pattern have a name?

The past few weeks of spring in northern Ohio I believe I have noticed a weather pattern where the weather forecast will show a string of days with rain, but what happens is the day is mostly clear, ...
0
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0answers
42 views

Why doesn't vapor counts when calculating global radiative forcing?

When NOAA/ESRL calculates global radiative forcing (Table 2) there seems to be no contribution from water vapor. How come?
0
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0answers
12 views

Assessing graded bedding in metamorphosed pelitic sediments

I have the following image of metasedimentary outcrop from a Proterozoic continental rift-fill sequence: The middle layer has a pelitic composition and contains abundant cordierite porphyroblasts (...
2
votes
0answers
46 views

Query about inclination in Earth's axis of rotation

Earth revolves around the Sun in a elliptical path, situated on one of the Sun's focal points. If Earth is considered as a large body with mass attracted towards the Sun's core causing its revolution ...
1
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0answers
50 views

Is this a geode?

So just having issues with identification looks like a outer line of rock a bit transparent but the inside polished looks waxy other side of stone a bit more foggy but still blue visible Edit - ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

How fast does the outer core spin?

I've tried looking for the answer of this question but the only thing that comes out is how much does the inner core rotates but I'm specifically looking for, how much does the outer core move per day....
0
votes
2answers
43 views

Is there a way to approximate the density of air during rain?

Given a rate of precipitation (in mm^3/hour), and average droplet diameter, is is it possible to calculate (or even ballpark) the density of the air+rain droplets at time of rainfall? What I mean is, ...
1
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0answers
13 views

Why is sulfate reduction less important in freshwater sediments?

Is this due to increased salinity reducing sulfate concentration or the production of marsh gas converting sulfate to hydrogen sulfide or something else?
0
votes
1answer
73 views

Decomposition of variables in horizontal and vertical modes

I have a query regarding the practical applicability of variable separable method. Usually we decompose the variables w.r.t components corresponding to different dimensions, this method is used to ...
3
votes
2answers
157 views

What is this heavy green rock?

I found this grenish rock at a beach in Northwest Ireland called Inishcrone. It measures 45mmx35mmx22mm. It weighs 57 grams and has a density of 2.90. It is opaque, does not attract a magnet. It ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

What produces these amazing 3D structures in Tibet?

A friend recommended I watch this Chinese language video 航拍西藏 2018 (Aerial photography in Tibet) and the HD drone video of scenery is stunning. After about 37 minutes into the video, there are shots ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Barotropic vorticity equation

I came across the barotropic vorticity equation (below) in Sakamoto (2002) and I cannot figure it out. The notation is not clear to me. How can it be derived from the Navier-Stokes equation? $$ \beta\...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

What would be the extent of the feedback on climate of unattended deaths event?

Being given that decaying corpses will stop emitting digestive metane, but would release huge amount of methane during their decaying process, I was wondering if this could be considered among the ...
1
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0answers
16 views

What determines the scale of columnar jointing?

What physical parameters determine the scale of columnar jointing? What makes the columns thinner or thicker? What makes them taller or shorter? What causes the variation in a given site? What ...
-1
votes
1answer
101 views

How to improve this prediction about the climate in future?

The more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the more global warming. The more global warming the more cloud formations that cool the earth and clean the air from carbon dioxid when rain- and snowfall, ...
3
votes
1answer
41 views

Get atmospheric pressure values through JavaScript

I'm working on a programming project in which I want to show isobars on a map with OpenStreetMap and the HTML tag canvas. The main problem that I'm facing is the dificulty of retrieving consistent ...

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