# All Questions

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14 views

### How do I plot Troels-Smith lithological symbols in R?

I'm trying to plot lithological data using the Troels-Smith scheme. I have tried psimpoll but as I only have lithological data I cannot create a main input file which is required. I also do not have ...
41 views

### Southern Hemisphere climate

Does oceanic and land mass positioning affect tropical storm evolution in the southern hemisphere? And, do cold fronts migrate latitudinally " upwards " the way they drift "downwards" in the northern?
83 views

### what was there before to Paleolithic really and where really start the life for us no like homo?

I am asking myself something very interesting for me (I am not expert in this topic). I read many websites about human history and every webiste says that there are some periods in the human history. ...
15 views

### solubility of rare earth sulphides at different pH?

Will rare earth sulfides in soil be more soluble in aqueous solutions with lower pH? How can I know whether these sulfides will dissolve better at low or high pH or will it not be affected?
75 views

### Why is more carbon in the atmosphere good, up to a certain level?

According to Elon Musk, there's "an argument" stating that the current level of carbon in the atmosphere (more than 400 ppm) is better than it was some hundreds of years ago (200 ppm). He even calls ...
17 views

### What is the Offset Corner Latitude and Longtitude?

I tried to understand about Offset Corner Latitude Point 1,2,3,4 and Offset Corner Longitude Point 1,2,3,4. But I couldn't understand what is it? For example, I have the Frame center Latitude and ...
36 views

### Are the Olympic Mountains (in Washington state) geologically unique?

So it is my understanding the Washington's Olympic Mountains are basaltic mountains. The reason is that they formed from the upthrust of Ocean crust rather than continental crust as the Farallon plate ...
32 views

### Marks on boulders of volcanic origin

I am working in a catchment in the southern Ecuadorian Andes, about 3700 m.a.sl. Rock outcrops at the upper part of the catchment, as massive blocks varying their size from one meter up to five meters,...
68 views

I have download ERA5 netCDF file in order to get precipitation monthly/daily rates for 11 years. But I have realized, there is no option to select my area of interest. It seems it is a big file to ...
17 views

### How have Farallon plates's remnants stayed as they were inside the mantle?

Why hasn't the subduced Farallon Plate's materials been recycled? Why do they appear to be flowing in a molten state?
42 views

### Is the area burnt in Amazonas quite smaller than the 2018 California wildfires?

I've found this data, which I'm not sure it's right. This article claims the area burnt in Amazon this year is 1,330 square miles (344,468 hectareas) Amazon rainforest fires . And this other article ...
122 views

### Can Some not all mountains actually be Giant petrified Tree Stumps? [closed]

Is it possible That The process that had occurred with the flood have actually petrified ginormous tree stumps during the flood??
35 views

### Q: Is the crust getting thinner or is the mantle getting smaller

Volcanoes spit out magma onto the surface of the crust or crevices on the surface, but the magma comes (in effect) from the mantle right? If that's the case, isn't the mantle turning into the crust by ...
60 views

### Stop earth rotation around its axis [closed]

I have a theoretical question. I have been reading on what would happen if the earth suddenly stopped rotating around its axis, and I have learned that would result in the annihilation of all life on ...
63 views

### Does rain itself affect barometric pressure?

I understand how and why low pressure systems are often associated with rain, but does the rain itself (both during and after) alter barometric pressure in any meaningful way?
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### How can I describe this data using a graph?

I want to know how I can put all this data into one graph. I thought that temperature can be graphed as a bar graph and precipitation could be used with a line graph. However I don't know how i can ...
86 views

### ERA5 mean evaporation rates data - Why is that negative?

Please, let me know if this question is too technical/specific for Earth Science. In case, I will remove it and eventually post it elsewhere. I am processing some data extracted from ERA5 to set up a ...
71 views

### Is Amazonia forest resistant to fires?

Comparing the picture that delimites Amazonia from wikipedia page and the picture NASA published of the recent dramatic fires the zone is suffering, what I can appreciate is the burned zone is the ...
85 views

### Is it normal for a cyclonic storm to form at the latitude of New York, USA?

I am following climate activist Greta Thunberg's sail to N America from Europe on https://tracker.borisherrmannracing.com/. The model shows a cyclonic storm forming south of Nova Scotia, east of New ...
58 views

### Is there any possible way that a tropical cyclone of any strength could form over land?

Most tropical cyclones rapidly weaken over land, however, given some conditions (such as very wet soil/ground cover and tropical lower atmospheric conditions) they can sustain themselves or even ...
108 views

### Is the rainforest too wet to burn?

I want to know if a living rainforest in the Amazon, completely untouched by humans, is too wet for the fire to spread, even in the dryer months around July? I.e. if somebody dropped 5000 gallons of ...
277 views

### Why is it said that Amazon creates 20% of the oxygen production of the world, when it accounts with less than 14-12.8% of the forest area?

Many times we see in articles that the Amazon rainforest creates 20% of the oxygen of the world . Even french president Macron stated this in a tweet Macron tweet According to this Amazonas size ...
22 views

### Why the angle doubles in Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria? [closed]

Can you explain in details on why the angle between the normal stress (x-axis) and the plane of failure doubles in Mohr-Coulomb Failure criteria space and still the same in real world stress space?
71 views

### What is the chasm in the Arctic on Google satellite map?

In the image below, taken from Google Maps satellite view, between Svalbard and Greenland there is what looks like a massive crevasse, chasm, crack, &c. What is it? Should I be worried?
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### Are These Tropical Forests Burning in Brazil and Elsewhere Really Rainforests?

I know from many years of personal experience in the Malaysian rainforest (Sarawak, Sabah and Peninsular Malaya) that it is not inflammable. Dayaks and aborigines cultivate small patches of shifting ...
47 views

### What does it mean when polar nights have twilight?

My family and I want travel somewhere with polar night. I looked up Tromsø, Norway. "Down all day" beneath means 24 h darkness, no sun and thus no sun-light. Right? But if no sun and sun-light, ...
38 views

### If two adjacent tectonic plates are moving in the same direction, is there significant interaction at the boundary?

If two adjacent tectonic plates are moving in the same direction, is there significant interaction at the boundary? Is it just a convergent boundary if one moves faster and "catches up" with the other?...
72 views

### What map projection preserves latitude?

I just want see which cities are on the same latitude as others. Please recommend latitude-preserving projection that's free and online.
36 views

### What is the total mass of organic carbon on Earth?

What is the estimated total mass of organic carbon plus elemental carbon (defined here as all carbon in any chemical form, minus carbon dioxide, inorganic carbonates, and other fully oxidized carbon ...
37 views

### Can a sonar used to graph the ocean floors detect through polluted and highly populated waters?

So graphing the ocean floors using sonar is not anything new. But what are the limits to sonar? Would it be possible for a regular sonar device to emit sounds that are strong enough to penetrate ...
145 views

### Cooling effect from the oceans in global warming

The ocean soaks up about 90 percent of the heat of climate change, because of ocean heating. When using the formula of Svante Arrhenius to calculate forcing due to atmospheric $CO_2$ \$\Delta F=\alpha\...
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### Hypothetical: an immense disc blocks sunlight, how does this affect the weather?

I have a hypothetical situation, and I am specifically interested in how this situation would affect the weather. I have asked this question elsewhere, however I feel that nobody with any expertise ...
84 views

### Climate change research and policy [closed]

How impactful is climate change scientific research on climate change policy? Are there any statistics which help to visualise the effectiveness of new scientific findings or new technology innovation ...
110 views

### does silt form from sand ; does clay form from silt

I believe that sand, silt, clay are defined by size. But are they also generated by different processes and from different materials? Alternatively do sand particles ultimately weather to make silt, ...
52 views

### What might be causing this rainbow-like effect on the ground?

The BBC News article Iceland's Okjokull glacier commemorated with plaque about a dead glacier speaks for itself. However there is a photo in the article that caught my eye. It shows mountains in ...
50 views

Maybe tornados form from dust devils that get pulled into the storm. Is there some way to look for a correlation between number of tornados on a given day and how conducive conditions are to producing ...
56 views

### Is it possible to know what was the flow direction in a pegmatite dike?

The following picture (Painted wall cliff in the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, Colorado, USA) shows a pegmatite dike: is it possible to tell what was the flow direction? From thin (see ...
128 views

### Has the present rise of CO2 ppm been proved to be caused by human activity?

The level of CO2 in the atmosphere has risen roughly from 300 to 400ppm over the last 60 years. What are the reliable calculations showing that such a rise has been caused by human activity? I am ...
38 views

### Zoeppritz equations derivation

I have been long looking for the derivations and step by step explanation of Zoeppritz matrix but either internet is full of final versions or I can’t find it...I would be very thankful if anyone can ...
38 views

### What does a “closed basin” mean in groundwater terms?

This answer talks about a "closed basin" that has an outflow to the sea. I had previously assumed that "closed basin" meant the same as "endorheic basin", but that is obviously not the case. What is ...
65 views

### Can aerostats be used for fine-grained control of the weather

Most of the discussed geoengineering ideas aim to change the average temperature of the earth instead of trying to control local weather. Aerostats can be used to change the local temperature in ...
34 views

### Community change along urban rural gradient

I was wondering whether someone has an idea about how to investigate community changes of plants/animals along an urban-rural gradient? I have a large data set consisting of plant/animal abundance and ...
50 views

### What is the lowest latitude for which if the ideal solar energy received each day for a year is graphed, the graph would contain one peak?

I asked a question with the same meaning on Quora, but it seems no one got it, so I'm asking it here with a very different wording. I'm actually not sure if this would belong here or on the Astronomy ...
32 views

### Is it feasible to 'harvest' the Clathrates from the permafrost before they evaporate?

We can see that there are large buildups of methane clathrates in permafrost regions. Climate scientist James Hansen has predicted that the release of the permafrost methane clathrates could cause ...
67 views

### Impacts of high-altitude emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to sea level GHG emissions

I often hear that the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by planes is particularly concerning because the emission of GHGs at high altitudes has an even higher impact on global warming than the ...
51 views

### Is there a general equation to know how big of an area is affected by an earthquake?

If you visit USGS earthquakes listing, you get 3 points of information for each earthquake: Location, depth, magnitude. My question is, is there a way to approximate how big of an area is affected? ...
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### How to Obtain an Accurate Estimate for the Pressure of a Putative H2 and He4 Primordial Atmosphere?

How can we obtain an accurate estimate of the pressure of the hydrogen and helium primordial atmosphere of Earth just after it was formed? I was admonished by a user on Astronomy Stack for saying it ...
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### Why did Hurricane Harvey have so much lightning associated with it?

Hurricane Harvey was a prodigious lightning producer when it hit Houston/SE Texas. But I thought hurricanes don't have much lightning (with the eyewall being the only exception), due to tropical ...