# All Questions

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46 views

### Query about inclination in Earth's axis of rotation

Earth revolves around the Sun in a elliptical path, situated on one of the Sun's focal points. If Earth is considered as a large body with mass attracted towards the Sun's core causing its revolution ...
51 views

### Is this a geode?

So just having issues with identification looks like a outer line of rock a bit transparent but the inside polished looks waxy other side of stone a bit more foggy but still blue visible Edit - ...
24 views

### How fast does the outer core spin?

I've tried looking for the answer of this question but the only thing that comes out is how much does the inner core rotates but I'm specifically looking for, how much does the outer core move per day....
45 views

### Is there a way to approximate the density of air during rain?

Given a rate of precipitation (in mm^3/hour), and average droplet diameter, is is it possible to calculate (or even ballpark) the density of the air+rain droplets at time of rainfall? What I mean is, ...
13 views

### Why is sulfate reduction less important in freshwater sediments?

Is this due to increased salinity reducing sulfate concentration or the production of marsh gas converting sulfate to hydrogen sulfide or something else?
73 views

### Decomposition of variables in horizontal and vertical modes

I have a query regarding the practical applicability of variable separable method. Usually we decompose the variables w.r.t components corresponding to different dimensions, this method is used to ...
159 views

### What is this heavy green rock?

I found this grenish rock at a beach in Northwest Ireland called Inishcrone. It measures 45mmx35mmx22mm. It weighs 57 grams and has a density of 2.90. It is opaque, does not attract a magnet. It ...
97 views

### What produces these amazing 3D structures in Tibet?

A friend recommended I watch this Chinese language video 航拍西藏 2018 (Aerial photography in Tibet) and the HD drone video of scenery is stunning. After about 37 minutes into the video, there are shots ...
45 views

### Barotropic vorticity equation

I came across the barotropic vorticity equation (below) in Sakamoto (2002) and I cannot figure it out. The notation is not clear to me. How can it be derived from the Navier-Stokes equation?  \beta\...
56 views

### What would be the extent of the feedback on climate of unattended deaths event?

Being given that decaying corpses will stop emitting digestive metane, but would release huge amount of methane during their decaying process, I was wondering if this could be considered among the ...
16 views

### What determines the scale of columnar jointing?

What physical parameters determine the scale of columnar jointing? What makes the columns thinner or thicker? What makes them taller or shorter? What causes the variation in a given site? What ...
101 views

### How to improve this prediction about the climate in future?

The more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the more global warming. The more global warming the more cloud formations that cool the earth and clean the air from carbon dioxid when rain- and snowfall, ...
41 views

### Get atmospheric pressure values through JavaScript

I'm working on a programming project in which I want to show isobars on a map with OpenStreetMap and the HTML tag canvas. The main problem that I'm facing is the dificulty of retrieving consistent ...
82 views

### What exactly is ammonite?

I miss the definition of ammonite. In my opinion, many authors confuse the term "Ammonite" and "Ammonoid". Ammonoids (Ammonoidea) are large group of cephalopods including for example goniatites (...
28 views

### How reliable is sea-ice concentration (fraction) data in ERA-Interim?

I am using sea-ice data from the European Reanalysis from ECMWF (ERA Interim), but some grid cells over land have sea-ice information. Not a big issue so far, because spatial discretization must ...
47 views

### How does friction and radiolysis provide hydrogen for “unusual types of methane”?

The fascinating New York Times article Gas That Makes a Mountain Breathe Fire Is Turning Up Around the World talks about the Flames of Chimaera and the Deep Carbon Observatory: And a series of ...
67 views

### What is this heavy, dark grey and almost round rock?

I found this 'rock' on the beach in North West Washington State. It's almost perfectly round save for a few bumps, it's dark grey in colour, solid, feels smooth like any stone you'd find on the beach,...
84 views

### How does multiple layer seismic reflection work? How do we distinguish arrivals from different layers and their velocities?

Whenever we are investigating multiple layer interfaces in a seismic reflection survey the root-mean-squared velocity is often employed to deduce travel time to a certain n-th layer and also to deduce ...
107 views

### If the Kola Superdeep Borehole were opened today, what would come out of it?

The BBC News article The Deepest Hole we have Ever dug says: This is the Kola Superdeep Borehole, the deepest manmade hole on Earth and deepest artificial point on Earth. The 40,230ft-deep (12.2km) ...
47 views

### Can extratropical cyclones force global cooling?

We are living in a historical period of global warming since about 20,000 years ago. This global warming period is one of about ten in human history. Those periods may very well be forced to start by ...
45 views

### How to predict when the pressure will change

For example, on windy.com I see that there is a high pressure area to the west of Washington in the Pacific Ocean. What heuristic techniques could I use to guess if the high pressure area will migrate ...
51 views

### ERA-Interim how to select only grid-points over land area?

I am using ERA-Interim data, e.g. total precipitation, and I want to take only observations over land areas. How can I filter the ERA-Interim dataset of precipitation to get only observations in grid-...
40 views

### Does tropical rain forest as defined by the Holdridge Life Zone classification exist in any meaningful prevalence?

I've been recently introduced to the Holdridge life zones and their method of classification, and have been somewhat concerned/confused by the definitions of tropical rain forest as described by the ...
50 views

### Which are the mechanisms of the correlation between atmospheric carbon dioxid and global warming/cooling?

In the end of glacial periods there seems to be an increasing release of carbon dioxide as the global warming increase and at the end of these global warming periods the content of carbon dioxide in ...
63 views

### CO2 density, is it really a greenhouse gas?

Since there are only 400 ppm in the atmosphere how can a molecule, which doesn't generate heat but absorbs it, possibly have such a great heating effect on the other 999,600 molecules? During the ...
82 views

### Can airplanes trigger rain?

A lady was telling me that the lower clouds were contrails left from plane exhausts. I looked up and there were none I could see in the sky she pointed to Stratocumulus Clouds. I did not want to tell ...
38 views

### Flood and Statistics

A recent flood was due to combined effect of rainfall(precipitation) and reservoir storage. I have daily rainfall data and reservoir storage data. How can I correlate these two to get a statistical ...
97 views

### Travel Times for Seismic Wave Types - Why reflected t-x plot curves

I do not understand how the reflected wave in a seismic survey has a steepening slope (slows down) Please bear with me as I lay out my thoughts because I feel like I can grasp all of this except this ...
34 views

### Near-Surface Investigations: FWI vs. MASW

MASW is a common processing method for civil/geotechnical and even for oil/gas exploration (usually weathering static corrections) applications. In my experience, it seems to work well for most ...
19 views

### less albedo feedback under high (BAU) emissions?

i've recently read Climate policy implications of nonlinear decline of Arctic land permafrost and other cryosphere elements https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09863-x the study estimates the ...
14 views

### Snowmelt erosion in USLE?

Is there any way to compute snow-melt erosion with Universal Soil Loss Equation? How can I change rainfall erosivity factor to snow-melt erosivity?
18 views

### Difference between soil Water Holding Capacity and soil pore volume?

I have got confused I took 100g soil in a funnel with filter paper. poured 100 ml water and collected the drained water in a calibrated cylinder. Water added in funnel = 100 ml Water collected in ...
72 views

### Atmospheric pressure in weather forecasts: actual pressure or sea-level pressure [duplicate]

What is the usual way to report surface pressure in weather forecasts online, in smartphone apps, on TV/radio? Is it the actual local pressure or the sea-level adjusted value? Does it differ by ...
41 views

### How much increase in the atmospheric pressure when the global temperature is elevated by 12 C?

The deep-sea temperature was $12º$C higher $50$ My ago. I would like to know how much the atmospheric pressure at sea level had decreased and how much the water-vapour changed. One can consider no ...
95 views

### Rock ID: dark grey, white spots going through from Brecon Beacons, Wales, UK

I found this curious rock in the Brecon Beacons, a mountainous range in South Wales. The regular dotted pattern stood out from the plan slate and gravel in the area and I'm not sure if these are ...
69 views

### How much hydrogen can be extracted from the deep continental crust?

Far below the earth's surface, hydrogen gas is continuously produced through serpentinization. At least some fraction of this hydrogen remains trapped in the deep continental crust; indeed, Soviet ...
61 views

125 views

### Total CO2 is not constant?

I've got a friend who is a climate change sceptic. He argues that because all the CO2 in fossil fuels originally came from the earth's atmosphere. Then there can't be a problem releasing the CO2 ...
9 views

### What leads to formation of a nonassociative gas reservoir?

Why in some cases natural gas occurs in association with oil (associated gas) and in others there is no oil (nonassociated gas)? Is it because of the type of the rock? Or is it the pressure/...
58 views

### What is it called for the part of a hill where it discontinuously gets steeper?

What is it called for the part of a hill where it discontinuously gets steeper? If you climbing an easy slope and encounter a new steeper slope (such as formed by a rocky hill and accompanying soil ...
34 views

### Can CO2 / greenhouse gas levels override the effects of milankovich cycles?

I understand that we are, in all likelihood, towards the end of an interglacial period (the holocene). What I'd like to know is, what has a stronger effect on global temperatures - the low point of ...
13 views

### Sequestration of NO and NO2 Gasses into Soil

The university I'm a student at has been looking into Anaerobic digestion to reduce the environmental impact of the large amount of post-consumer food waste generated on campus. While this project has ...
117 views

### Which greenhouse gas has the most influence over global warming?

Carbon dioxide is the gas everyone talks about because of how much we emit, but it is the most influential greenhouse gas ? I know there are a lot of other gasses are way more potent to retain heat ...
331 views

### How can linear oceanic ridges (like the East Pacific Rise) be explained by single point mantle plumes?

I'm a bit confused about how divergent boundaries between tectonic plates work, or just why plates move. I've read that these ridges that are in the place of divergent boundaries are created when ...
83 views

### Can someone help ID this rock [closed]

Found today in a creek in Indiana, has a geode look and the broken edge shows red opaque facades.
73 views

### Using salinity to predict rainfall

Recently, a new method has been proposed by Ray Schmitt (WHOI) and collaborators to use salinity patterns in the ocean to predict weather events (more specifically, rainfall) at scales from weeks to ...