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2
votes
0answers
46 views

Query about inclination in Earth's axis of rotation

Earth revolves around the Sun in a elliptical path, situated on one of the Sun's focal points. If Earth is considered as a large body with mass attracted towards the Sun's core causing its revolution ...
1
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0answers
51 views

Is this a geode?

So just having issues with identification looks like a outer line of rock a bit transparent but the inside polished looks waxy other side of stone a bit more foggy but still blue visible Edit - ...
0
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0answers
24 views

How fast does the outer core spin?

I've tried looking for the answer of this question but the only thing that comes out is how much does the inner core rotates but I'm specifically looking for, how much does the outer core move per day....
0
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2answers
45 views

Is there a way to approximate the density of air during rain?

Given a rate of precipitation (in mm^3/hour), and average droplet diameter, is is it possible to calculate (or even ballpark) the density of the air+rain droplets at time of rainfall? What I mean is, ...
1
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0answers
13 views

Why is sulfate reduction less important in freshwater sediments?

Is this due to increased salinity reducing sulfate concentration or the production of marsh gas converting sulfate to hydrogen sulfide or something else?
0
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1answer
73 views

Decomposition of variables in horizontal and vertical modes

I have a query regarding the practical applicability of variable separable method. Usually we decompose the variables w.r.t components corresponding to different dimensions, this method is used to ...
3
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2answers
159 views

What is this heavy green rock?

I found this grenish rock at a beach in Northwest Ireland called Inishcrone. It measures 45mmx35mmx22mm. It weighs 57 grams and has a density of 2.90. It is opaque, does not attract a magnet. It ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

What produces these amazing 3D structures in Tibet?

A friend recommended I watch this Chinese language video 航拍西藏 2018 (Aerial photography in Tibet) and the HD drone video of scenery is stunning. After about 37 minutes into the video, there are shots ...
1
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1answer
45 views

Barotropic vorticity equation

I came across the barotropic vorticity equation (below) in Sakamoto (2002) and I cannot figure it out. The notation is not clear to me. How can it be derived from the Navier-Stokes equation? $$ \beta\...
1
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1answer
56 views

What would be the extent of the feedback on climate of unattended deaths event?

Being given that decaying corpses will stop emitting digestive metane, but would release huge amount of methane during their decaying process, I was wondering if this could be considered among the ...
1
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0answers
16 views

What determines the scale of columnar jointing?

What physical parameters determine the scale of columnar jointing? What makes the columns thinner or thicker? What makes them taller or shorter? What causes the variation in a given site? What ...
-1
votes
1answer
101 views

How to improve this prediction about the climate in future?

The more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the more global warming. The more global warming the more cloud formations that cool the earth and clean the air from carbon dioxid when rain- and snowfall, ...
3
votes
1answer
41 views

Get atmospheric pressure values through JavaScript

I'm working on a programming project in which I want to show isobars on a map with OpenStreetMap and the HTML tag canvas. The main problem that I'm facing is the dificulty of retrieving consistent ...
-1
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1answer
82 views

What exactly is ammonite?

I miss the definition of ammonite. In my opinion, many authors confuse the term "Ammonite" and "Ammonoid". Ammonoids (Ammonoidea) are large group of cephalopods including for example goniatites (...
1
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1answer
28 views

How reliable is sea-ice concentration (fraction) data in ERA-Interim?

I am using sea-ice data from the European Reanalysis from ECMWF (ERA Interim), but some grid cells over land have sea-ice information. Not a big issue so far, because spatial discretization must ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

How does friction and radiolysis provide hydrogen for “unusual types of methane”?

The fascinating New York Times article Gas That Makes a Mountain Breathe Fire Is Turning Up Around the World talks about the Flames of Chimaera and the Deep Carbon Observatory: And a series of ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

What is this heavy, dark grey and almost round rock?

I found this 'rock' on the beach in North West Washington State. It's almost perfectly round save for a few bumps, it's dark grey in colour, solid, feels smooth like any stone you'd find on the beach,...
4
votes
1answer
84 views

How does multiple layer seismic reflection work? How do we distinguish arrivals from different layers and their velocities?

Whenever we are investigating multiple layer interfaces in a seismic reflection survey the root-mean-squared velocity is often employed to deduce travel time to a certain n-th layer and also to deduce ...
2
votes
1answer
107 views

If the Kola Superdeep Borehole were opened today, what would come out of it?

The BBC News article The Deepest Hole we have Ever dug says: This is the Kola Superdeep Borehole, the deepest manmade hole on Earth and deepest artificial point on Earth. The 40,230ft-deep (12.2km) ...
0
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0answers
47 views

Can extratropical cyclones force global cooling?

We are living in a historical period of global warming since about 20,000 years ago. This global warming period is one of about ten in human history. Those periods may very well be forced to start by ...
1
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1answer
45 views

How to predict when the pressure will change

For example, on windy.com I see that there is a high pressure area to the west of Washington in the Pacific Ocean. What heuristic techniques could I use to guess if the high pressure area will migrate ...
1
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2answers
51 views

ERA-Interim how to select only grid-points over land area?

I am using ERA-Interim data, e.g. total precipitation, and I want to take only observations over land areas. How can I filter the ERA-Interim dataset of precipitation to get only observations in grid-...
1
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0answers
40 views

Does tropical rain forest as defined by the Holdridge Life Zone classification exist in any meaningful prevalence?

I've been recently introduced to the Holdridge life zones and their method of classification, and have been somewhat concerned/confused by the definitions of tropical rain forest as described by the ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Which are the mechanisms of the correlation between atmospheric carbon dioxid and global warming/cooling?

In the end of glacial periods there seems to be an increasing release of carbon dioxide as the global warming increase and at the end of these global warming periods the content of carbon dioxide in ...
2
votes
2answers
63 views

CO2 density, is it really a greenhouse gas?

Since there are only 400 ppm in the atmosphere how can a molecule, which doesn't generate heat but absorbs it, possibly have such a great heating effect on the other 999,600 molecules? During the ...
0
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0answers
82 views

Can airplanes trigger rain?

A lady was telling me that the lower clouds were contrails left from plane exhausts. I looked up and there were none I could see in the sky she pointed to Stratocumulus Clouds. I did not want to tell ...
1
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0answers
38 views

Flood and Statistics

A recent flood was due to combined effect of rainfall(precipitation) and reservoir storage. I have daily rainfall data and reservoir storage data. How can I correlate these two to get a statistical ...
2
votes
2answers
97 views

Travel Times for Seismic Wave Types - Why reflected t-x plot curves

I do not understand how the reflected wave in a seismic survey has a steepening slope (slows down) Please bear with me as I lay out my thoughts because I feel like I can grasp all of this except this ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Near-Surface Investigations: FWI vs. MASW

MASW is a common processing method for civil/geotechnical and even for oil/gas exploration (usually weathering static corrections) applications. In my experience, it seems to work well for most ...
1
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0answers
19 views

less albedo feedback under high (BAU) emissions?

i've recently read Climate policy implications of nonlinear decline of Arctic land permafrost and other cryosphere elements https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09863-x the study estimates the ...
1
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0answers
14 views

Snowmelt erosion in USLE?

Is there any way to compute snow-melt erosion with Universal Soil Loss Equation? How can I change rainfall erosivity factor to snow-melt erosivity?
0
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0answers
18 views

Difference between soil Water Holding Capacity and soil pore volume?

I have got confused I took 100g soil in a funnel with filter paper. poured 100 ml water and collected the drained water in a calibrated cylinder. Water added in funnel = 100 ml Water collected in ...
1
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0answers
72 views

Atmospheric pressure in weather forecasts: actual pressure or sea-level pressure [duplicate]

What is the usual way to report surface pressure in weather forecasts online, in smartphone apps, on TV/radio? Is it the actual local pressure or the sea-level adjusted value? Does it differ by ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

How much increase in the atmospheric pressure when the global temperature is elevated by 12 C?

The deep-sea temperature was $12º$C higher $50$ My ago. I would like to know how much the atmospheric pressure at sea level had decreased and how much the water-vapour changed. One can consider no ...
0
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1answer
95 views

Rock ID: dark grey, white spots going through from Brecon Beacons, Wales, UK

I found this curious rock in the Brecon Beacons, a mountainous range in South Wales. The regular dotted pattern stood out from the plan slate and gravel in the area and I'm not sure if these are ...
1
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0answers
69 views

How much hydrogen can be extracted from the deep continental crust?

Far below the earth's surface, hydrogen gas is continuously produced through serpentinization. At least some fraction of this hydrogen remains trapped in the deep continental crust; indeed, Soviet ...
0
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0answers
61 views

How much increase in the atmospheric pressure when the global temperature is elevated by 10 C?

In this paper Temperature-dependent hypoxia explains biogeography and severity of end-Permian marine mass extinction is established a link between an increase of the global temperature by $10^\circ ...
0
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1answer
31 views

Anybody know what kind of rock this is? [closed]

I found this rock awhile ago... can't remember where though. I am having trouble figuring out what exactly it is. Hopefully you experts can shed some light on it for me. Thanks! I do have other ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Computation of geostrophic wind

I am attempting to calculate the zonal and meridional components of geostrophic wind using the equations below: $u_g = -\frac{g_0}{f} \cdot \frac{1}{r} \cdot \frac{\partial \Phi }{\partial \phi}$ $...
3
votes
4answers
125 views

Total CO2 is not constant?

I've got a friend who is a climate change sceptic. He argues that because all the CO2 in fossil fuels originally came from the earth's atmosphere. Then there can't be a problem releasing the CO2 ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

What leads to formation of a nonassociative gas reservoir?

Why in some cases natural gas occurs in association with oil (associated gas) and in others there is no oil (nonassociated gas)? Is it because of the type of the rock? Or is it the pressure/...
3
votes
2answers
58 views

What is it called for the part of a hill where it discontinuously gets steeper?

What is it called for the part of a hill where it discontinuously gets steeper? If you climbing an easy slope and encounter a new steeper slope (such as formed by a rocky hill and accompanying soil ...
0
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0answers
34 views

Can CO2 / greenhouse gas levels override the effects of milankovich cycles?

I understand that we are, in all likelihood, towards the end of an interglacial period (the holocene). What I'd like to know is, what has a stronger effect on global temperatures - the low point of ...
2
votes
0answers
13 views

Sequestration of NO and NO2 Gasses into Soil

The university I'm a student at has been looking into Anaerobic digestion to reduce the environmental impact of the large amount of post-consumer food waste generated on campus. While this project has ...
3
votes
1answer
117 views

Which greenhouse gas has the most influence over global warming?

Carbon dioxide is the gas everyone talks about because of how much we emit, but it is the most influential greenhouse gas ? I know there are a lot of other gasses are way more potent to retain heat ...
6
votes
2answers
331 views

How can linear oceanic ridges (like the East Pacific Rise) be explained by single point mantle plumes?

I'm a bit confused about how divergent boundaries between tectonic plates work, or just why plates move. I've read that these ridges that are in the place of divergent boundaries are created when ...
0
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2answers
83 views

Can someone help ID this rock [closed]

Found today in a creek in Indiana, has a geode look and the broken edge shows red opaque facades.
5
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0answers
73 views

Using salinity to predict rainfall

Recently, a new method has been proposed by Ray Schmitt (WHOI) and collaborators to use salinity patterns in the ocean to predict weather events (more specifically, rainfall) at scales from weeks to ...
1
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0answers
130 views

Modification of an air mass

If an air mass that exists in North America starts moving south west or south east what kind of modification will affect it and how would you characterize it in it's final state? My answer is that it ...
0
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0answers
13 views

Do snow and ice have different temperatures at their interface?

tl;dr: For snow on top of ice, is the temperature at the base of the snowpack always (practically) the same as the temperature at the top of the ice? I was trying to understand how the thermodynamics ...

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