# All Questions

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### What is the origin of the River Citarum on Java, Indonesia?

The Citarum river seems to pass through Bandung. The Cikapundung River seems to empty into the Citarum, but this means Citarum starts somewhere else, right? I tried to follow it in a map. It seems to ...
61 views

### How deep could the Vredefort asteroid have penetrated? [duplicate]

The asteroid which created the Vredefort impact crater in South Africa is estimated to have been between 6 and 10 miles in diameter (the uncertainty is due to the age of the crater, which is more than ...
91 views

### Shouldn't we encourage consumption of single-use plastics? Plastic is a good way to sequester carbon [closed]

I've heard a bunch of impractical proposals for ways to sequester carbon: pump CO2 gas into the ground, grow trees for the sole purpose of burying them underground where they won't decompose... and ...
89 views

### Is there evidence of multiple poles (higher order than dipole) in earth's magnetic field?

There is this slightly uncombed simulation model of a geomagnetic field reversal, showing multiple poles, a quadrupole or even higher order magnetic field. Earth's magnetic field is mostly described ...
102 views

### How much water will flow into the Caspian Sea if it is connected to the World Ocean?

I wonder how much benefit would a hydroelectrical project built on this inflow bring. There are projects to fill up the Erie, Salton, Qattara and the Dead Sea. But for the Caspian, there is only a ...
139 views

### Where do aurorae australis begin and in which direction do they move?

During a polar night is there any pattern or consistency to where aurorae australis begin? I'm assuming they become visible first in the exosphere and descend down to thermosphere. Do they tend to ...
48 views

### Author's Name Of A Book On Bill Maher's Shelf [closed]

Could any of you, please, tell me who is the author of this book on Bill Maher's shelf? The book name is "Climate Science" and the cover color seems to be green. I looked for it on the Amazon website ...
184 views

### Where did the atmosphere's nitrogen come from?

According to Wikipedia's article Atmosphere of Earth: Outgassing from volcanism, supplemented by gases produced during the late heavy bombardment of Earth by huge asteroids, produced [Earth's ...
22 views

### How to get GHI data from MERRA-2?

Help Requested Does anyone know if MERRA2 contains hourly Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) data, or some other measurement which we can use to calculate GHI?, If so, could you please let me know ...
22 views

### How susceptible is the greater Seattle area to an wildland-urban interface conflagration like the Camp Fire or 1991 Oakland firestorm?

Is there the risk of an "Issaquah firestorm", something with the intensity of Tyee Creek or Thirtymile but hitting suburban areas of the Cascade foothills like Issaquah, Samammish, Cougar Mountain?
109 views

### How does composition change if you extend an Earthlike atmosphere 50km below sea level? [closed]

I'm working to design the atmosphere of a fictional planet inspired by Venus (let's call it Cael). Cael's atmosphere at an altitude of 50 km is essentially identical to Earth's atmosphere at sea ...
32 views

### District/province wise air quality data for South Asia (2010 onward)

I would like to create a district/province-level air quality data for all the countries in South Asia from 2010 onward using satellite data. As someone with absolutely zero background in remote-...
198 views

### Original Diameter of Ancient Impact Craters

The 2.25 billion-year-old Yarrabubba crater in Western Australia has recently been identified as the world's oldest impact crater. It is said to be 43 miles (69 km) in diameter, yet the photo which ...
586 views

### Is there a recent global gridded temperature dataset with 0.1 deg resolution?

I've been searching for a 2017 or 2018 or 2019 (or any combo) gridded dataset for surface temperature for the globe with a 0.1 degree resolution. Unfortunately even after hours of searching, for this ...
228 views

### What does a floating mercury barometer look like? How does it work and how is buoyancy used?

This answer to How are barometric pressure measurements traceable over centuries to 100 parts per million accuracy? describes a floating mercury barometer, and mentions that some employed a Vernier ...
63 views

### Can we separate a sandy, clayey & salt layer on basis of their rheological properties?

Since, given enough compaction, salt is able to behave like a fluid & buoyant too if it's overlain by a higher density rock (it could be fine grained clay or a sandy sequence). But in another case,...
143 views

### How to genetically classify a mineral resulted from weathering?

I am writing a mineral guide for smartphones which classifies minerals according to their formation environment. From sugestions on this related question, I changed the classification to: ...
26 views

### Waves in very thin layer

Elastic waves in the earth are described by the elastodynamic equations \begin{align} \rho \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial t^2} &= (2 \mu + \lambda) \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x^2} + \mu \left( ...
3k views

### Why have “ozone-depleting substances” led to a third of all global warming and half of arctic sea ice loss?

According to the Phys.org article "Ozone-depleting substances caused half of late 20th-century Arctic warming, says study" (emphasis added): A study published today in Nature Climate Change by ...
4k views

### How are barometric pressure measurements traceable over centuries to 100 parts per million accuracy?

The BBC News item Barometric pressure in London 'highest in 300 years' at least begins with Overnight, Sunday into Monday, London's Heathrow Airport recorded a barometric pressure of 1,049.6 ...
85 views

### What are the differences between down-looking and side looking radar?

In Radar concept the SAR-Synthetic Aperture radar performs as side-looking to collect information, why it is not downlooking? There are down-looking radar also. So what are the differences between ...
85 views

### What is the difference between mobile & molten rock?

In the book Fundamentals of Geomorphology (Routledge Fundamentals of Physical Geography) by Richard John Huggett there is a sentence " Intruded rocks, which must be mobile but not necessarily molten,...
49 views

### Median earth temperature development in 20th century

Are there graphs with the median temperature development in the 20th century and if not, is there readily accessible data that can be used to calculate it? Median is statistically more stable, at the ...
947 views

### How is global greenhouse gas emission calculated?

I am sure there are different methodologies to arrive at such a number. Can someone in layman terms describe some of the most widely used and trusted methods and what data are used? Sorry I am outside ...
26 views

### How to make Martian soil [duplicate]

My son wants to replicate some experiments and try to grow plants in Martian soil for his A-level science project. I know NASA have managed to produce soil that mimics Martian soil, however I also ...
2k views

### How to make Martian soil

My son wants to replicate some experiments and try to grow plants in Martian soil for his A-level science project. I know NASA have managed to produce soil that mimics Martian soil, however I also ...
32 views

### how does model validation work? What is needed for an appropriate validation

I have an 2D hydrodynamic model in a approx. 10km² catchment and one rain event that goes one hour with measurements in a 5min interval. The reccurance interval for an event like that is close to ...
57 views

### If the top layer of a large river freezes, is the remainder's rate of flow affected?

This question is a hypothetical, and has to do with the notion of cheap, modular turbines that can be sunk and anchored to a specific depth in a body of water. Each would not generate much power, but ...
47 views

### Can hippopotamus fossils be found all along the Nile?

The image below shows their historical range (red) and current range (green) of hippopotamuses: Image source: Six Surprising Facts About Hippos, 2014 Hence my question... Question: Can hippopotamus ...
9 views

### Light sources for ellipsometry over large wavelength ranges

I am interested in learning about which light sources are used to determine the optical constants (the n and k values) of minerals over large wavelength ranges (say from the UV to the FIR). A ...
73 views

### SWAN wave model: HSIG is strangely low

I have a question about SWAN wave model, I tried to ask it at the SWAN mailing list, but with no luck, so I'm asking here. First of all I have to admit I'm not a professional SWAN user. All the ...
326 views

### Was the last glacier too hard for the Neanderthal?

I know several theories are proposed to explain Neanderthal extinction: Consanguinity. Homo Sapiens competence. Climate change. But Finlayson et al (2008) quote the last ones lived south of the ...
111 views

### Plotting ERA5 U/V Wind Data Using Python

Hello Earth Science Community, I am a beginner Python programmer trying to plot a single time step of 10m surface wind data I grabbed from the ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis single level dataset in Python 3.8....
42 views

### Limestone formation

I live in Kingston, Ontario (The Limestone City). I have always been fascinated by the different thicknesses of strata in the exposed formations. I am wondering if there is any quick and fast rule of ...
77 views

### What geological structure is this & how is it identified? [closed]

What is this geological structure?
37 views

### What is the global warming potential (GWP) of any gas over a 1 day time frame?

Since in 100 years, the global warming potential (GWP) of methane is 28-36, what will be the GWP in 1 day time frame? Can it be calculated that way?
76 views

### Climate change: Human vs Natural [duplicate]

The planet has been warming for thousands of years. Human activity has accelerated the warming, but by how much? At some point in the future, without human intervention, the climate will have ...
10 views

### SH-waves and multiples

I study near-surface environments with seismic reflection methods - particularly those that analyze the SH-component of the elastic wavefield. The only source I've found that mentions multiples ...
29 views

### Temperature at 2 m MERRA2

I need MERRA2 data with Temperature at 2m. I'm checking on https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/FTPSubset2.pl but I can't find this variable. Suggestions where I can find them? Or anyone that did ...
246 views

### Can anyone explain the REAL reason why CO$_2$ increases global temperatures (not the simplistic greenhouse analogy provided for public consumption)?

The greenhouse effect analogy of global warming is that atmospheric carbon dioxide CO$_2$ absorbs some of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth, and redirects a portion of that radiation back ...
80 views

### Global areas below sea level dataset?

Anyone know of an existing dataset of areas below sea level? Vector extents would be ideal. Doesn't need to be super detailed for my purposes, but it would be good if it included all areas (e.g. over-...
59 views

### Why is the level of UVA radiations on the earth surface the same throughout the day, while the level of UVB significantly varies?

I read on https://www.uexpress.com/ask-the-doctors/2018/1/17/no-matter-the-time-of-day UVA maintains the same intensity all day, which makes dawn-to-dusk sunscreen use important Whereas on ...
122 views

### When sediments are deposited, do they sink into the earth?

I was listening to a geology podcast describing how sedimentary rock forms and later turns into metamorphic rock. As a river lays down sediment, the lower layers can eventually be several kilometers ...
198 views

### Considering the thin piece of material on the surface of Mars in the image below, is there anything like it on Earth?

The above is a magnified part of the original image below captured by the Curiosity rover on Mars on sol 1729 (June 17, 2017). From the added information with that raw image it can be estimated that ...
108 views

### Trees: What does “highly tapering stem” mean?

Trees: What does "highly tapering stem" mean? Taper is a function measuring steepness of change in crown diameter when height increases upwards. But "highly tapering" (sometimes also "high-degree of ...
57 views

### What is “sheltered site” (as opposed to “exposed site”)?

What is "sheltered site" (as opposed to "exposed site")? It's used in context of location of trees in bumpy ground areas and weather damage.
123 views

### How Can Adjacent Parts of an Oceanic Plate be Subducted in Different Directions?

It is claimed by some that the reason for gaps in chains of volcanoes generated by plate subduction is that some parts of the plate dive deep into the mantle and generate magma plumes, while other ...
10k views

### Is climate change a vicious circle?

My question refers to the current process of climate change. CO2 is rising, which leads to the greenhouse effect, which raises temperatures. This leads to more wildfires, which reduces number of trees,...