All Questions

1,487 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
27 votes
0 answers
554 views

Is it possible for a sting jet to form over a continental landmass?

Sting jets are thought to be responsible for some of the most damaging winds associated with extratropical cyclones in the mid-latitudes. So far they have only been confirmed in the European region, ...
Siv's user avatar
  • 2,105
25 votes
0 answers
1k views

How are Mauna Loa $\ce{CO2}$ monthly trends computed?

The problem I am trying to figure out how $\ce{CO2}$ concentration trends are computed in the data provided by the Earth Systems Research Laboratory Mauna Loa Observatory. The data contains monthly ...
Dima Chubarov's user avatar
24 votes
0 answers
365 views

How reliable were early measurements of palaeomagnetic directions?

The methodology and equipment for palaeomagnetic studies in the 1960s and 1970s was often rather primitive by today's standards. For example, Doell and Cox (1967) imply that the standard procedure for ...
Pont's user avatar
  • 5,429
18 votes
0 answers
227 views

How much heat is transported from the interior to the surface in the form of hydration enthalpy?

Heat is transferred from the interior to the surface through several methods. One is simply the conduction of sensible heat through the crust - I would guess this accounts for most of it. But some is ...
N. Virgo's user avatar
  • 1,602
17 votes
0 answers
764 views

How will climate change affect the entropy budget of the atmosphere?

The entropy per unit mass of moist air can be defined as $$s=(1-q_t)(C_{pd} \ln{T}-R_d\ln{p_d})+q_tC_l\ln{T} + \frac{q_vL_v}{T}-q_vR_v\ln{\mathcal{H}}$$ And in statistical equilibrium, the entropy ...
InquilineKea's user avatar
  • 7,817
16 votes
0 answers
3k views

What is the global distribution of oil filled geodes?

In a general 40 mile radius of Keokuk, Iowa many sedimentary geodes can be found. They are abundant in the Warsaw Formation with the type section at Geode Glenn in Warsaw, Illinois. In one specific ...
user avatar
15 votes
0 answers
166 views

What are the ground motion prediction equations for 3-D ruptures?

Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) estimate ground motion at any given site due to an earthquake at a distance. There are many such equations, each with different parameters. Can somebody ...
user590's user avatar
  • 361
14 votes
0 answers
199 views

Will global climate change alter the interannual and/or intraseasonal variance of temperature and/or precipitation?

A quick skim of the regional chapters in AR5 shows predicted changes to average temperature and precipitation. If I understand (in rough terms) the modelling methodologies used, a variety of models (...
generic_user's user avatar
14 votes
0 answers
82 views

Why were no interferometers launched on weather satellites between the '69-'72 IRIS-D and the 2002-onward AIRS?

As early as the late 1960s / early 1970s, Nimbus-3 carried Iris-B and Nimbus-4 carried Iris-D, both infrared spectroradiometers with a moderate spectral resolution. Subsequently, I believe it was not ...
gerrit's user avatar
  • 11.7k
13 votes
0 answers
104 views

How are scatterometer observations standardised before being fed into reanalysis models?

This very basic question occurred to me during a talk on reanalysis data sets. Often we know the observations produced by a particular instrument, say rain radar, are biased from one year to the next ...
Ewan's user avatar
  • 173
13 votes
0 answers
179 views

Oceanic-atmospheric coupling between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean basins

The two great basins - Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean have their respective oscillations: Indian Ocean Dipole and El Nino Southern oscillation that affect the climate of the regions as well as the ...
user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
157 views

Is there a distinction between gap winds and channelled flow?

I have seen gap flows mentioned in the literature, for example [Gohm et al. 2004, Zängl 2002, Mayr et al. 2007]. Whiteman 2000 defines a gap as a "major erosional opening through mountain ranges" and ...
hertzsprung's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
147 views

Using sodium chloride load as a point source pollutant variable in SWAT model?

I'm currently working with the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). My task is to model the loading of sodium chloride into streams. One approach I would like to take is to use the point ...
ITM's user avatar
  • 171
10 votes
0 answers
101 views

What field studies have developed or supported the Penman-Monteith equations for estimating evapotranspiration?

I'm trying to understand transpiration estimation methods. The FAO recommends a standard Penman-Monteith methodology for modeling evapotranspiration based on meteorological and vegetation parameters (...
cr0's user avatar
  • 1,178
10 votes
0 answers
307 views

What is the smallest grid spacing that Eulerian air quality models should use?

The University of Washington runs the Advanced Research Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model in predictive mode, and then tests the skill of the model anywhere from 12 - 84 hours out from ...
f.thorpe's user avatar
  • 13.5k
10 votes
0 answers
94 views

Predicting volcanic eruptions by experimentally proven volatile outgassing observations

In the abstract for the article Forecasting Etna eruptions by real-time observation of volcanic gas composition (Aiuppa et al. 2007), the authors assert that real time monitoring of volcanic volatiles,...
user avatar
10 votes
0 answers
100 views

Argument for designing an ocean monitoring network based on satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentration?

The idea is to design an integrated marine monitoring network by surveying in parallel the chlorophyll-a and the other oceanography parameters, which are either trophically related with the ...
Gheorghi's user avatar
  • 101
10 votes
0 answers
117 views

How much does the Meridional Overturning Circulation strengthen the Gulf Stream?

While the Gulf Stream is a western boundary current (WBC), one professor told me that the Gulf Stream is stronger than it should be just by using theoretical calculations of WBC. How much is the heat+...
InquilineKea's user avatar
  • 7,817
9 votes
0 answers
199 views

How to convert units of averaging kernel from DU/DU to ppbv/ppbv

For validation of model data, I want to compare the ozone data from model to the satellite results downloaded from the following link: The satellite data are in DU(Dobson Unit) while the model data ...
Mala Pokhrel's user avatar
9 votes
0 answers
113 views

Was this spherical device used in weather forecasting in the 1960's?

The New York Times obituary Robert M. White, Who Revolutionized Weather Forecasts, Dies at 92 shows the image below. It looks like it might be a model of the Earth but I can't tell for sure. Can the ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,096
9 votes
0 answers
274 views

How much heat flow is needed to maintain plate tectonics?

The Earth is emitting about 47 terawatts of heat energy, producing a heat flow of 0.0921 W/m$^2$ due to radiogenic and primordial heat energy. The heat flow drives mantle convection which in turn ...
Anders Sandberg's user avatar
9 votes
0 answers
99 views

How can ice crystals with adsorbed chlorine remain over the south pole all winter?

I just saw the Periodic Video Ozone on Bondi Beach - Periodic Table of Videos where the impact of Chlorine from CFCs on Ozone is discussed. At around 04:00 or so, ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 7,096
9 votes
1 answer
509 views

What is the difference between the freezing level and 0 C isotherm in NOAA's GFS?

I'm playing around with NOAA's GFS forecast data and I see that it contains both a "0 °C isotherm level" and a "Highest tropospheric freezing level". Could someone tell me the ...
os1's user avatar
  • 190
9 votes
0 answers
207 views

Modeling swirling storms

I'm looking to demonstrate the rotational behaviour of swirling storms with a numerical simulation. So far it includes pressure-gradient, Coriolis acceleration, frictional forces and the acceleration ...
tinyyy's user avatar
  • 102
9 votes
0 answers
151 views

What meteorological factors contribute to springtime Trans-Pacific air-pollution events?

The transport of tropospheric ozone, ozone precursors, carbon monoxide, etc from Asia to North America is an active area of research (see J.L. Ambrose, et al., 2011) These types of events occur ...
f.thorpe's user avatar
  • 13.5k
9 votes
0 answers
328 views

What are black-hole ocean eddies?

How are they formed? Why are they so stable? What finally breaks them apart and what is their typical lifespan? Why are fluid particles trapped inside it and advected towards the center? How do they ...
Isopycnal Oscillation's user avatar
9 votes
0 answers
155 views

A faster way to measure the rock magnetic S-ratio?

The S-ratio is commonly used in rock magnetic and enviromagnetic studies to quantify the relative abundances of minerals with high and low remanent coercivities. As most frequently defined (e.g. by ...
Pont's user avatar
  • 5,429
9 votes
0 answers
113 views

How can I find a large petrology dataset?

I need a large dataset of the oxide components of peridotitic rocks and their manual classification for a project of mine. The only one that I managed to find was from the EarthChem database and it is ...
Avi Mosseri's user avatar
9 votes
0 answers
83 views

Iowa State GOES Visible Data - misaligned EPSG:4326

The WMS server of Iowa State is serving data for the GOES-13 satellite in the visible channel. As best as I can tell, the data is misaligned with other data sources. For example, in a WMS client, ...
John's user avatar
  • 855
9 votes
0 answers
154 views

Relation of El Niño to Monsoons

Scientists are forecasting a weak to moderate El Niño event to emerge in the coming months, what causes this to happen? Once developed, how will the El Niño conditions effect progressive monsoon ...
user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
62 views

Was the Earth a lot foggier millions of years ago?

Quoting a sign in Redwood National Park: Redwoods once covered large expanses of the world. Millions of years ago some of these redwoods were preserved as fossilized trees when volcanic ash buried ...
neubert's user avatar
  • 545
8 votes
0 answers
53 views

How do you determine the % of precipitation falling as snow in the case below?

I have just started a course in hydrology (a totally different field from mine which is computer science) and I can't find the link between the fact that a river flows into a lake and the % of ...
narutoArea51's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
93 views

Nobel prize Manabe's 1967 code for solving the 1D atmospheric thermal equilibrium model

Does someone know where to find a (hopefully modern) version of the numerical code for solving the 1D atmospheric thermal equilibrium model, the one Syukuro Manabe & Richard T. Wetherald used in ...
ELw38fr's user avatar
  • 81
8 votes
1 answer
211 views

Where can I find an anisotropic PREM-like model for Earth's interior?

So, I just discovered PREM (the Preliminary reference Earth model) which models the density distribution of matter inside the Earth to any depth. The PREM is very convenient but since it only depends ...
Swike's user avatar
  • 342
8 votes
0 answers
193 views

Wasn't Earth a magma ocean before core-mantle differentiation?

I've always thought that the process of planetary accretion was energetic enough to keep the proto-Earth entirely molten, and the subsequent evolution of the planet (the formation of the crust, etc...)...
Swike's user avatar
  • 342
8 votes
0 answers
46 views

What geographical features facilitate amber fossilization?

Image source: Wikimedia. There seems to be a few places in the world where amber (fossilized tree resin) can be found in large quantities: Amber can be found in many places around the world ...
Rebecca J. Stones's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
333 views

Predict wind speed in a forest based on speed over and under canopy?

I am trying to understand the calculation of the wind speeds at forest edge. I am pretty new in wind simulation and profiles in general, so I am sorry if asking simple questions. I have found that it ...
maycca's user avatar
  • 181
8 votes
0 answers
81 views

By how much did the Earth's diameter decrease due to cooling, if at all, since it was formed?

The answer to How long until Earth's core solidifies? question cites an estimation that the Earth (as a planet, not the surface of it) has cooled down by about 250K since it was formed. The question ...
DDRRSS's user avatar
  • 181
8 votes
0 answers
260 views

1950's - 60's Earth Science

I'm writing some lore for a fictional world, which is set in the 50's early 60's roughly. One thing I'd like to bring is a fairly grounded explanation for the creation of the planet and the universe, ...
Magic Marbles's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
111 views

Worldwide weather maps database

I am searching for a database (a free one would be great) that would give me, for any chosen rectangular area on earth, historic data about pressure, sea water temperature, wind (including both speed ...
Pop Flamingo's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
466 views

Monitoring air pollution with Landsat satellite data

I'm trying to build an air pollution model. So far I have built one for point sources. Now I'm looking at monitoring air pollution with satellite images, based on the idea that every basic pollutant ...
ABCD's user avatar
  • 213
8 votes
0 answers
332 views

What geological structure(s) is responsible for the recent Queensland earthquakes?

Recently, south-east Queensland has been rattled by 2 moderate earthquakes - a 5.3 a couple of days ago (News report) and a 5.7 tremor just a few hours ago as of writing this post (News Report). These ...
user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
92 views

Availability of mean squared slope or wave spectra data for the sea surface

The mean squared slope is a property of the sea surface that is often sensed by microwave radars [1] [2]. While spatial data for sea surface salinity, sea surface height, and significant wave height ...
user4624937's user avatar
  • 1,811
8 votes
0 answers
196 views

El Niño Spring Barrier - optimal time to run a long range climate forecast

In an answer to this question - What is the predictability of El Niño/La Niña? Isopycnal Oscillation talks about a "decrease in skill during the boreal spring as SST anomalies are ...
user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
134 views

Shallow water height as vertical coordinate

In atmospheric physics we use often a variety of vertical coordinates, $z$ the height above some reference surface, or $r$ as distance from the planetary center. However sometimes it simplifies the ...
AtmosphericPrisonEscape's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
445 views

Calculating Monthly Accumulation value of the Clearness Index KT

I have an hourly data file of a particular location which contains the following variables (extracted from the Meteonorm7.0 data base, for a typical one year of data): GlobHor (W/m2): Horizontal ...
glopezluzzatti's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
107 views

Question about earthquake data attribute codes

I have some earthquake data with an attribute field call M and has values c, h , l , m or w. There is another one called Magnitude so I assume its not that. Any ideas what M represents and what the ...
Gern Blanston's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
168 views

Is there any link between the weekly human cycle and weather?

I am interested in the linkage between the cyclical timing of human activity, and whether that has a direct affect on weather. Most obvious to me is the weekly cycle, which is observed by most of the ...
f.thorpe's user avatar
  • 13.5k
8 votes
1 answer
214 views

Can a braided stream create thick relatively continuous siltstone beds?

I am attempting to interpret an outcrop I went to. I suggested it was created by a braided stream. The one thing I cannot explain are prominent alternating siltstone and sandstone beds. There are ...
PattyWatty27's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
69 views

Could the Pineapple Express collide with cold air, resulting in extreme snowfall?

The pineapple express is a colloquial term for the strong atmospheric river produced by the polar jet stream, which drives excessive moisture and warmer air towards north-western North America. With ...
robbieperry22's user avatar

15 30 50 per page
1
2 3 4 5
30