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votes
1answer
51 views

difference between different meteorological models

I need to work with historical weather data (temperature and precipitation), we use meteoblue.com. There (https://docs.meteoblue.com/en/meteo/data-sources/data-sources#data-sources) they write about ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

How can the 'crystal cleavage' of apatite have a four-digit number?

On Wikipedia's page for apatite, the crystal cleavage is listed as [0001] or [0101], which I assume are Miller indices.... But how can there be four numbers/digits instead of two, like there usually ...
7
votes
6answers
11k views

Does a mountain top have higher gravity than a nearby sea-level surface?

Regardless the latitude and centrifugial 'force' is the gravity on mountains higher or lower than at sealevel? Gravity is depending on the radius to the centre and the mass. Now if you are on a ...
2
votes
0answers
9 views

Is VLF-EM scanning for fractures a valid way to find groundwater for a well?

I posted this question on Engineering Stack Exchange as well. I'm not sure if here or there is the better place. There is no agriculture stack exchange (much as I wish there was) so I am posting there ...
3
votes
2answers
64 views

Why is the weather in San Francisco so different from that in San Jose?

San Francisco has around 5 months a year of intermittent rain. San Jose, just 50 miles south and nestled between mountains instead of between waters, has perhaps only 1 month of rain. San Francisco ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

Stratigraphy of limestone applied to the Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza is made from blocks of limestone quarried from the Giza plateau. The pyramid is composed up of about 200 layers, with individual blocks varying in thickness from 20 to 60 ...
9
votes
4answers
147 views

Why is Earth's density gradient a step-function, rather than smooth?

Why is the density of particles in Earth's atmosphere above surface-level so much less than ground and below? Why, instead, isn't Earth simply a ball of swirling gasses / liquids, which become ...
2
votes
3answers
140 views

Temperate Rainforests

I have heard that the Appalachian Mountains is qualified as a temperate rainforest. What qualifies a temperate rainforest and what makes the Appalachian Mountains a temperate rainforest?
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Korea a lot colder than New England this year

Normally, here in New England we consider our weather to somewhat parallel Korea's weather. However, this year it seems to be much colder in Korea. They are having record lows while we are having a ...
5
votes
2answers
100 views
+100

What effect does climate change have on the Earth's rotation?

I recently read a blog entry from a leap-second expert explaining that in near term (i.e. last 3 years) the Earth has been spinning ever so slightly faster, delaying the need to insert a leap-second (...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

How long to breathe (the equivalent) of all of the atmosphere?

I have done some rough calculations of how long it might take humanity: approx 80,000 years (that's taking Earth's population as 7.5 billion, 11,000 litres a day of breathing per person, the weight of ...
4
votes
0answers
38 views

Why is Ozone hole above single area of earth? Why that area?

As titled. How does the hole fell specifically on that region of the stratosphere above the Antarctic and why?
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Why has the Earth's average sea level risen 'only' by nine inches after one degree C increase in temperature?

I am only doing gross calculations here, but... If the Earth has warmed by about one degree Celsius in the last century or so, and the thermal expansion coefficient of water is about .0002085, then ...
0
votes
2answers
37 views

Why are thrust faults older than normal faults in the Himalayan-Tibetan plateau?

In the Himalayan-Tibetan plateau, both normal and thrust faults are observed. Geological age dating suggests thrust faults are older (before 18-20 Ma) than the normal faults (after 18-20 Ma). Explain ...
4
votes
2answers
61 views

Why is Belgium (and Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, Norway) still above consumption CO2 levels per capita of 1990? While many others did go down

"Consumption-based emissions reflect the consumption and lifestyle choices of a country’s citizens." Via this article https://ourworldindata.org/consumption-based-co2 I see that Belgium's ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

How to read stratigraphy data?

I have a list of geological data. The data is for 3 variables: member, level and L+/- These variables correspond to a particular position on a stratigraphic column/chart. I would like help with ...
3
votes
1answer
79 views

Why did Hurricane Harvey have so much lightning associated with it?

Hurricane Harvey (Category 4 hurricane, in August 2017) was a prodigious lightning producer when it hit Houston/SE Texas. But I thought hurricanes don't have much lightning (with the eyewall being the ...
32
votes
3answers
10k views

Is it true that earthquakes are not felt in a cave?

I took a tour of a cave in northern California last weekend. The tour guide asked us, "If an earthquake occurred, what would we feel in here?" My answer was, "fear," but she said we would feel ...
1
vote
1answer
281 views

The Medieval Climatic Anomaly

Trying to understand this question, posted to me by a lecturer at University: "The Medieval Climatic Anomaly was distinctive in terms of the prevailing climates and forcing mechanisms operating ...
2
votes
2answers
192 views

Conditions of Thunderstorms

Why do some heavy rainstorms and hailstorms not produce any lightning or thunder at all when I thought that these conditions of heavy rain and hail are right to bring lightning and thunder but don’t ...
6
votes
2answers
111 views

Which part of solar radiation (VIS, NIR) keeps Earth warm?

Which part of solar radiation (visible light vs. infrared radiation) plays main part in keeping Earth's surface warm?
5
votes
1answer
111 views

Global areas below sea level dataset?

Anyone know of an existing dataset of areas below sea level? Vector extents would be ideal. Doesn't need to be super detailed for my purposes, but it would be good if it included all areas (e.g. over-...
4
votes
4answers
80 views

How is it possible for rocks to be trapped within another type of rock?

More specifically, I would like to know how the rocks in these pictures have formed: If this is because magma has melted and trapped the other rocks inside, do they have a different melting point ...
4
votes
1answer
82 views

Climate change impact / risk assessment

I work for a local council in the UK. We want to include climate change as a mandatory consideration in all of our decision making. This would require project managers to look at the risk (what ...
0
votes
1answer
112 views

Difference between soil Water Holding Capacity and soil pore volume?

I have got confused I took 100g soil in a funnel with filter paper. poured 100 ml water and collected the drained water in a calibrated cylinder. Water added in funnel = 100 ml Water collected in ...
2
votes
0answers
12 views

Equilibrium condition for Kelvin's Vapor Pressure-curvature equation

This is regarding the Correction due to 'Curvature of the drop' made by Lord Kelvin to the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation. So, the idea is that, during large scale nucleation of water vapour into cloud ...
26
votes
3answers
5k views

Why is Olympus Mons the largest volcano in the whole solar system?

Why is it that the volcanoes found in the Tharsis Montes region near the Martian equator, (one of which is Olympus Mons) so much larger than those found on Earth. In comparison, Hawaii's Mauna Loa, ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Is the weather of Miami, Florida and the weather of Lagos, Nigeria the same

I've been to Lagos and it rains a lot sometimes overflooding but it's pretty sunny. I'm aware that it rains a lot too in Miami. Is the climate the same apart from Lagos being near Equator and ITCZ ...
1
vote
0answers
55 views

Is this Asbestos? [migrated]

I found this as insulation layer in an oven (Ariston) while trying to replace a thermocouple and it looks like asbestos to me. Is it Asbestos? Is it dangerous?
45
votes
13answers
34k views

Why is the pond in my backyard not frozen when it is -15 °C (5 °F) outside?

I am in O'Fallon, Missouri and today it is -15 °C (5 °F) outside. I was taught water freezes at 0 °C (32 °F). I could understand if it was exactly 0 °C (32 °F) that the water might not be turning to ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Dating recent skeletons with radiometric dating techniques

Can we use radiometric dating techniques on recent skeletons from, say, around the year 2000 and so on and get the same result as the recorded date of death of the owner of the skeleton? If yes (or no)...
2
votes
2answers
66 views

Could saltwater be useful for greening deserts and sequestering CO2?

Desert greening is the conversion of deserts into moister environments with more vegetation. This could be used to combat desertification and (by sequestering CO2) climate change, and also to increase ...
4
votes
2answers
164 views

What sort of a plate is the Sunda plate?

I have read that the islands of Sumatra & Java have resulted from the subduction of oceanic crust of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Sunda plate. I want to know whether this boundary is ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

How do you infer what a cross section might look like below sea level?

Here is a schematic of a cross section which should represent an anticline: https://postimg.cc/4HcmmZ26 Below sea level, I have inferred what the units might look like with the dashed lines. As I have ...
3
votes
0answers
42 views

Water Freezing Quandary

Good Day All, I have quandary that I am unable to find an answer for. I live in Ontario, Canada. Then home I reside on is directly on a lakefront. It makes for beautiful views and wonderful times in ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

Where do I get hourly temperature data for cities with a high resolution?

I want to do a project with very high resolution temperature data from a city (any city) with very high resolution (<10 m), in an attempt to create an animated 3D microclimate map for that city. ...
4
votes
1answer
199 views

What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

What is the best way to split strike and dip data on the image provided into “domains” in order to interpret folding on a stereonet?

Link to the original image: https://postimg.cc/v4bRqxxR I believe this image represents two folds which are overturned and plunging. I would like to analyse these folds on a stereonet, but I am unsure ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Can small-scale backyard gardening produce more food per acre than broadscale [grain] farming?

Mark Shepard in his book "Restoration Agriculture" proclaims [...] small-scale backyard gardening which has shown in study after study to produce more food per acre than broadscale grain ...
7
votes
1answer
58 views

What factor(s) could cause this sort of temperature increase, mid-night/early morning?

I am new to having a PWS (Personal Weather Station). I have not found any answers explaining why this sometimes occurs aside from explanations given factors that were not variables in my case (winds, ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Is a pampa an extinct valley? [closed]

I'm confused about the origin of a pampa. For this i'm referring to pampa. The wikipedia entry doesn't really give much information regarding the origin of a pampa. I've heard that it seems to had its ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

How do you calculate the elevation at which clouds will form (lifting condensation level)?

I have a parcel of air at 30°C with a dew point temp of 15°C. It goes up and then back down a mountain 4km in height. Assuming the normal and dry adiabatic lapse rates apply, and an ELR=7.5°C/km, ...
37
votes
9answers
67k views

What does a mm of rain mean?

Lots of people have explained it over many sites but I still can not confidently say that I know what it means when they say Hong Kong experienced 3mm of rainfall last Friday. Does it mean that 3mm ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Three Gorges Dam shifted North Pole by 2 cm?

Numerous sources repeat that, apart from slowing down the rotation of the globe, the Three Gorges Dam caused the geographic pole to shift by 2 cm. For example: https://blog.prv-engineering.co.uk/...
3
votes
2answers
177 views

How many mole of oxygen gas is there in the atmosphere?

At standard conditions, one liter of air, 0.21 L of oxygen gas, contains 0.0094 moles of $\rm O_2$. What is the total quantity of oxygen gas molecules in the atmosphere?
6
votes
3answers
56 views

Why does air pollution comes with cold weather in tropical areas?

I reside in Bangkok where the local press have reported several times these two last months November-December about high levels of smog. A similar phenomenon occurred last year in this period (end of ...
5
votes
3answers
63 views

Last ice age: did glaciers move South or move downhill?

(Note: this is from U.S. point of view) I keep hearing how the glaciers "moved South" during the last ice age. But I thought glaciers moved downhill. I can see that the glaciers formed ...
3
votes
0answers
16 views

How to map a comID to latitude/longitude?

I'm working with a dataset of river flow from NOAA and the locations of the measurements are indicated with a comID. From what I gathered these comIDs are rooted from a dataset called NHD, although I ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Was the filling of the Three Gorges Dam's impact on the Earth's rotation rate detectable?

I'm a big fan of Vsauce and the video How Earth Moves is just one example of science related to the Earth available there (there's plenty more). But the statement in this video starting at ...
-1
votes
1answer
75 views

If 5 billion small devices where released to the atmosphere to convert CO2 to O2 what could go wrong? [closed]

Reading this question How many trees would I have to plant to solve Global Warming? was a small inspiration. If 5 billion small devices where released to the atmosphere to convert CO2 to O2 what could ...

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