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2
votes
1answer
18 views

Calculation of river width in relation to contributing area

I'm looking for a mathematical method to estimate the river width based on the basic topographic information of the specific sections of stream under consideration. Is there a formula to estimate the ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Trying to calculate the percentage of carbon emissions that is offset by 45,000 acres?

In my problem there is an average net ecosystem production rate of: 0.25 kg$^o$C/m2/yr Am asked: a. What percentage of 140,000 tons/yr would be offset from reforesting 45,000 acres? b. With ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

What formed this rock slide formation near Hyndman Peak Idaho (photos)?

While hiking Hyndman Peak in Idaho a couple weeks ago we noticed a rock slide that appeared to be formed by a glacier, however it was on the west side of the mountain. It was also strange that the ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

How to download FLDAS data from earth data

I am trying to download transpiration and snow cover data from earth data but unable to figure out how to do that
8
votes
1answer
6k views

How did the Ural mountains form?

A nice picture for "how mountains formed" on Earth is due to the motion of tectonic plates. As the plates crash together, mountains may get "pushed upwards". However, a quick look at a map of the ...
13
votes
2answers
617 views

Where does the water from rain in rain forests come from?

When discussing a hypothetical world without oceans and just forest it occured to me that I wasn't so sure there would be any rain in the first place, due to the lack of oceans. Searching on Google ...
3
votes
1answer
104 views

“Obicular” structures in basalts

I found spherical or globular structures, structures in basalts of a greenstone belt which underwent alteration and deformation. However, in thin section, these structures have undeformed pyroxene and ...
14
votes
3answers
2k views

Why is Mauna Kea taller than the maximum height possible on Earth?

We can calculate the maximum possible height of the mountain on earth. If the elastic limit of a typical rock is $3 \times 10^8\ \mathrm{N/m}$ and its mean density is $3 \times 10^3\ \mathrm{kg/m^3}$,...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

When did wildfires start to occur on earth?

An oxidizer, fuel, and heat are needed for a fire. When considering oxygen as the oxidizer, an oxygen concentration of approximately 16% is required for combustion. Plant material is the fuel ...
5
votes
2answers
239 views

With humans out of the equation, what could cause forest fire?

Absent human activity, what does cause forest fires? I mean aside from lightning strikes, which are usually accompanied by water in the form of rain, and very rare events like volcanic eruptions or ...
10
votes
2answers
961 views

How do I calculate Per capita $\ce{CO2}$ emissions?

I need to find the per capita $\ce{CO2}$ emissions for Canada in 2010 (expressed in kg/day). I know that Canada had $\ce{CO2}$ emissions of 0.55 (Gt) and a population of 34 million in 2010. I am just ...
3
votes
3answers
161 views

Regarding forest fire season and using robotic devices for proactive efforts before any fires

For many years there are terrible forest fires in the U.S. (for example); I was wondering about pro-active measures ( I'm sure there are many). One possibility is using a small army of robots that are ...
13
votes
1answer
559 views

Why would volcano eruption cause cardiac arrest?

Following recent eruption of Mt Ontake and the sad news of over 30 people found in 'cardiac arrest', why would the eruption cause it? My initial thought would be that the cause of death would ...
1
vote
2answers
47 views

Self-sustaining aquarium in a jar?

I've seen some videos of people scooping up some water from a natural body of it, adding some sand and a few plants, and soon enough, they have a (near) self-sustaining aquarium. I've always wanted to ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

How much of the Earth's surface was covered with water during the Mesozoic?

When the Earth was at its warmest, and there were no ice caps at all, not even during the winter, and thermal expansion meant a certain amount of water took up more space, what ratio of Earth's ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

How do I find the temperature of the air mass, and how do I use a t-skew chart?

So the first problem I'm stuck on is this one: 1.An airmass is moving down a mountain from point A to B.At A the temperature is -10 celsius and the pressure is 890hPa. At point B the pressure is 1010 ...
23
votes
2answers
5k views

Why is Olympus Mons the largest volcano in the whole solar system?

Why is it that the volcanoes found in the Tharsis Montes region near the Martian equator, (one of which is Olympus Mons) so much larger than those found on Earth. In comparison, Hawaii's Mauna Loa, ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

How does rotating water affect turbulence?

I have been doing some DIYnamics with rotating water and non-rotating water. So I had a bucket filled with water on a rotating table, and waited for it to be in solid body rotation. I then dropped ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

I currently observing and conducting my assignment on geomorphology [closed]

How can South Africa’s location contribute to the worldwide interpretation of landscape evolution?
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Is cloudfraction a proper measure of gaseous data expanse?

I was working with SO2 column data product from https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/datasets/OMSO2_003/summary?keywords=OMI%20Total%20Column%201-Orbit%20L2%20Swath I wanted to know, is the cloudfraction data ...
21
votes
3answers
7k views

What percent of the Earth's core is uranium?

What percent of the Earth's core is uranium? And how much of the heat at the core is from radioactive decay rather than other forces?
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Is there a name for a type of algorithm or processing which uses only one source of data as input?

Many algorithms in remote sensing take one or more different datasets as inputs and return some output. An example might be computing the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) injected into the stratosphere ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

How much role does radioactivity play in making Earth geologically active [duplicate]

A hot molten core is important for making the Earth geologically active. I believe most of the heat is from the time of the planet formation, and the high pressures due to everything pushing down to ...
3
votes
0answers
34 views

Has a hurricane ever crossed the Atlantic Ocean more than once?

I noticed that Paulette (2020) is still a named storm and is now approaching northern Africa and Spain. It is forecast to begin moving west again in the coming week. Has a hurricane / tropical storm ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

How to interpret the negative (actual) evapotranspiration values?

I am exploring FLUXNET sites for actual evapotranspiration (ETP) data (I convert the energy balance closure-corrected latent heat to ETP). I am interested in the half-hourly data. During the night we ...
3
votes
1answer
120 views

Can a braided fluvial create thick relatively continuous siltstone beds?

I am attempting to interpret an outcrop I went to. I suggested it was created by a braided fluvial. The one thing I cannot explain are prominent alternating siltstone beds with the sandstone beds. ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Megaspherulite growth

I have been fascinated by photos of these for a while, and I would like to ask how megaspherulites grow so large, when spherulites are normally quite small? I also noticed that all papers about the ...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

How do scientists confirm iron core at the centre of the earth?

How do scientists confirm iron core at the centre of the earth? We know scientists couldn’t yet drill to the core of our planet earth. Yet we know they confirmed there is a core of iron at the centre ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

What is the time period of these chalk/clay layers?

These limestone-clay rocks are very common in the Alps, they come from weather changes. How many years does it take to make one of the rock bands? 7 years, equivalent to an el-nino type event? 1000 ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Is there a way to convert from Dip direction to Strike direction?

I have some set of recorded data in dip direction/dip format. I wish to transform then to strike/dip. I am currently having a hard time imagining how to convert from dip direction to strike direction. ...
3
votes
4answers
319 views

Do we know anything about the nature of Earth's core that hasn't come from magnetic or seismic measurements?

There is much known about Earth's core from painstaking analysis of seismic data, and from detailed magnetic field maps and trends over time. Are there any other measurements that have contributed to ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

How much would the ocean rise if 200 meters of sand was added globally? [closed]

Assuming the sea levels were lower, before the displacement of 200m of sand globally... Roughly what would be the sea level 'before' this event, assuming it already happened? (Looking for a rough &...
1
vote
0answers
63 views

Nickel question - non geologist me

Why are there no giant nickel porphyry deposits like those of copper, or SEDEX deposits, like those of zinc? Why is all the nickel found in direct magmatic intrusions from the mantle to the surface? ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

How do upper-level cyclones and anticyclones affect surface level winds?

Take something like the Bermuda High, for instance. I drew a crude illustration of it. It steers hot, humid air from the Gulf of Mexico towards the east coast of North America. But upper level winds ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

In a mesocyclone, why does wind shear create a horizontal axis of spinning air?

Take a look at this picture. Moist updrafts interact with highly-sheared upper-level winds, which sets up a horizontal vortex. But why? What causes the air to be forced downward and to the right, then ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Can we define “drainage density” for a soil column (point-scale)?

From what I read all over the web and articles, drainage density is a parameter that is defined for a catchment. I want to use a hydrological model to simulate the percolation from the bottom of a ...
4
votes
2answers
170 views

Why isn't Iberia a tectonic plate?

I usually read that Iberia is a subplate, while India is a plate. But it was a plate at the beginning of the Alpine Orogeny: Source: wikimedia.org Description: Tectonic map of southern ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

What will happen if the Greek letter names were exhausted for naming tropical storms?

The traditional list of hurricane names for the year goes from A to W, and, in the very rare occurrence that the W storm has formed and there is another tropical storm out there, then the Greek letter ...
0
votes
1answer
69 views

How to measure voltage differential across different altitudes

Imagine two points, one directly above the other ( Point A - 10,000 feet (PA) Point B - 20,000 feet (PB) Imagine there's voltage potential between those two points Q1: How could you measure the ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

In the future, is the World Meteorological Organization going to allow Hurricanes Zeta, Eta, and Theta to exist simultaneously?

In the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season, we got all the way to Tropical Storm Zeta, which is the current record. This year we may very well surpass that. However, right after Zeta come Eta and then ...
2
votes
2answers
37 views

Resource for scientific maps?

I need an administrative division map of england for a motivation for some scientific workshop. I don't want to cite wikipedia for this. Sadly I can't find any official resources and I don't really ...
3
votes
1answer
62 views

Frost in trees in the middle of summer (of 536)

It was so cold that frost formed inside trees in the middle of summer. Traces of this have been found in Russia, among other places. It is very rare for trees to freeze internally during the summer. ...
6
votes
2answers
14k views

What are the differences between Climatology, Meteorology and Atmospheric Science?

Please explain the main differences between Climatology, Meteorology and Atmospheric Science. Thank you
0
votes
0answers
30 views

difference between climatology and meteorology only [duplicate]

Some basic differences are needed for children to understand only. The language should be simple enough so that any age understands for 5 to 99 or maybe 100.
5
votes
1answer
73 views

How much time is there between an underwater earthquake and the moment a tsunami hits the coast?

Tsunamis can be caused by underwater earthquakes, like the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. The precise value will likely depend on where the earthquake is relative to the coast. But what is the time ...
0
votes
2answers
93 views

Why it feels hotter at Night?

Why does the same temperature feel hotter at night? For example, 70 degrees literally feels hot at night when outside but during the day 70 degrees feels just mild when outside. Why is that? And ...
10
votes
2answers
369 views

What are monsoons caused by? [closed]

Traditionally we think of them as being caused by differences in land-sea heating. But more recently, some researchers, like Simona Bordoni and William Boos, have argued otherwise.
5
votes
3answers
544 views

How can I test my house water supply for hydrocarbon presence?

I live in a city where the water supply quality seem pretty good on daily/average basis. However, it is also well known that there is a huge problem with deteriorating water pipes. My problem is that ...
8
votes
1answer
3k views

How to cite LandSat 8?

I'm wondering how to quote a Landsat mission product. I have seen many ways, but I can't decide which one is the best. Thus, I would like to know if there is a standard for the minimum information ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

wrf_chemi file with 30 time steps

I creat wrfchemi file for my wrf-chem, my wrfchemi file has 30 time step, frames_per_auxinput5 = 30, 30, auxinput5_inname = "wrfchemi_d", auxinput5_interval_m = 60, 60, ...

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