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Was the Caribbean Sea a closed sea in the last glacier?

Taking a look at Google Maps in satellite view the straits between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean are not very deep. How was the connection between Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean in the ...
4
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1answer
54 views

How big was the eye of the El Reno tornado?

As far as I know, the EF-3 El Reno tornado is by far the largest tornado since meteorologists have started observing them. Tornadoes also have eyes, like hurricanes, but are way too small compared to ...
2
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1answer
35 views

how the concentration of particulate matter is calculated per meter cube

I have some data about PM10, PM2.5, i.e how much it is generated per day (in kilo tonnes) by some sector say from vehicular emissions. It can be converted to micrograms but I don't know how the ...
2
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0answers
59 views

What is the maximum size that a drop of rainwater can reach?

This USGS article: "Raindrops are Different Sizes" assures: We can call the growing droplet a raindrop as soon as it reaches the size of 0.5mm in diameter or bigger. If it gets any larger ...
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62 views

Resources on Palaeogeography / Geology [closed]

I would like to begin studying the geology / Palaeogeography , with particular respect to Paleocontinents, how they formed and disassembled, until today's continents. I have been searching on-line ...
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1answer
75 views

Complete missing outcrop problem

Given A is upper limit of sand stone, B is the lower limit of the planes that are equal in distance and dip. Dip angle is 29 degrees. Complete the outcrop of this map. —————————————————————————- Now I ...
2
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1answer
156 views

Who are winners from the global warming? Are there any?

As a person living in Russia, I always had mixed feelings when hearing appeals to fight global warming. On the one hand, I completely understand that it is going to be a disaster for lots of people. ...
3
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1answer
94 views

Are wetlands effective against climate change?

In the region where I live, there is a trend that conservation organizations are advocating the conservation and re-valuation of wetlands. Aside from boosting biodiversity and providing other ...
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0answers
55 views

What kind of rock is this? [closed]

A few years ago in Venezuela, parque nacional de Cainama, the tourist guide found and gave me this rocks, he told us that a geologist told him that those could be radioactive but no one believed him. ...
2
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1answer
81 views

How did this stone become encased within different rock?

My father, in his younger years, was a stone mason in Cincinnati Ohio. A couple of decades ago he was building a wall of some kind. He would fetch rock from a creek bed, haul it to the construction ...
2
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1answer
82 views

Can I regard the grayscale of a RGB color image as a panchromatic image?

Here I have a remote sensing dataset with many bands (e.g., blue, green, red, ...), and I use the blue, green and red bands to get a true color image. I want to know if I can get a panchromatic band ...
4
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1answer
764 views

What will happen to the Indian plate after it slides under the Eurasian Plate?

What will happen if the Indian Plate is done sliding under the Eurasian plate? I hypothesied some possible answers. Tell me the answer and if my hypothesis is not correct. Most likely to least. It ...
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13 views

Geodynamics and petrophysics

How are petrophysical properties of rocks affected by the geodynamic condition and tectonics? Or if we learn the density of rocks in the region what could we say about the geodynamic condition?
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0answers
15 views

Why aren't positive cloud-to-ground lightning strikes associated with the precipitation core of a storm?

My understanding is that positive CG flashes are more common on the leading edge or tail end of a storm, and can be associated with weakening storms. Shouldn't the most powerful lightning strikes (+CG ...
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0answers
11 views

Which factors determine the predominant precipitation type of supercells during tornado outbreaks?

A tale of two outbreaks. April 27, 2011 featured classic supercells that were extremely-fast moving (forward speeds of 60+ mph) in a northeast direction. James Spann noted this while covering the EF4 ...
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52 views

Why is it so warm in the Pacific Northwest of North America right now - mid April 2021?

Temperatures are 5-7 degrees Celsius above average in southwestern British Columbia, and it's surreal for it to be so warm and sunny when the deciduous trees are still mostly barren.
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3answers
147 views

What would people drilling through Mount Everest find?

I am interested in knowing what kind of fossils we would find if we were to drill horizontally through the mountain and what we would find if we were to drill vertically. Would we find anything ...
1
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1answer
56 views

Is there any intuitive and easily understandable way to help students understand the triangular facet of outcropted stratigraphy?

I find it difficult to teach college students about using the triangular facet on remote sensing images to judge the dip direction of sedimentary formations. Is there any intuitive way that can help?
3
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1answer
58 views

Connection between radiative imbalance and radiative forcing

There seems to be a general consensus that the Earth is in radiative imbalance, i.e., it is absorbing more solar energy than it radiates. One figure I've seen bandied about for this imbalance is that ...
2
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1answer
65 views

Trees cleaning the air

Sorry if this is the wrong place... I have been camping a lot recently and I couldn't help but notice some of the campgrounds I am in are acres and acres of mostly pine trees. These trees have very ...
2
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2answers
28 views

What is the correct way to report historical daily Max / Min / Avg Temperature by City?

I starting a weather project where I'm using ERA5 hourly dataset (ref: https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/dataset/reanalysis-era5-single-levels?tab=form). Using this dataset in python, I have ...
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0answers
27 views

What would happen if the inner core bulged and moved a tiny bit?

The inner core is solid only because of the very high pressure of the outer core and mantle . Say, if the inner core moved a teeny tiny bit would some of it liquify and melt? Or does it stay solid? ...
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47 views

Need help with MATLAB code

I am currently stuck on how to solve these questions on MATLAB. I am trying to use a for and if loop. Could I please have help please. Not sure on how to approach it Finds the year in which the ...
2
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0answers
67 views

What does a change in the mean pressure across 750 km indicate/signify?

Coming from the aviation site: What is the westerly index? The westerly index is: ... the Trenberth Z1 index (Trenberth 1976), which is the departure of the monthly mean pressure difference between ...
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0answers
20 views

What is the westerly index?

This was asked in aviation stack exchange and the best answer (credit:ymb1) was: The westerly index is the Trenberth Z1 index (Trenberth 1976), which is the departure of the monthly mean pressure ...
7
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2answers
192 views

Would a gold-containing meteor cause it to “rain” gold?

Not sure if here or physics is the best place for this question, but if there was a meteor that had gold in it, what happens to that metal during entry of the Earth's atmosphere? Since gold melts at ...
2
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1answer
63 views

Are these igneous Liesegang rings on a popular Oahu, Hawaii hike?

I hiked the Lanikai Pillbox trail (Oahu, HI). I noticed eroded concentric rings in the igneous rock with a hard center. I'm unable to find the geologic cause of these rings. Are they Liesegang rings? ...
3
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0answers
46 views

Is there open scientific analysis of the proposed discharge of water from Fukushima?

Today in the news Japan has announced it will discharge water from Fukushima. All news sites I have looked at covering this give very little detail, only that about 1.4M Tonnes of water will be ...
6
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4answers
5k views

Why don't green house gases escape into space?

I have never heard an explanation as to what traps GHGs. What holds them in place? Has research been conducted to assess the efficacy of say triggering a change in their chemical composition into a ...
1
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1answer
54 views

Seeing a varied change in brightness across the landscape during sunrise?

In this video of sunrise at Cadillac Mountain, Maine, the landscape closer to the horizon appears to brighten sooner than the foreground. It makes sense to me, the terrain at the horizon is ...
3
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2answers
142 views

Snow on a relatively warm day

Outside my window it's snowing. This isn't so strange, even for the South of England in mid-April. What is surprising is that the ambient air temperatures (according to the Met-Office) are about 7 or ...
2
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1answer
100 views

What are the risks of developing geoengineering?

Wikipedia page for geoengineering entry list a lot of proposals to decrease global temperature: Solar radiation management methods[5] may include: Surface-based: for example, surface-based mirror ...
4
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1answer
366 views

Can clouds be formed without a pollen particle's role?

I read online that it is scientifically proven that pollen particles can trigger cloud formation "is that true"? if true ,does it mean that no clouds can be formed without pollen particles' ...
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30 views

When it comes the average lifetime of chemicals in the atmosphere, is the mean lifetime ~1.4427 times the half-life? As with radioactivity?

There are so many websites giving numbers for 'average' lifetimes of global-warming or ozone-depleting chemicals in the atmosphere, yet they are rarely explicit in their definition(s)... For instance, ...
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0answers
27 views

Learn geological properties of the horizon through density of the rocks

It is possible to evaluate the geological structure of a basin based on gravimetric data. But if one doesn't have gravimetric data, how can one learn the geological structure and properties of a ...
4
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1answer
39 views

What is “small layer thickness” defined as in terms of bulk Richardson number approaching gradient Richardson number?

In many sources (https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Bulk_richardson_number), bulk Richardson number is defined as an approximation to gradient Richardson number. The prior only approaches the ladder ...
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0answers
44 views

Prevalence of 'well-rounded' beach fabric on the Foreshore

Apologies for the vagueness of this query, but generally, would it be plausible to state that the prevalence of 'sub-rounded'* beach fabric is more common at the foreshore than 'sub-angular'* beach ...
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0answers
45 views

Determining probability of precipitation from GFS data

Looking at the index files in https://ftp.ncep.noaa.gov/data/nccf/com/gfs/prod/, there's no probability of precipitation (POP) data provided. (There is a ...
6
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2answers
151 views

Why should there not be water deep (e.g. below 6 kms) in the Earth's crust?

In 1970, the USSR began drilling at the Kola Super-deep Borehole. The target depth was 15,000 meters; The stated areas of study were the deep structure of the Baltic Shield, seismic discontinuities ...
1
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1answer
63 views

Term for the Process of the Early Earth's Crust's Changing Mineral Composition

In the book, Story of Earth-The First 4.5 Billion Years, From Stardust to Living Planet, by Robert Hazen, Chapter 3: He discusses the changing mineral composition of the early Earth's crust from ...
4
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1answer
93 views

In cities, is the pollution level higher on higher floors?

Is there a difference between the pollution levels at higher vs lower floors in a high rise building?
2
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1answer
59 views

How can we distinguish fold and cycle of sedimentation on a remote sensing image or in the field?

A fold is composed of stratigraphy that is symmetric and repeated. Cyclic sediments (also called rhythmic sediments) are sequences of sedimentary rocks that are characterised by repetitive patterns of ...
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0answers
26 views

Where can I find an anisotropic PREM-like model for Earth's interior?

So, I just discovered PREM (the Preliminary reference Earth model) which models the density distribution of matter inside the Earth to any depth. The PREM is very convenient but since it only depends ...
2
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2answers
60 views

How much earth has to be moved to get one tonne of copper

I am trying to make sense of the mining process of minerals or metals. I found two measures related to waste: the stripping ratio (which is usually larger than 3:1 for copper, i.e. 3 tonnes of waste ...
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0answers
26 views

When are the IPCC AR6 reports going to be published?

Im trying to find out when each of the reports from working groups 1,2 and 3 will be published due to the delay due to covid19. Does anyone have any up to date information about these dates as opposed ...
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1answer
75 views

Will a new glacial age take place on Earth or Holocene will become a new climatic epoch?

Pleistocene shows a switch between glacial and interglacial ages. Image source: global-climate-change.org.uk However, humanity is burning fossil fuels and increasing atmosphere's $\ce{CO2}$ content. ...
2
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1answer
36 views

How to identify chemical property and structure of rocks?

I am interested in identifying the properties of rocks. For example, black opal is shiny and can emit 5 different colors based on different lighting conditions. Is there a way for an amateur to be ...
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0answers
23 views

Differentiate correlation of between depth and bouguer anomaly

Assume we measure bouguer anomaly (g) and depth (H) of the certain horizon through a profile at each point. Based on data we get a correlation between H and g and express it with a polynomial equation ...
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0answers
18 views

How much carbon in the surface ocean

The natural flux of carbon into the atmosphere is about 90 Gt per year. Humans are adding additional carbon dioxide each by burning fossil fuels. Some of it is absorbed by the oceans. The residence ...
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0answers
39 views

How to define high frequency rainfall?

I have a rainfall data set from a weather station where the data was collected at 20 minutes intervals for 10 years. I would like to peak up the high frequency rainfall cases. What are such rainfalls? ...

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