# All Questions

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### Introduction to Geology Books

I am a high school student who is thinking about going to university for Geological Sciences. I've had an interest in rocks and such since I was little, but I want to get an idea of what studying ...
27 views

### Create emission files by my data emission for wrf-chem

Does anybody here have any experience with creating my own wrfchemi outputs from the emissions that are in different format, txt, netcdf and grib for instance? What I want to do, basically, is to ...
190 views

### Why is there a clear space between the ground and the cloud base?

On Earth there is a clear space between the ground and the cloud base. This phenomenon is not confined to Earth, it's the same on Venus, Mars and Titan (moon of Saturn). Is there a law of physics ...
219 views

Based on our current knowledge of CO$_2$ and current instrumental techniques, how big would a laboratory sample of air with 400ppm of CO$_2$ need to be in order to quantify the back radiation from CO$... 1answer 65 views ### How is relative humidity determined from a wet and dry bulb readings? The question What is the second thermometer in the image from the Esperanza Antarctic temperature record? shows what might be a wet/dry bulb setup. I've given one to a friend to measure humidity for ... 0answers 42 views ### What covers larger territory: advection fog or frontal fog? [closed] Between Frontal fog and Advection fog which covers larger territory ? If it's possible, provide some source of information as a proof 2answers 171 views ### Why are metals so separated in the Earths crust? I find it very surprising that metal ore deposits are so separate, and unevenly separated on the Earth. I do understand that there were various different conditions at some point in time in the ... 0answers 82 views ### Has there been a record low temperature in Greeland in 2020? According to this article , Greenland just set a new all time record low temperature Adding to the list of temperature measurements those alarmists will likely ignore –or won’t even get to hear ... 1answer 133 views ### Has Earth's atmosphere lost mass throughout the geological ages due to biological$\small\sf{CO_2}$fixation? Stromatolites and other organisms have been storing$\small\sf{CO_2}$in the form of$\small\sf{CaCO_3}$throughout the geological ages, forming extensive limestone deposits scattered across Earth's ... 1answer 63 views ### Where can I get hourly ambient temperature for each county in United States? Need temperature for 24 hours for each county of United States. Average values is ok, seasonal granularity welcome. I've been looking at nClimDiv datasets 2answers 91 views ### WRF/Chem: Editing NetCDF (wrfchemi files) for own emissions Does anybody here have any experience with editing wrfchemi outputs from the prep_chem utility so that I overwrite the file with my own emissions? I am knowledgeable in python, but I am not that well ... 0answers 53 views ### Predict wind speed in a forest based on speed over and under canopy? I am trying to understand the calculation of the wind speeds at forest edge. I am pretty new in wind simulation and profiles in general, so I am sorry if asking simple questions. I have found that ... 1answer 83 views ### What are the affirmations regarding the effects of climate change that have a high degree of consensus amongst climate scientists? I have seen ample consensus amongst reputable scientists that the earth is getting warmer, and this fact is due to human activity (e.g https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/17/do-scientists-agree-on-climate-... 2answers 79 views ### Average thunderstorm days for each month How can I find the average number of days with thunderstorms for each month for different cities in the United States? I’m doing a researching project for this and I need to find some links that will ... 1answer 113 views ### How does Earth's thermal radiation into space vary by location and time of day? CHEOPS (also 1, 2, 3) is a space telescope recently put in low Earth orbit to look for exoplanets around other stars. It uses a cooled detector array and so uses a heat shield to avoid thermal ... 1answer 525 views ### Are “monoliths” giant, isolated rocks sitting in dirt, or are they continuous with bedrock I am at a loss for the precise, correct terminology, but I have read in Wikipedia that Uluru is not a monolith, but Savandurga is, and that I probably shouldn't be using the word monolith to begin ... 3answers 565 views ### How bad is geo-engineering? It is just curiosity that forced me to ask this question. At some point in time, if we can't control global$\sf{CO_2}$emissions, temperature will increase until a tipping point and it will be a ... 1answer 82 views ### Can spraying sulphate particulates in the upper atmosphere to lower Earth's temperature have side effects? According to Geoengineering treatment stratospheric aerosol injection climate change study Planes spraying tiny sulphate particulates into the lower stratosphere, around 60,000 feet up. The idea ... 2answers 90 views ### Were there any plans or proposals for “unilateral geoengineering deployments” before this paper was publsihed? I saw the catchy Phys.org news title Artificially cooling planet 'risky strategy,' new research shows and then looked at the open access article, in Nature Communications (14-Nov-2017 online) Impacts ... 1answer 103 views ### Is the ocean a carbon sink when considering only the biospheric component? Most people knows that the ocean overall is a carbon sink, but a big part of the sink is due to chemical equilibrium (via dissolution) with the atmosphere (for ref: https://link.springer.com/article/... 1answer 60 views ### Is weathering of rock a primary means of$\text{CO}_2\$ scrubbing on primordial Earth?

I read somewhere that the reason Venus has a runaway greenhouse effect and Earth doesn't is because Venus failed to develop tectonic plates and instead formed a full tectonic plate enveloping the ...
143 views

### Could we sequester co2 by dumping forests in deep oceans?

We know that trees are the most efficient "tool" we have to get CO2 out of the air, but the problem is that most of their fixated CO2 will naturally reenter the carbon cycle through decomposition. ...
221 views

### How does a subduction zone form mountains?

When an oceanic plate goes under a continental plate are the resulting mountains a result of the melting and then rising of the oceanic plate or are the mountains formed by the continental plate being ...
42 views

### How Old Are the Verkhoyansk Mountains in Northeastern Russia?

The multi-brown "hand" at the middle of this image is the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range in northeastern Russia. The best information I got regarding its age is simply "Cretaceous". But when in the ...
173 views

### In which state of matter exactly are the clouds? [duplicate]

The state of the clouds and it can only be one of the three states, solid, liquid, or gas. Which one are clouds?
34 views

### Are there any known global effects of the Mediterranean sea evaporation and refilling?

This is a broad subject I realize, but I'm looking for specific geologically observed answers of global effects elsewhere, between about 5.96 and 5.33 million years ago when the Mediterranean sea was ...
2k views

### Running WRF with ECMWF GRIB2 model levels

ECMWF model data comes in a hybrid GRIB format, that is, model level output is stored in GRIB2 messages, whereas surface data still uses GRIB1 format. Ungrib is unable to understand this hybrid GRIB ...
47 views

### Is Hudson Bay part of the Arctic or the Atlantic Ocean?

Years ago I learned that the Columbia ice field was North America's triple divide point: water flowing from this ice field could drain into the Artic, the Pacific, and the Atlantic Ocean. Something I ...
164 views

### Why is the mass of atmosphere of Venus so much greater than that of the Earth?

Earth and Venus have a very similar gravity, but the mass of atmosphere on Venus is much greater (according to this wikipedia article 93 times larger). I know that the chemical composition and ...
75 views

### Why does haze and poor visibility present in stable air?

Haze is not considered to be a cloud or mist, and it also is not fog. What is the ultimate reason that haze and general poor visibility ranges prevail in stable atmospheric conditions? Is the cause ...
256 views

### Where did the atmosphere's nitrogen come from? [duplicate]

According to Wikipedia's article Atmosphere of Earth: Outgassing from volcanism, supplemented by gases produced during the late heavy bombardment of Earth by huge asteroids, produced [Earth's ...
149 views

### What causes the “ripples” that extend east-west along the mid-atlantic ridge?

Below are two cropped screenshots from the super-cool video Draining Earth's oceans, revealing the two-thirds of Earth's surface we don't get to see with the oceans "drained" to 4000 and 5000 meters ...
82 views

### Does the Earth 'Flare' like the Sun does?

Solar Flares are a commonly discussed phenomenon, which have effects ranging from geomagnetic storms to radio disruptions to absolutely nothing noticeable. Given that part of the core of the Earth ...
1k views

### Why air do not suffer density stratification of its gaseous components?

The different gases that make up the air have different densities. So, naively, one would expect the heavier gasses to pool in the lower atmosphere and the light ones at the top. I asked myself this ...
178 views

### What happens when the North and South poles flip?

How long does it take the magnetic field to move once the poles start to flip? What environmentally would change? Does the core of the Earth flip? The magnetic poles are moving now. When will it ...
75 views

### Earth History Book

I'm a PhD student studying the (current) climate of the Earth. I'm also quite interested in the history of planet Earth, although I have little academic background in that area. Is there a good ...
200 views

### Is there evidence of multiple poles (higher order than dipole) in earth's magnetic field?

There is this slightly uncombed simulation model of a geomagnetic field reversal, showing multiple poles, a quadrupole or even higher order magnetic field. Earth's magnetic field is mostly described ...
108 views

### What the humidity metric is hiding?

So I have been spending time in Moscow Russia which essentially records very similar climatic humidity to my home city of London. However in Moscow my throat is permanently dry, I need to consume more ...
344 views

### What is the global distribution of oil filled geodes?

In a general 40 mile radius of Keokuk, Iowa many sedimentary geodes can be found. They are abundant in the Warsaw Formation with the type section at Geode Glenn in Warsaw, Illinois. In one specific ...
72 views

### At what distance from a location does the average monthly climate significantly start to differ?

I am almost done creating an app that allows people to create a planting calendar based on garden journals created by people who live within a certain radius of a user. In those garden journals people ...
34 views

### Climate modelling: statistical downscaling or dynamical?

I would like to assess climate change impacts on Protected Areas (e.g. natural reserves, national parks) for Mediterranean countries. I found easily future data from several Global Circulation Models ...
52 views

### Is the association of fluorescent minerals calcite, fluorite, and apatite with fluorescent rare-Earth minerals a coincidence?

If I understand this answer and this comment correctly, minerals like calcite, fluorite, and apatite are "commonly associated with (Rare Earth Element) REE deposits", and like some REEs also fluoresce ...
133 views

### Trees: What does “highly tapering stem” mean?

Trees: What does "highly tapering stem" mean? Taper is a function measuring steepness of change in crown diameter when height increases upwards. But "highly tapering" (sometimes also "high-degree of ...
201 views

### To what extent do the levels of UVA, UVB and UVC radiations on the earth surface increase during solar flares?

To what extent do the levels of UVA, UVB and UVC radiations on the earth surface increase during solar flares?
185 views

### Shouldn't we encourage consumption of single-use plastics? Plastic is a good way to sequester carbon [closed]

I've heard a bunch of impractical proposals for ways to sequester carbon: pump CO2 gas into the ground, grow trees for the sole purpose of burying them underground where they won't decompose... and ...
90 views

### “Obicular” structures in basalts

I found spherical or globular structures, structures in basalts of a greenstone belt which underwent alteration and deformation. However, in thin section, these structures have undeformed pyroxene and ...
40 views

### struggling to find a good research question in rainfall runoff modelling [duplicate]

I'm writing my thesis on modelling extreme rainfall and I'm still struggling to find a good research question. I have asked a similar question before in this post. Maybe you guys can give me some ...
5k views

### Why don't scientists use fire entry suits to study volcanoes?

It seems like the only personal protective equipment (PPE) that volcanologists use are aluminized suits that don't provide any protection from direct contact with lava, making an unexpected splash ...