# All Questions

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### How is Air Quality Index relevant to both PM2.5 and NO2

I am comparing NO2 and PM2.5 levels in the pre-2020 Jan-April and 2020 Jan-April (representing air quality during lockdown and under no-lockdown conditions). The data was from the aqicn website (...
142 views

### Does the heating of the oceans due to greenhouse effect negate the acidification due to increased CO2 levels?

As I understand, the dissolving of carbon dioxide leads to increased acidification of the oceans, and thus increased atmospheric CO2 levels would lead to more dissolution in the oceans and thus ...
28 views

### Is the slowing down of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation a response to climate change?

I have been taught that the changes in current were caused primarily by climate change but upon reading the conclusion of the paper named: "Observed decline of the Atlantic meridional overturning ...
1k views

### Why is ocean surface velocity around 3% of wind velocity?

Many introductory level textbooks suggest that, as a rule of thumb, the velocity of the ocean surface is around 3% the wind velocity at 10 meters above the sea surface. For instance, Ocean ...
47 views

### What is the relationship between the derivatives of specific volume and potential temperature with height?

While studying about atmospheric waves, I found a passage in my book in which a equation involved the term $$\frac{1}{\alpha }\frac{\partial \alpha }{\partial z}$$ where $\alpha$ is the specific ...
51 views

### Why some area in the ocean seems to have like “wind barrier”?

When looking at the earth wind map, some lines clearly distinguish themselve and act as "frontier" between stream of wind. I was wondering what it was and what was causing them? Thanks.
34 views

### Why is Europe still considered a continent(along with Asia)? [closed]

It is true that there are multiple definitions of a continent. But it is also true that Europe fails to satisfy any of them. One of the boundaries between Europe and Asia was chose arbitrarily(the ...
98 views

### “Obicular” structures in basalts

I found spherical or globular structures, structures in basalts of a greenstone belt which underwent alteration and deformation. However, in thin section, these structures have undeformed pyroxene and ...
2k views

### How was Nastapoka arc formed?

As wikipedia says, the Nastapoka arc is a geological feature located on the southeastern shore of Hudson Bay, Canada. (Other description with picture at the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada) No ...
133 views

### What “blobs” of molten material in Earth's interior are responsible for the rapidly moving north pole? Where are these blobs exactly?

IFL Science's Earth's North Magnetic Pole Is Heading Towards Siberia – And Scientists Now Know Why explains that the motion of Earth's north magnetic pole can be understood as follows: A new study, ...
34 views

### Rainbowish phenomenon outside my home

I took a photo of an amazing sight I had never seen outside my home ( southern india ) but I could not tell if it was a rainbow type thing or an aurora borealis. Also if it was to be a sun dog , ...
17 views

### Why we compare the oxygen fugacity of magma ocean with IW, FMQ or any other buffer?

e.g., Nitrogen solubility as high as near 25 ppm in forsterite, pyroxene, and garnet have been reported in an experimental study in the 1.5–3.0 GPa range with the oxygen fugacity controlled at those ...
62 views

### Torrential rain from a tiny cloud in otherwise blue sky [closed]

In the 1950s in England in an otherwise cloudless blue sky in summer a very small dense cloud appeared overhead around midday which looked like cumulus and for about 5 minutes we had torrential rain. ...
2k views

### Weather forecast based on pressure, temperature and humidity only (for implementation in Arduino)

I have a project for my school to make, and I'd like to have some materials of research/graphs of dependencies about how the weather is predicted (i.e. cloudy, sunny, rainy). I've been searching the ...
43 views

### Providing Edgar emission using prep_chem_source for tracers (CO2-CH4)

I am working on CO2 and CH4 by WRF-CHEM, for providing my anthropogenic emission from Edgar data base, I'm going to use the Prep_chem_source App. I would like to use Edgar data emission (as my ...
105 views

### Why don't dewdrops form on a cloudy night?

The reason behind the non- formation of dewdrops on a cloudy night is the non-attainment of below dew point temperatures. It happens as the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is not allowed to escape ...
115 views

### Can a braided fluvial create thick relatively continuous siltstone beds?

I am attempting to interpret an outcrop I went to. I suggested it was created by a braided fluvial. The one thing I cannot explain are prominent alternating siltstone beds with the sandstone beds. ...
53 views

### When is model selection based on AICc (Akaike Information Criterion corrected) ok?

I was wondering whether you could help me with the following issue: I am running a negative binomial model (overdispersed) on count data of sampled insects at 22 sites. Here, I would like to select ...
42 views

### What is the time period of these chalk/clay layers?

These limestone-clay rocks are very common in the Alps, they come from weather changes. How many years does it take to make one of the rock bands? 7 years, equivalent to an el-nino type event? 1000 ...
399k views

### Why does lightning strike from the ground-up?

The enlightening image below is of a lightning strike slowed down at 10,000 frames per second. It can be seen that the most intense flash produced from the lightening occurs in the direction from ...
111 views

Maybe tornados form from landspouts or gustnados that get pulled into the mesocyclone. Is there some way to look for a correlation between number of tornados on a given day and how conducive ...
70 views

### stretch phenomena after NMO application on seismic data

after the NMO application we have stretch for far offset , i read a lot of articles but i can't have a complete idea how this phenomena is really created ! any one have a rich explanation ?
72 views

### What was the Earth's continent's positions 10000 years ago, or 11700 years ago, AKA when the late Pleistocene epoch was coming to an end?

In many articles online, geologists and geographers have described and depicted the theorized locations of all our continental plates with great detail and illustration, providing pictures, time-lapse ...
235 views

### What is the explanation of using pressure units (hPa) to express height when dealing with wind speeds?

I am trying to understand how prevailing winds and jet stream currents are formed and how they are varying in speed and direction. When looking at different wind speeds at different altitudes on ...
5k views

### How do rivers last so long in dry weather?

I got caught in a downpour while climbing a mountain and was amazed to see, as I climbed down, the tiny trickles of water combine to form mini-streams, the dry rocks I had climbed up now hosted ...
114 views

### How does fertile soil reach newborn volcanic islands?

When a volcanic island first surfaces, I assume no vegetation can grow, as it probably only consists of volcanic rock. How would a volcanic island like Iceland that is far from any continent grow to ...
31 views

### Construction of a drift curve in the well tie calibration and how to interpret it?. Sonic calibration vs checkshot calibration

Good afternoon. Inside the creation of the synthetic seismogram some softwares have the option to run what is called "sonic calibration" or "checkshot calibration". I have some questions: 1)why some ...
63 views

### Does the hour thingie on a 24-hour clock represent the apparent “motion” of the Sun “around” the Earth? [closed]

While looking at this photo of a 24-hour clock: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Greenwich_clock_1-manipulated.jpg ... it struck me that, maybe, it could be seen as a visual ...
31 views

### CO2 probe measuring at temperatures up to 150 °C [closed]

I'm looking for a $CO_2$ measuring probe (analog current output, digital out: RS232/485 - probe will be connected and transferring real time data to the data logger) that would operate up to 150 °C (...
298 views

### How is the total area of the world's oceans 361 million sq km?

How is the total area of the world's oceans 361 million square kilometres? I can't see how the five individuals ones add to that. When I Google how many squared km is this/that ocean, I get When add ...
103 views

### Temperate Rainforests

I have heard that the Appalachian Mountains is qualified as a temperate rainforest. What qualifies a temperate rainforest and what makes the Appalachian Mountains a temperate rainforest?
53 views

### What does it mean that “gas-producing countries such as Russia have likewise been dependent on a fixed set of pipeline export routes”? [closed]

Am new to this. I was reading New Geopolitics of natural gas by Agnia and came across this paragraph : because gas historically had been supplied primarily by land-based pipeline monopolies ...
224 views

### The Medieval Climatic Anomaly

Trying to understand this question, posted to me by a lecturer at University: "The Medieval Climatic Anomaly was distinctive in terms of the prevailing climates and forcing mechanisms operating ...
136 views

### Conditions of Thunderstorms

Why do some heavy rainstorms and hailstorms not produce any lightning or thunder at all when I thought that these conditions of heavy rain and hail are right to bring lightning and thunder but don’t ...
2k views

### What is the white coating “patina” we often see on deposited chalcedony/agate?

Me and some of my friends were wondering what exactly is the white coating we can see on chalcedony that has been deposited by a river during quartenary (and so the original material is damaged and ...
564 views

### Non-invasive techniques to find rock composition

If we had access to a totally new kind of rock (maybe a new meteorite), is it possible to tell what the rock is composed of without touching it / drilling into it? I'm thinking of something like ...
59 views

### How does the changing seasons affect the large scale easterly flow of the ITCZ?

I am new to climate science and have been learning the basic picture of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and how this leads to the predominant easterly "trade winds". The picture that I ...
126 views

### Why aren't the Hawaiian islands a continuous strip of land?

My understanding is that the Hawaiian islands were produced as the Pacific plate moved over a stationary hot spot, which sent magma burning up through the plate as it passed over, forming a trail of ...
827 views

### How could humans alter storm intensity or direction other than cloud seeding?

I am familiar with the concept of cloud seeding, where precipitation can be induced with aerosols, thereby altering storm intensity further downwind. Are there methods that could be used to ...
394 views

### Understanding the Mercator Projection

To illustrate my problem, let's say I have lattitude and longitude coordinates, such as 38.871105, -77.056042. I want to be able to calculate the new lattitude and longitude if, say, I moved 300m ...
15 views

### Does anyone know of any studies comparing juvenile and adult abundance data for an ontogenetic reef fish? [closed]

I'm trying to look into relationships between juvenile Hogfish which recruit in sea grass habitats to adult abundance data that move to deeper offshore reef and hard bottom habitat. I have data from ...
89 views

### Difference between soil Water Holding Capacity and soil pore volume?

I have got confused I took 100g soil in a funnel with filter paper. poured 100 ml water and collected the drained water in a calibrated cylinder. Water added in funnel = 100 ml Water collected in ...
126 views

### What level of heat creates a dust devil?

My understanding is that a dust devil is created when heated air rises rapidly displacing the cooler air above up. My question is, how relatively hot does the patch of air on the ground have to get in ...
99 views

### Can a tornado burn itself out?

I know that hurricanes can basically "burn" themselves out of energy if they get too strong, but can the same thing happen with a tornado?
125 views

### If I build a concrete surface on a 1km x 1km area and painted it black, will I create convection (updraft from ground)?

Providing there are low wind conditions and a clear sky, will the 1 km x 1 km black surface create an upward convention? Let’s say I were to do this at 60$^\circ$ N longitude in march month, the ...
2k views

### What would it be like to live in an ice age?

If you were born in the most recent ice age, how different would your life be compared to how you live it today? Furthermore, if humans currently lived in an ice age, how would it affect life today?
126 views

### calculate UV index in vertical plane

Due to extensive damage to my face because of an accident, I am currently undergoing skin therapy (laser/IPL/medication), that makes my skin extremely sensitive to UV radiation. So I need to stay out ...
455 views

### Diamond at the core of Jupiter

Arthur C. Clarke, who correctly guessed there would be liquid water on Europa, posited a diamond core for Jupiter. Is this possible?