# All Questions

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126 views

### calculate UV index in vertical plane

Due to extensive damage to my face because of an accident, I am currently undergoing skin therapy (laser/IPL/medication), that makes my skin extremely sensitive to UV radiation. So I need to stay out ...
455 views

### Diamond at the core of Jupiter

Arthur C. Clarke, who correctly guessed there would be liquid water on Europa, posited a diamond core for Jupiter. Is this possible?
286 views

### How will increased $\ce{CO2}$ affect forests and other vegetative areas?

Some researchers contend that increases in atmospheric CO2 (e.g., from anthropogenic emissions) will enhance plant growth in general. What is the level of that enhancement? Does the associated ...
30 views

### What is the relative (magnetic) permeability of the Earth? How could it be measured?

I believe, Earth could be approximated by a molten, metallic, non-magnetic sphere, with a molten stony sphere around it. However, As far I know, the magnetic properties of the lava in the crust, in ...
14 views

### TDWR Radar Data Resolution & Dimension

Does anyone know the resolution of the TDWR radar data that is available from NWS. (Ex: https://console.cloud.google.com/storage/browser/gcp-public-data-nexrad-l3/2020/05/05/TEWR/) When I extract the ...
1k views

### How do Rossby Waves in the ocean form?

So on land, I believe that one factor in their formation is due to inhomogeneities in surface heating between land and ocean (and also inhomogeneities in surface heating due to terrain effects like ...
323 views

### What is the area with the largest velocity vertical shear in the ocean?

While there are areas with really strong tidal currents in the ocean, these currents tend to be primarily barotropic. My question relates to the largest vertical difference in velocity and it is ...
2k views

### About meddies: what are they? How do they form? How are they maintained?

A "meddy" is usually described as a Mediterranean Water eddy. While many meddies have been observed in recent years, I would want to know what are the common characteristics of such features (...
1k views

### What is the most important source of natural gas? Coal, oil or other?

By heat and pressure, both coal and oil can produce gas. But what is the most important substance for gas? Is there a relation to the amounts of marine organism (sea life) which died and the amount of ...
92 views

### Are these tropical forests burning in Brazil and elsewhere really rainforests?

I know from many years of personal experience in the Malaysian rainforest (Sarawak, Sabah and Peninsular Malaya) that it is not inflammable. Dayaks and aborigines cultivate small patches of shifting ...
89 views

### Does Earth's rotation cause sea levels to increase from east to west?

Intuitively if the Earth were to rotate fast enough from west to east, the average sea level would be noticeably higher on the west edge of the oceans. Does Earth's rotation cause this effect in ...
7k views

### Why is coal classified as a sedimentary rock?

Something just clicked in my head today. Rocks, by the definition I was taught, are composed of minerals which in turn are by definition not organic, so they are or were not alive. However. Coal, ...
2k views

### Petroleum and coal formation

I was wondering why are coal and petroleum being both fossil fuels are found at different places i.e. coal at land and petroleum at sea.
169 views

### Could diamonds be formed from coal?

Diamonds are predominately formed in cratons and brought to the surface in kimberlite pipes. However, it seems theoretically possible that diamonds could form at either subduction zones or from ...
120 views

### Is there a risk with putting out smouldering underground coal reserves? [closed]

According to this Discovery News video about Centralia Pennsylvania and other underground coal fires, there are many smouldering underground coal reserves making the land above it uninhabitable to ...
121 views

### Is the net amount of CO2 sequestered by trees from the atmosphere simply related to the mass of new growth?

My simplistic model for the carbon cycle was that plants (or trees in particular) photosynthesise and transpire. The former takes up $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ and $\small\mathsf{H_2O}$ and the latter does ...
223 views

### How many joules are required to mine a unit of coal?

Coal is still a major source of energy for generation of electricity. So how much energy is used to extract a unit (tonne/kilogram etc) of coal? And thus what is the efficiency of coal as a source of ...
14k views

### What is the difference between a carbon sink and a carbon reservoir?

I am trying to figure out the difference between a carbon sink and a carbon reservoir. The definition for a carbon sink from Wikipedia is carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that ...
135 views

### Carbon dioxide and ocean acidification based on temperature

For our assignment, we are required to analyse and compare the $\ce{CO2}$ level (in both ocean and air) of two different sites. Theoretically, shouldn't the $\ce{CO2}$ level of a colder region (e.g., ...
71 views

### The effect of CO2 concentration on the pH of the ocean

I'm confused about how increased $\ce{CO2}$ concentration in the atmosphere affects the pH of the ocean. The increase in $\ce{CO2}$ concentration means the pH of the ocean will decrease (by several ...
964 views

### What causes “hydrocarbons” to take the form of petroleum versus natural gas?

"Hydrocarbons" are found in geological formations consisting of strata or layers of rocks. Specifically, they are formed from decomposed organic material (that contains carbon), that bonds with ...
7k views

### Why is the inside of the Earth so hot?

I have heard that the Earth is made up of four layers, being the crust, the mantle, the outer core and the inner core. I have also heard that the Earth's temperature increases as you move from the ...
818 views

### Why is helium only found in wells mixed with natural gas?

Does all commercially available helium come from natural gas wells? Is it theoretically possible to have a pure helium well? Helium is produced by the radioactive decay of primordial uranium and ...
468 views

### Will the Earth's core cool? [duplicate]

I am doing a school project and need to know... Will the Earth's mantle or core ever cool? If so, how? Thank you!
149 views

### At the same speed, is a tornado as dangerous as straight wind?

If we have a place with wind at a given speed, and a tornado at the same speed, are they equally dangerous, or the tornado is more powerful?
224 views

### Where did all the CO₂ come from that was deposited as coal during the Carboniferous?

During the Carboniferous, vast deposits of coal (or peat at that time) were created because – as far as I understand – decomposition of wood (white rot?) was not yet "invented" at that time. This ...
16k views

### What caused the bend in the Emperor/Hawaii chain of islands, 45 million years ago?

What caused the bend in the Emperor/Hawaii chain of islands, 45 million years ago? Has there been any updates to this mystery I am unaware of? Are there any new theories that could potentially ...
48 views

### Has recent drop in airline flights over the US had a measurable warming effect as was found after 9/11?

I recall that after 9/11, when all US flights were canceled, there was a statistically detectable bump in average temperature. Something about jet contrails disappearing for 4 days. Has anything like ...
69 views

### What is real impact of Precision Agriculture? [closed]

I am just wondering what is the real impact of Precision agriculture. I came across Airbus Intelligence and their Earth Observation services (Agriculture, forestry, environment) - It seems nice and ...
33 views

### Derivative of the Unit Vector in Spherical Coordinate system

I have a doubt regarding a step in the derivation of the momentum equation in spherical coordinates. I am referring to the textbook "Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling" by Mark Jacobson, 2nd Edition,...
11k views

### Could the Earth's core lose its heat?

Will all the drilling and digging to use the Earth's natural heat as geothermal energy affect the Earth's core, causing it to cool down? If so, would it result in an ice age? If not, how does the ...
35 views

### Is CO2 in the Pacific Ocean depleted or enriched in Carbon-13 compared to the Atlantic, and why?

Due to thermohaline circulation, the Pacific water is more 'aged' so there is a higher amount of total dissolved inorganic carbon (e.g. CO2) in the deep Pacific when compared to the Atlantic. However, ...
104 views

### Literature on atmospheric modelling

I need to understand some basics about atmospheric modelling, since I am working with data from the COSMO model for my thesis. My questions mainly concern model validation, like learning about the ...
117 views

### How much methane clathrates are buried in continental deposits?

Methane clathrates are solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar ...
435 views

### Release mechanism for methane clathrate at the PETM

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a well-studied warming event near the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. It is characterized by its extreme warming rate: from onset to recovery the event lasted ...
360 views

### How does geothermal heating work?

I have heard that geothermal heating is a way of generating energy from the temperature difference between the inner layers of the Earth and the Earth's crust. How is it possible to extract this ...
78 views

### Geo-Spherical shape of Earth

I know that the best possible approximation of the shape of earth is an oblate sphere. But people also call it as geo-spherical shape of the Earth. What is the meaning of geospherical shape? Does this ...
3k views

### Is earthquake prediction possible?

After the Tohoku and East Coast quakes, I skimmed over several books discussing the validity of earthquake prediction as a discipline, yet found no significant breakthroughs. What should change in our ...
545 views

### What's it like inside a natural gas cavern on Earth?

I suppose natural gas underground caverns on Earth have substantial volume and gas is in gaseous form there. As such I wonder how it would look like inside such cavern (with artificial light of ...
31 views

### Effect on climate of the Earth’s rotation was a week instead of 24 hours

Cross-posted in Worldbuilding. Curious what the affects on daily temperatures and climate would be if the Earth had a slower rotation, say 84 hours of light and 84 hours of darkness. How extreme ...
220 views

### Carbon's role in ocean acidification

This might seem like a basic question, but I'm a little confused about the effects on ocean acidification of different carbon compounds. I have heard that increased levels of carbon dioxide in the ...
128 views

### What is the most optimal latitude on Earth for the generation of extreme maximum temperatures?

First question on this StackExchange, so here goes... Overall, reaching high temperatures is dependent on 2 factors: The (maximum) solar angle in the day. The greater the solar angle, the more ...
44 views

### Is it feasible to 'harvest' the clathrates from the permafrost before they evaporate?

We can see that there are large buildups of methane clathrates in permafrost regions. Climate scientist James Hansen has predicted that the release of the permafrost methane clathrates could cause ...
18 views

### Filtered pressured oxygen 80 miilion years ago

Was dinosaur blood really red? Was the vegitation really green?Can that filter be used today?
71 views

### How do you choose appropriate parameters for a lowpass filter when filtering a Bouguer anomaly?

I am trying to filter my Bouguer anomaly data to remove the short wavelength features. I have created a lowpass filter to achieve this, but I am wondering how I can more objectively choose my cutoff ...
94 views

### Are airliners sensors used to feed weather prediction models?

Weather balloons, as well as specially prepared aircrafts, are used to retrieve several atmosphere parameters at different altitudes that are latter used to feed mathematical models for weather ...
25 views

### Correlation of Global Stratospheric AOD with Global Mean Temperature Anomaly

I'm trying to understand at a high level the relationship of aerosols to the global temperature and I'm new to these concepts. I have Stratoshperic mean global AOD data from: https://data.giss.nasa....
172 views

### where are the poles of rotation of the tectonic plates located?

Euler's "fixed point" theorem ... can be stated as: The most general displacement of a rigid body over the surface of a sphere can be regarded as a rotation about a suitable axis which passes ...