# All Questions

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323 views

### What are monsoons caused by?

Traditionally we think of them as being caused by differences in land-sea heating. But more recently, some researchers, like Simona Bordoni and William Boos, have argued otherwise.
60 views

### Newton's & Kepler's age of the earth calculations - References?

"Everybody knows" that Newton and Kepler calculated the age of the earth. My problem is that, whilst "everybody knows" this, no-one gives a reference that I can read for myself. If, for example, I ...
3k views

### Do dams reduce the flow of river downstream?

There is a conflict between Egypt and Ethiopia, because the latter wants to build a dam on the Nile river. Citing this article: [Egypt] fears the Nile dam will reduce its share of the river and ...
37 views

### Can crystal lattices be analogue? [closed]

This question might turn out to be more about physics then geology so apologies in advance if that is the case. Years ago I read something that said in crystals "atoms have finite positions along the ...
54 views

### If the earth's core is made up of copper/other metals other than iron-nickel alloy, how our magnetosphere will be?

We know that our earth's core is made up of iron-nickel alloy and it is spinning to create magnetic flux all around our planet to create our life-saving Magnetosphere. And this also influences our 9.8 ...
6k views

### How to quickly or easily prove the world is spherical?

A relative of mine has recently introduced me to the modern flat earth theory, which she believes in. Setting aside for the moment that it is ridiculous, and that sending up some balloons with cameras ...
60 views

### Can ionospheric plasma disturbances effect the weather?

I've read about how ionospheric discharges like jets can be initiated/triggered by lightning, and how lightning can propagate upwards from clouds. What I was wondering is if this can happen in ...
100k views

### How high must one be for the curvature of the earth to be visible to the eye?

I would like to ask that at what distance from the Earth's surface the curvature of the Earth is visible. What layer of the atmosphere is this? I've noticed that at the height of 9-12 Km (the view ...
23 views

### Why do wettable sulphur manufacturers say never to use it within 30 days of an oil-based spray? [closed]

And further: 1) what qualifies as an "oil-based spray" and at what amount? 2) does this warning still apply during the rainy season-- when the need for quick cycles of medicines is necessary? (and ...
158 views

### At what latitudes does daytime last exactly 24 hours once in the year?

I assume at the Solstice - a definite latitude would have exactly 24 hours of daylight. What latitudes (North and South) are these - they might vary a little with longitude?
1k views

### Effects of CERN on earth's magnetic field?

CERN is a scientific site developed to create anti matter. Does this have any negative impact on the environment?
31 views

### How large were CFC emissions per year before the Montreal Protocol came into practice?

This article The China CFC dilemma states CFC emissions now might be 67,000 tonnes per year. I tried to look for how large were the emissions of it before the Montreal Protocol but I couldnt find it. ...
53 views

### How can parameters of the ionosphere be calculated?

How can parameters of the ionosphere be calculated? Specifically, how do we calculate total ion density, total ion temperature and individual major ion densities from I-V Characteristics curve of ...
125 views

### Can I see curvature of the Earth on a picture

I've been piloting a drone yesterday and made a video hovering at around 100m, the visibility was very good. I've shown the video to a friend of mine and we were arguing whether it's the curvature of ...
26 views

### Where can I find csv or json data on absolute global average temperature

I am essentially looking for a list of raw datasets without any processing. I can find anomaly datasets, but have had no luck with 100% unprocessed (other than averaging, of course) data. This data is ...
37 views

### Vehicles Emissions

What is the suitable handheld device to measure the CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the tailpipe of cars? and what the steps to convert the emissions that will measure by the handheld device in unit ...
58 views

### At what altitude a ballon is no longer pushed by the wind?

In 1960, NASA launched the "Echo 1A" balloon which had amongst its objectives to test the triangulation principle with satellites. I wonder why we don't have more "ballon" satellites for our GPS ...
63 views

### Could burning all fossile fuels (available on earth) render the atmosphere unbreathable?

What if humanity burns all fossil fuels it can find, putting the negative effects of climate change aside, would the enormous amount of CO2 in the atmosphere eventually make it unbreathable?
117 views

### Why rely on climate models as opposed to paleoclimate data?

Something I hear often from climate scientists, and indeed even politicians, is that we "don't understand climate change very well". And, I'm sure this is true since the climate is a complex adaptive ...
48k views

### Are the processes of the rock cycle currently in dynamic equilibrium?

The standard representation of the rock cycle usually looks like this: Does each stage of the rock cycle currently balance? That is, are the various processes in dynamic equilibrium, so that the ...
5k views

### Are EF6 Tornadoes officially recognized

Are EF6 Tornadoes officially recognized on the fujita scale or not, I have been quite confused on this and I have been very curious about it.
33 views

### What determines the scale of columnar jointing?

What physical parameters determine the scale of columnar jointing? What makes the columns thinner or thicker? What makes them taller or shorter? What causes the variation in a given site? What ...
143 views

### I'm still confused about what “probability of precipitation” means

I'm trying to understand what weather forecasts mean more precisely. As I understand it from reading Wikipedia, blogs, etc., the percentage value for rain/precipitation that you see in a forecast is ...
26 views

### What data of agricultural yield to use for India?

I am trying to understand the role of various meteorological factors on agricultural yield over India. Is there a dataset available directly or an indirect proxy of agricultural data, maybe satellite, ...
86 views

### What is this? Found near a lake in Texas. Broken open it's smooth and shiny [closed]

Looks like stacked checkers with ridges.
62 views

### Why is reverse osmosis desalination the dominant method used and not heat-based methods? Also why is brine being dumped back into the ocean? [closed]

So I was recently watching this video regarding desalination efforts around the world and the viability of desalination as a means to provide humans with freshwater. I had a few questions: 1 - They ...
19 views

### How to infer local precipitation from reanalysis data?

Let's say I'm extracting precipitation from a single pixel or region from a reanalysis (MERRA-2, ERA-5, Interim) dataset. I can infer a distribution for the daily data (Gamma, Pearson-III, e.g. link),...
41 views

### Topex/Poseidon satellite data reading and extracting

I'm trying to figure out how to read and extract Topex/Poseidon satelite altimeter data from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC). Link to product: https://podaac.jpl....
30 views

### why isotherms are skwed to 45 degree in tephigram?

I have studied about tephigram. In all the books, it has written that isotherms and dry adiabats are skewed to certain degrees. But practically I could not connect it. how is it possible that constant ...
63 views

### What's really happening with “stormquakes”?

The PBS Newshour article Scientists discover big storms can create ‘stormquakes’ says: A stormquake is more an oddity than something that can hurt you, because no one is standing on the sea floor ...
5k views

### How are hillsides farmed?

I would assume hilly land is more labor-intensive to farm than flat land, and more exhausting to humans and animals if traditional farming techniques are used. How do farmers plant and plow on ...
75 views

### How is land subsidence measured?

When groundwater is pumped out of the ground by wells, and not replenished fast enough, the groundwater level sinks. With it, the surface of the area sinks also. Locally, this effect is not apparent,...
177 views

### How does multiple layer seismic reflection work? How do we distinguish arrivals from different layers and their velocities?

Whenever we are investigating multiple layer interfaces in a seismic reflection survey the root-mean-squared velocity is often employed to deduce travel time to a certain n-th layer and also to deduce ...
585 views

### Analytical solution for seismic wavefield in MATLAB

I have been trying to evaluate the analytical solution for a wave travelling in a homogeneous, infinite media. For a given source $S(t)$, the wave-field can be calculated at a distance $r$, for a ...
71 views

### Why do wind speeds often jump from 20 knots to 40 knots

Looking at the BBC weather forecasts I've often noticed that strong winds will often be over 40 knots (for the UK at least). Most of the time (nearly always) the wind will jump from 18-22 knots to ...
879 views

### Does the magnetic field really protect Earth from anything?

Many topics discussed here in Earth Science SE, tend to be about facts that are of consensus in the scientific community but not widely accepted by the general public. Instead, this one is widely ...
44 views

### How do fold mountains form?

I know mountains form due to the collision of tectonic plates. But how does such a slow collision have such great impact as to create huge mountains. Is there any intuitive explanation for this?
47 views

### Thunderstorms vs Thundershowers

What is the difference when the weather report says thunderstorms vs when it says thundershowers and the picture is still the same?
97 views

### Could this cloud be artificially formed?

This photo was taken at 3000 m above sea level in an open field, during the day.
4k views

### Why are weather service atmospheric pressures systematically different from those I measure in Johannesburg?

I live in the northern suburbs of Johannesburg in South Africa. I have noticed while working with synoptic weather charts in geography class that the isobars indicate that Johannesburg should have ...
131 views

### How Could Sheep Graze these Steep Hillsides Without Leaving any Marks?

Here are two images of English hill figures (The Cerne Abbas giant and the Uffington white horse): These hillsides, which are obviously grazed by sheep, show tracks that form numerous contour lines ...
25 views

### Can any natural process explain this rate of CO2 increase? [duplicate]

Can any natural process explain this rate of CO2 increase? [![1000 years of CO2][1]][1] [1]: https://i.stack.imgur.com/MO0mK.png The prior similar question used different data as its basis. This ...
59 views

### Clouds altitude

I'm amateur photographer and professional programmer and I'm trying to create an application to predict exceptionally beautiful sunsets (something like https://www.flickr.com/photos/photogtom43/...
665 views

### Why high tides occur simultaneously on opposite sides of the Earth?

From this question, this picture: As tides are mostly (2/3) due to gravity pull from the moon, I'd expect water is pulled in the direction of the moon, and high tide occurs only on the side ...
5k views

### How does Antarctica stay frozen?

Antarctica receives heat from the Sun every day, so how does it stay frozen? I have some thoughts about the answer but I'm unsure of whether it is correct; I hope people here can clarify. My idea: ...
17 views

### Average # of days with thunderstorms

What is the average number of days with thunderstorms for each month in Waynesville, North Carolina
119 views

### How did these grassy hillsides in Colombia become terraced?

In Colombia, many grassy hillsides are terraced, like in the photo below. This terracing also occurs on hillsides that never had these palm trees on them. I assume that it also occurs outside of ...
94 views

### Loop in the continental divide

Various maps of the Continental Divide (the hydrological feature, not the trail) contain a loop that looks like this: What is the hydrologic meaning of the loop in Wyoming? Even if it's a basin, ...