# All Questions

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4 views

### Plotting ERA5 U/V Wind Data Using Python

Hello Earth Science Community, I am a beginner Python programmer trying to plot a single time step of 10m surface wind data I grabbed from the ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis single level dataset in Python 3.8....
26 views

### Limestone formation

I live in Kingston, Ontario (The Limestone City). I have always been fascinated by the different thicknesses of strata in the exposed formations. I am wondering if there is any quick and fast rule of ...
155 views
+100

### Considering the thin piece of material on the surface of Mars in the image below, is there anything like it on Earth?

The above is a magnified part of the original image below captured by the Curiosity rover on Mars on sol 1729 (June 17, 2017). From the added information with that raw image it can be estimated that ...
37 views

### What geological structure is this & how is it identified?

What is this geological structure?
147 views

### Can anyone explain the REAL reason why CO$_2$ increases global temperatures (not the simplistic greenhouse analogy provided for public consumption)?

The greenhouse effect analogy of global warming is that atmospheric carbon dioxide CO$_2$ absorbs some of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth, and redirects a portion of that radiation back ...
24 views

### What is the global warming potential (GWP) of any gas over a 1 day time frame?

Since in 100 years, the global warming potential (GWP) of methane is 28-36, what will be the GWP in 1 day time frame? Can it be calculated that way?
54 views

### What is “sheltered site” (as opposed to “exposed site”)?

What is "sheltered site" (as opposed to "exposed site")? It's used in context of location of trees in bumpy ground areas and weather damage.
9k views

### Is climate change a vicious circle?

My question refers to the current process of climate change. CO2 is rising, which leads to the greenhouse effect, which raises temperatures. This leads to more wildfires, which reduces number of trees,...
58 views

### Climate change: Human vs Natural [duplicate]

The planet has been warming for thousands of years. Human activity has accelerated the warming, but by how much? At some point in the future, without human intervention, the climate will have ...
69 views

### Global areas below sea level dataset?

Anyone know of an existing dataset of areas below sea level? Vector extents would be ideal. Doesn't need to be super detailed for my purposes, but it would be good if it included all areas (e.g. over-...
35 views

### Creating a drought metric using precipitation data?

I'm currently working on a project in which I need to create a metric to quantify drought. For the state of Pennsylvania, I have daily precipitation data from many NOAA precipitation gauges (inches of ...
96 views

### Trees: What does “highly tapering stem” mean?

Trees: What does "highly tapering stem" mean? Taper is a function measuring steepness of change in crown diameter when height increases upwards. But "highly tapering" (sometimes also "high-degree of ...
10 views

### SH-waves and multiples

I study near-surface environments with seismic reflection methods - particularly those that analyze the SH-component of the elastic wavefield. The only source I've found that mentions multiples ...
79 views

### Temperate Rainforests

I have heard that the Appalachian Mountains is qualified as a temperate rainforest. What qualifies a temperate rainforest and what makes the Appalachian Mountains a temperate rainforest?
11 views

### Temperature at 2 m MERRA2

I need MERRA2 data with Temperature at 2m. I'm checking on https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/FTPSubset2.pl but I can't find this variable. Suggestions where I can find them? Or anyone that did ...
98 views

### When sediments are deposited, do they sink into the earth?

I was listening to a geology podcast describing how sedimentary rock forms and later turns into metamorphic rock. As a river lays down sediment, the lower layers can eventually be several kilometers ...
123 views

### How Can Adjacent Parts of an Oceanic Plate be Subducted in Different Directions?

It is claimed by some that the reason for gaps in chains of volcanoes generated by plate subduction is that some parts of the plate dive deep into the mantle and generate magma plumes, while other ...
55 views

### Why is the level of UVA radiations on the earth surface the same throughout the day, while the level of UVB significantly varies?

I read on https://www.uexpress.com/ask-the-doctors/2018/1/17/no-matter-the-time-of-day UVA maintains the same intensity all day, which makes dawn-to-dusk sunscreen use important Whereas on ...
69 views

### Why do (some) silicic bodies behave effusively instead behaving explosively as in common?

We encounter dacitic/rhyolitic melts generally in explosive volcanic events. But some of them behave as effusive dome flow. Why do some silicic bodies behave effusively?
318 views

### Why are most effects of the predicted climate change negative?

Most of the commonly mentioned effects of the ongoing and predicted climate change are negative: more extreme weather effects, more destructive weather, more diseases, rapid extinctions, etc. Why is ...
161 views

### The Medieval Climatic Anomaly

Trying to understand this question, posted to me by a lecturer at University: "The Medieval Climatic Anomaly was distinctive in terms of the prevailing climates and forcing mechanisms operating ...
183 views

### Does clearing snow contribute to climate change?

I've been reflecting on climate change and pondering how much of it is truly man-made. Anyone who's shoveled a walkway know that the snow melts faster beside the walkway than it does in the middle of ...
108 views

### Conditions of Thunderstorms

Why do some heavy rainstorms and hailstorms not produce any lightning or thunder at all when I thought that these conditions of heavy rain and hail are right to bring lightning and thunder but don’t ...
66 views

### Community change along urban rural gradient

I was wondering whether someone has an idea about how to investigate community changes of plants/animals along an urban-rural gradient? I have a large data set consisting of plant/animal abundance and ...
70 views

### Can an aurora australis be bright enough to illuminate someone's face?

If two people are standing next to each other during a polar night, and the brightest possible aurora is occurring overhead, could one person see the other person's face clearly?
55 views

### Puddingstone info sign for Trail Store

I run a Trail Store (sell hiking maps, swag, etc) in Mahwah, NJ, USA. I'm trying to feature a plant and rock every season. The first rock chosen is puddingstone. I created the short sign below, ...
306 views

### If planting trees is ineffective to tackle climate change, why do people plant them?

I've read answers that outline how if we afforested large (continental-scale) masses of land, it would do little in the way of tackling climate change. While it would sequester $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ ...
78 views

### What is the heating effect of 1 ppm of a gas? [closed]

Is there a procedure in calculating the heating effect of 1 particle per million of a greenhouse gas?
96 views

### Can aerostats be used for fine-grained control of the weather

Most of the discussed geoengineering ideas aim to change the average temperature of the earth instead of trying to control local weather. Aerostats can be used to change the local temperature in ...
4k views

### How do rivers last so long in dry weather?

I got caught in a downpour while climbing a mountain and was amazed to see, as I climbed down, the tiny trickles of water combine to form mini-streams, the dry rocks I had climbed up now hosted ...
56 views

### High-resolution georeferenced population data [closed]

Can anyone recommend a good source for high-resolution georeferenced population data? I know that Natural Earth Data's Cultural Vectors e.g. contain the population per country. However, I am looking ...
64 views

### Difference between soil Water Holding Capacity and soil pore volume?

I have got confused I took 100g soil in a funnel with filter paper. poured 100 ml water and collected the drained water in a calibrated cylinder. Water added in funnel = 100 ml Water collected in ...
53 views

### Time for water vapor to generate more greenhouse effect than latent heat?

I have an argument with a climate change denier. He says the raise of water vapor in atmosphere causes a "much larger" cooling effet by taking vaporisation heat from the ground than the heat ...
321 views

### What are these underwater structures near 6°N 85°55'W

While google earth-researching the sea floor near Malpelo and Cocos Islands (Colombian and Costa Rican Pacific Ocean), I came along these strangely geometrical structures in the sea floor, located ...
44 views

### I need help identifying this rock/mineral [closed]

![enter image description here]I found this in a riverbed in Royal, Arkansas(https://i.stack.imgur.com/FBASn.jpg)
9k views

### Global warming - why doesn´t mankind collect heat (thermal energy) and turn it into electricity or send it to space?

Why doesnt mankind "collect" thermal energy (there has to be some way: thermal couplings, detour over chemical energy, whatever) and after it has been concentrated at one point, turn it to electrical ...
49 views

### How do you compare Methane Ppm and carbon(iv) oxide [closed]

How do you compare Methane PPM and Carbon (iv) oxide? Should not they be calculated the same way? What is the CO2 equivalent calculation? Is there a way to compare the CO2 and Methane emissions?
82 views

### What creates so much pollution in Africa?

Using AirVisual app I notice there is a huge patch of pollution in Africa. I cannot imagine there is a big economic activity to support that huge pollution across almost the whole continent. What ...
90 views

### 5G interference with weather observation, a thing already?

The scientific community expressed concern that global 5G would potentially threaten weather forecasts by scrambling frequencies in the microwave spectrum used for water vapor, atmospheric temperature ...
114 views

### Could we control the weather with a disk in space?

There is recorded evidence from solar eclipses that the moon's shadow has a detectable weather effect. If we placed a disk in space we could project a cold spot onto the planet and control it's ...
45 views

### Why is mass fraction always abbreviated wt% and not ma%?

In most geology papers, major elements chemical analyses are expressed as mass fraction of oxides, i.e. SiO$_2$ 64.2 wt%, K$_2$O 4.3 wt%, etc. The mass fraction unit is always abbreviated as "wt%". ...
44 views

### What is the reason for this high outdoor VOC level with strange pattern of slow rise and sudden falling?

I have an Atmotube Pro air quality sensor placed outside in a cup with a large bowl placed over the top of it to protect it from the wind and any rain but to allow air to filter through easily. I'm ...
154 views

### Will Venus eventually overheat? When it happens, what will happen to it exactly?

Venus is a runaway greenhouse planet, so it won't let any of the heat absorbed from the Sun out by radiation, yet it will still take rays of energy from the Sun. So what will happen to Venus? Will it ...
203 views

### Could burning all fossil fuels (available on earth) render the atmosphere unbreathable?

What if humanity burns all fossil fuels it can find? Putting the negative effects of climate change aside, would the enormous amount of $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ in the atmosphere eventually make it ...
171 views

### Could pumping ocean water into desert areas help reduce sea level rise?

I have been reading the discussion about pumping sea water into the desert for purposes of irrigation and changing the dry climate of that area, but what about to just purely offset the rising sea ...
493 views

### Estimate cloudbase height

I am trying to estimate cloudbase height using calculations from my weather station temperature/humidity, by calculating those two variables I can get estimated cloudbase height but what puzzles me ...
246 views

### How did this rock dome (pictured) form?

I saw this rock formation near Hveravellir, Iceland. It is probably of volcanic origin and looks like a dome. It is nearly symmetric and appears to consist of hardened lava maybe, with several very ...
248 views

### How do you stop the Australian wildfires?

The Australian fires are the biggest anyone has ever seen and is increasing at a rapid rate causing smog all around the country, approximately 1 billion animals have lost their lives, as of 9 January ...