# All Questions

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2k views

### Why do Tsunamis travel slower than sound?

Tsunamis, in the deep ocean, travel at around 800 kilometers per hour. The speed of sound under water is about 5300 kilometers per hour. Both of these waves are pressure waves, operating in the ...
39 views

### Is there a modelling of Wave Rock (Hyden Rock) formation?

I'm interested in the visualization of the formation process of "strange" objects like Wave Rock (flared slope). I've found articles describing hypotheses of the rock formation but I cannot ...
10 views

Alert, in Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, is northernmost permanently inhabited place in world. The site was first visited by Sir George Nares, who commanded HMS Alert in 1875-76, the first ...
70 views

### Are weather changes periodic? (Do the same weather patterns repeat over years?) (Cycles) (Journal paper suggestion)

I am wondering if there is long term (10 year, 7 year, 20 year) periodic patterns Similar to short term seasonal and periodic patterns in weather such as sea/land wind, monsoon, ENSO, ocean sea-saw, ...
26 views

### Weather measurements of how long ago affects the amount of rainfall? (Which lags of temperature, precipitation, windspeed, radiation. humidity. )

I am trying to predict the amount of rainfall using weather measurements (temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, surface radiation). For long term, midterm, and short term predictions, ...
177 views

### Could we sequester CO$_2$ by dumping forests in deep oceans?

We know that trees are the most efficient "tool" we have to get CO$_2$ out of the air, but the problem is that most of their fixated CO$_2$ will naturally reenter the carbon cycle through ...
17 views

### Why would a rincon provide more reliable water?

I am reading a book that argues that the Ancestral Puebloans settled along the rincons, or nooks, along the canyon walls, because that was where water was reliable. I can't understand the argument, as ...
14 views

### What are the most important climatic measurements to predict streamflow and water for short term, midterm and long term prediction?

From the measured values below, which ones are the most important factors that affect the amount of streamflow? (For short, mid, and long term) Which ones are more important? (Can give me some ...
134 views

### Why do clouds have ceilings and bases?

What is the point called when water can not rise above or visually seem to have a ceiling in the atmosphere? What makes that point ideal?
40 views

### Will increased level of ocean acidity lead to more frequent acid rain?

Will increased level of ocean acidity lead to more frequent acid rain? I searched on google and it says acid rain will have minor impact on ocean acidity, but I am not sure if increased ocean acidity ...
33 views

### Direct and Diffused component of shortwave radiation in ERA5 data

I am following the paper to calculate UTCI using ERA5 meteorological variables. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00484-020-01900-5?shared-article-renderer In the paper, the authors have ...
4k views

### Should I worry about copper pipe outside attracting lightning strikes?

I used some copper pipe outside to string some decorative lights up higher in my yard. I used the copper because I thought it would be pretty and patina nice. Then I remembered that copper is a good ...
62 views

### In meteorology, are satellite data “better” than reanalysis data?

More specifically, can it be argued that satellite data are more reliable because they are direct measurements of physical quantities, while reanalysis data depend on the processing and merging of ...
102 views

### How does the act of producing animal feed from the leftovers of a process result in a negative carbon footprint? [closed]

According to this source, it is claimed that (emphasis is mine) At Arbikie Distillery in Angus, scientists claim to have developed the world's first "climate positive" gin. By using garden ...
29 views

### Gamma vs Pearson distribution for Standardized Precipitation Index

What is the difference between Pearson and Gamma distribution and the impact of using one of these in the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)? Thank you!
46 views

### How does uplift lead to onlapping?

I read in a paper that: Interpretation of 2-D seismic lines shows the lower to middle Patchawarra Formation onlapping onto paleostructural highs at approximately 270 Ma and again at 273 Ma, ...
4k views

### How much rain falls on the Earth each year?

In this resource, it says that the average amount of precipitation falling on the Earth per year is approximately 100 cm. Integrated across the surface of the Earth, that yields approximately 5.1 × ...
116 views

### Does a geomagnetic storm visibly deflect a compass?

Reading Solar Storms Could Confuse Whales and Cause Mass Strandings and the linked open access paper in Current Biology Gray whales strand more often on days with increased levels of atmospheric radio-...
67 views

### Relation between molecular mass and retention of a gas on a planet

An Introduction to Our Dynamic Planet under section 2.4 "The origins of the atmosphere and hydrosphere"(Page 80) says on the topic of gases escaping from our atmosphere as: Different gases ...
50 views

### Phosphate in the oceans, does it tend to bond with sodium?

Phosphate has a major role in biology and the biosphere. In its "abiotic" form, floating around in the oceans, lets say marine oceans to be specific, does it tend to be in the Na3PO4 form? ...
153 views

### Why are these patterns of scattered sunlight aligned to the local horizontal and vertical directions?

The information discussed in the CleanTechnica article Full Fledged 5 Alarm Climate Emergency In Antarctica is certainly disconcerting, but the stock photo of the sky and various atmospheric phenomena ...
93 views

### Is Earth's atmosphere 1600 km thick?

Some textbooks say that atmosphere extends up to 1600 km, but exosphere is more than 9000 km thick. Where is the mistake?
16k views

### What was the first rock in the rock cycle?

I am an undergraduate student but I am a tutor at a High School, and one student asked me. Attempting to explain the rock cycle "if one rock turns into the other then which came first" my gut is ...
171 views

### Could dust blown up by a comet impact render the air unbreathable?

In the docudrama Super Comet After the Impact, the impact is shown to have made the air within a few miles of it unbreathable, and humans need gas masks to breath in this area. How realistic is this? ...
77 views

### What are the latest developments about global stilling?

I recently learn about "global stilling", i.e. the fact that surface wind speed tends to decrease since the 80s. It was in this article, but it's from 2010. The Wikipedia page also seems a ...
50 views

### How many mole of oxygen gas is there in the atmosphere?

At standard conditions, one liter of air, 0.21 L of oxygen gas, contains 0.0094 moles of $\rm O_2$. What is the total quantity of oxygen gas molecules in the atmosphere?
45 views

### The seemingly impossible formation time for the local sea arches and caves

I live in Hong Kong. As a nature lover, I often spend time visiting the south-eastern coasts of Sai Kung Peninsular - a local nature reserve. The area's famous feature is the coastal erosion landscape....
62 views

### What CRS does GFS use?

I'm trying to reproject GRIB data from NOAA forecasts onto other data using Python and the pygrib and proj packages (among many others). What is the proper Proj string for GFS GRIBs? The projection ...
41 views

### Any open source sub-daily weather data other than Jena?

I am looking for observed sub-daily weather data (as 1d time series) which must include temperature, humidity, solar radiation and wind speed for a any location on earth. Currently I am aware of Jena ...
64 views

### How can methylmercury in the ocean be reabsorbed into the atmosphere?

The Sacramento Bee news article Toxic fog may be poisoning some of California’s mountain lions, study says says Algae in the ocean convert mercury to methylmercury, its most toxic form, which can ...
4k views

### Continuous lightning for over an hour; is this phenomenon common and does it have a name?

A few months ago, I witnessed something off the coast of Florida that I have never seen in my life. From my apartment, from about 10PM - 12AM, I saw pretty much continuous cloud to cloud lightning. I ...
33 views

### Why does the angle get doubled in Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria? [duplicate]

In Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria, the angle between the normal stress and the fracture plane is as twice as the real angle between the normal stress and the fracture plane, can anyone explain in ...
73 views

### Why are there both climate regions from axial tilt and weather cells?

So Earth has an axial tilt and that creates weather regions. For example, approximately 23 degrees north and south, approximately the same as the planets axial tilt, will give you the tropics. This ...
1k views

### Are we going to enter a mini ice age by 2030?

According to this article, a mini ice age could hit Earth by 2030 Mini Ice Age could hit Earth by 2030 and according to this video NASA admits mini ice age coming faster than anticipated. ...
20 views

### Is there a site where I could get a high resolution global annual temperature map?

I'm exploring different places on the countryside and would like to compare their different annual temperatures. The options that I've seen are either too coarse (NASA, NOAA, arcgis (free online ...
80 views

### Can we separate a sandy, clayey & salt layer on basis of their rheological properties?

Since, given enough compaction, salt is able to behave like a fluid & buoyant too if it's overlain by a higher density rock (it could be fine grained clay or a sandy sequence). But in another case,...
40 views

### More iron = Less remanent magnetic field

I am aware that iron is a magnetic mineral and through the process of thermoremanent magnetization it can store a record to the state of magnetization it formed in. I wanted to ask if there are any ...
286 views

### Why doesn't the Earth's outer core dissolve into the mantle?

It is well accepted that the outer core is made out of liquid iron and nickel, and as everything else it should tend to reach chemical equilibrium with its surrounding. In particular, I would expect ...
91 views

### Understanding the color coding of a weather map

I came across an infrared weather map like this I couldn't find any legend on the colorbar's color convention. Initially, I thought that might be the color for reflected light's wavelength, but there ...
480 views

### How do the different densities of the oceanic and continental crust affect earth's outer shape?

I am currently reading a textbook and I am slightly confused at a paragraph that deals with some general facts about earth's outer shape. It mentions that the density of the continental crust is ...
30 views

### Books / resources on measurement methods in atmospheric sciences

I have found this very long book from weather.gov (free access) Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation which might be a bit too in-depth for what I'm looking for, so I was ...
118 views

### What kind of soil is being worked in this video? [closed]

I have recently stumbled across this video on Youtube, where quite a magnificient building is carved into the soil with simple tools like a shovel and hoe. The location is somewhere in South America, ...
58 views

### Does the relative abundance of radioactive isotopes reflect their half-lives?

In Radiometric Dating: A Christian Perspective, the author argues (persuasively, I think) in favor of the mainstream interpretation of radiometric dating (as opposed to the claims of young earth ...
6k views

### Lanes of flat ocean surface in coastal waters

When the ocean is still, i.e. there aren't waves that disturb the surface, you often see "lanes" of water that seem flat as opposed to areas where the wind causes ripples. What causes this?
90 views

### How much of the petroleum ever formed has made it into reservoire rocks?

I am aware that it's a bit general a question, and petroleum geology (or petrology ;-)) has never been a field of interest to me. A superficial search using related keywords brings up only economic ...
5k views

### What is the loudest thunder ever recorded (dB) at ground level and where did it occur?

Sound travels fastest through warm air and conditions such as temperature inversions can help to amplify the sound of thunder (source). Conversely, during a thundersnow event the falling, and ...
62 views

### Why don't they use balloons in ocean as battery? [closed]

We need more batteries, to store renewable. But why don't they just pull down big balloons in the ocean and let them go up when they need the power?
70 views

### Doesn't increased human activity add to heating the atmosphere directly?

My question relates to the fact that 1- the human population is continually increasing, and 2- everybody is constantly 'doing more stuff' (or causing more to be done). So doesn't 'more people doing ...