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Sunspot Cycle 25 and 26 Sunspot Cycles: Will this be a deepening of a Sunspot Minimum comparable to the Dalton Minimum in the early 1800s?

Based on 8 predictions from various organizations including NASA, NOAA and the Chinese Space Agency, it appears that Sunspot Cycle Peak #25 will not be as prodigious like the previous group of ...
155 views

What caused peak CO2 to rise, starting about 400,000 years ago?

This question assumes the accuracy of this (and similar) charts. Source of image. From the image, CO2 peaked at about 260, perhaps 265 ppm during the interglacial periods between 800,000 years ago ...
297 views

What is the global distribution of oil filled geodes?

In a general 40 mile radius of Keokuk, Iowa many sedimentary geodes can be found. They are abundant in the Warsaw Formation with the type section at Geode Glenn in Warsaw, Illinois. In one specific ...
48 views

What is this (possible) fossil from the triassic/jurassic boundary?

My son recently found this: while walking at Waterloo Bay in Northern Ireland. It looks (to my untrained eye) like it could be a plant fossil. Is this correct? If so, is it possible to tell anything ...
88 views

Does the geothermal activity influence the climate in Iceland?

Iceland has a much more temperate climate than its latitude (~65 degrees) would suggest, thanks to the North Atlantic Current bringing relatively warm water/air so far up north. There is a lot of ...
726 views

What is the CO2 concentration by altitude and why?

Here is a measurement of CO2 concentration by altitude measured by aircraft:(from Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption) Is this the usual vertical structure of CO2? ...
14 views

What is the origin of cleating in coal?

Why do some coals show cleating and some not? Is cleating in coal related to coal's plant source or depositional process or post depositional processes?
28 views

If there is snow on the ground in the fall season, at a location 50 km away north of a warmer body of water to the south and that location is receiving fog, what is causing the fog that is occurring ...
459 views

What periods of the fossil record are most lacking in specimens?

What parts of the fossil record are most lacking in specimens? That is, if you were to trace the evolution of a modern mammal (humans, for example) from abiogenesis to now, which periods are the most ...
32 views

Can someone identify this rock my son found for me? [closed]

My son found this rock on a beach it is white and has shiny / sparkly patches in it.
48 views

Commonality of body parts in species [closed]

When one follows the path of evolution of complex life over 500 million years in the Phanerozoic Eon, common body parts begin to appear from the Cambrian and other periods all the way through to the ...
135 views

Is it possible to create clouds by pumping water into volcanoes?

Suddenly, there is this idea in my mind that if an important effect of global warming is rainfall reduction and drought, is it possible to use volcanoes as water vaporizers (regardless of costs)?
538 views

When was the first not-icy desert formed?

For how long have deserts existed and which one would be the first to be created? I'm talking about arid, dry deserts, not the Antarctic or Arctic or any other icy deserts.
472 views

Why do some earthquakes and volcanoes occur within plates?

I know that volcanoes and earthquakes occur on plate margins. But, do some of them also occur within plates?
118 views

Could Rumblings From Plutons be as Ominous as Rumblings From Volcanoes?

Mount Kinabalu in North Borneo is a 10 million year old pluton. A pluton is a magma plume from the mantle which was not able to reach the surface and erupt as a volcano, but solidified underground and ...
112 views

Formation of Iceland

Iceland sits atop a divergent ocean-ocean boundary. But there are not many islands which are formed along a divergent boundary. Why is it so? Why do not mid ocean ridges often rise above the sea ...
54 views

How to open old GOES-1 satellite image files downloaded from NOAA CLASS

This is the first time I have ordered satellite imagery via the NOAA CLASS system using the shopping cart, so I am a complete novice. I have requested and downloaded old GOES-1 images from May 1979, ...
207 views

What kind of rock is this being eaten by a rock-eating worm?

The New York Times article This Creature Eats Stone. Sand Comes Out the Other End. describes the shipworm Lithoredo abatanica, an organism that appears to "eat solid rock". It links to the item in ...
23 views

Does Climate Data Store provide daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data?

I have been meaning to download the daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data from the Copernicus Climate Data Store, but couldn't find it. I need the data on pressure levels and currently I am ...
24 views

Why don't we fly all the way to the back of the plane when it's moving/accelerating? [closed]

This may seem like a stupid question coming from a stupid person, because that's exactly what it is. when flying in a commercial airplane moving at fast speed in high altitude, Why don't all people ...
47 views

What rock is this?. Found it in Sedona, Arizona in a stream [closed]

![enter image description here] This rock is dark gray on the outside and light red in the inside of the holes. This rock weighs 80 grams and is 17 cm in length. There were multiple rocks of all sizes,...
58 views

How to check the recurrence intervall of heavy rain events

Heavy rain or flood events have recurrence intervalls. I.e. 100 year, 50 year or 25 year events. However, with increasing data and global warming and other factors these intervalls change. How can I ...
98 views

Why is the ice on a frozen lake sometimes cracked?

The YouTube video Skating Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake - BBC News shows a very heavily cracked lake. It doesn't just appear to be a fault line. It appears to be an actual crack that started ...
47 views

How to solve libnetcdf.so.12: cannot open shared object file in pyferret?

My pyferret was working perfectly until I had installed netCDF4 and now it is throwing up this error ...
114 views

How large is the area covered by coordinates XX°YY'ZZ“N/XX°YY'ZZ”E?

As stated in the title, I wonder how large the area covered by certain coordinates actually is, when they have the accuracy XX°YY'ZZ", for example: ...
27 views

What's the origin of particulate matter (pm10, pm2 5) [closed]

I would like to ask about origin and inventor of particulate matter pm10, pm2.5. Who published and defined this formulas and when. Thanks in advance!
86 views

Large Igneous Provinces are like Lunar Mare?

Would Large Igneous Provinces like the Deccan Traps have looked like ancient lunar Mare from space? Glowing lava oceans shinning in the night? Are these two things similar in nature? Would smoke from ...
16 views

Extracting point data from ERA5 CDS API

I have been extracting ERA5 data through the Web API. Now I am shifting to CDS API. In the web API I used the below code to download time series data at a particular lat/lon. In the CDS API, I can't ...
126 views
+100

Does Xenon really covalently bond to oxygen within quartz?

Wikipedia's Xenon; occurrence and production says Within the Solar System, the nucleon fraction of xenon is $1.56 \times 10^{-8}$, for an abundance of approximately one part in 630 thousand of the ...
25 views

I am working on a small creek in Colorado using historical imagery via Google earth. I want to know if the imagery date at the bottom of each image on google earth is the date the google acquired the ...
46 views

Weather Forecast [closed]

I am working on an experimental weather station that has a minimal set of sensors: GPS (which gives me the location, date and time); Thermometer (which gives me the air temperature); Barometer (which ...
102 views

How do I start with Modular Ocean Model version 6 i.e. MOM6 on my ubuntu linux machine?

I am learning ocean modelling and have started with MOM6. I needed guidance on where to start from and how to run the model on my local machine (Ubuntu) to perform various tasks such as regridding or ...
89 views

History of the Arctic Ocean

Much of the Arctic Ocean is fairly shallow compared to other oceans. There must have been times in the past during severe ice ages that a lot of what is now the ocean bed was above sea level. When was ...
71 views

Where to get temperature sounding model forecast data?

I want to know the current lapse rate for a given point in the US. In other words, I want "live" temperature data at various altitudes. Live is flexible -- I'm generally OK with a forecast which is ...
736 views

'River-effect' snow

Earlier this year 'river-effect' snow was reported in the Quad Cities (Western Illinois) along the Mississippi River. Per the local news report: According to Andy Ervin, a Meteorologist with the ...
44 views

The IPCC claims that the reflected radiation from incresaed CO2 heats the Earth at a rate of 5 W m-2. How did the contributing researchers came out with that result?
1k views

Why are CO2 sensors so expensive when CO sensors aren't?

Please excuse me if Earth Science is not the correct place to ask this question. I read a New York Times article about increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere: "Carbon in Atmosphere Is Rising, Even ...
4k views

How do oases form in the middle of the desert?

I am wondering if there are any theories about the formation of oases, and I am also curious about why an oasis can even last for a very long period of time. I have heard that fresh water exists on ...
531 views

Are the cores of every mountain range igneous?

Every volcano is a mountain, but not every mountain is a volcano. Still, it strikes me that--at least for the mountain ranges I can think of in this moment--they all seem to have igneous cores. Is ...
57 views

Conditions of Thunderstorms

Why do some heavy rainstorms and hailstorms not produce any lightning or thunder at all when I thought that these conditions of heavy rain and hail are right to bring lightning and thunder but don’t ...
61 views

Sandstone Layer Question

I have been exploring the sandstone of southern Utah for many years and I have a question about the area around Sidestep Canyon (near Wahweap, near Page, AZ). There are many amazing hoodoos there and ...
152 views

How can the Simpson Desert be the largest sand dune desert in the world?

In the Wikipedia article for the Simpsons Desert in Australia in the first paragraph it says: It is the fourth-largest Australian desert, with an area of 176,500 km2 (68,100 sq mi) and is the world'...
149 views

Are sand deserts the greatest natural convection heaters on Earth?

Ask any climate scientist the question: "Why are deserts so hot in the day time and so cold at night" and generally you will get the same answer, it’s all about the lack of moisture and latent heat ...
68 views

Result of floating-iron-balls in the mid-pacific?

I had an idea to make green islands from mid-pacific plastic: Release a million tons of floating iron balls there, which will stay in the same regions as the plastic and hopefully cause a veritable ...
16 views

Help me to calculate Critical Success Index (CSI) to compare two datasets for selected drought years

I want to compare the performance of ERA5 precipitation data against my reference data for its performance in detecting drought using SPI method.Drought is defined when SPI value is =<-1. I want to ...
3k views

How did Earth's plate tectonics start?

Plate tectonics is a theory which describes Earth's lithosphere as being composed of distinct plates which are able to move atop of the underlying asthenosphere. At plate boundaries, this movement ...
112 views

Is it possible to get trapped in a circle of water in a rip current?

According to the YouTube video Rip Currents: How to Survive the Deadliest Ocean's Trick, a rip current occurs when there are two circles of water spinning close to shore in opposite directions such ...
81 views

Are Indonesian 2018 earthquakes related?

Indonesia had multiple major earthquakes this year A series of earthquakes in Lombok between July and August, including a 7.0 mainshock The 7.5 earthquake + tsunami in Sulawesi, September 2018 A 6.0 ...