All Questions

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
9
votes
1answer
346 views

How does the composition of volcanic rock change as it makes its ascent towards the surface?

A schematic for the fluid mechanics of a volcano is represented below. Graciously borrowed from Figure 1 of the reference cited below From the caption of that figure: During explosive eruptions, ...
9
votes
2answers
340 views

What is the reasoning behind the statement “Faulting will occur along the plane where the shear stress is the highest”?

In "An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes and Earth Structure", authors Seth Stein and Michael Wysession made the statement: "Faulting will occur along the plane where the shear stress is the ...
9
votes
1answer
209 views

Monsoonal interactions with mid latitude disturbances

For the past few years in succession India has witnessed extreme flooding events caused by monsoonal troughs colloding with what appears transitory mid latitude disturbances and these appear to ...
9
votes
1answer
190 views

Where did the daily temperature variation go?

Currently central and northern Europe are experiencing a very cold, false-spring like weather phenomenon. When i look at local weather charts, the daily temperature cycle seems to be completely gone, ...
9
votes
4answers
273 views

Considering how old the Antarctic ice cover is, why isn't it much thicker?

The Wikipedia article on the subject of the "Antarctic ice sheet" says that: The icing of Antarctica began in the middle Eocene about 45.5 million years ago and escalated during the Eocene–...
9
votes
2answers
306 views

Is the Arctic sea ice volume increasing?

According to the graph below, Arctic sea ice volume has been decreasing from 1979-2012: Though this graph from the ESA’s CryoSat satellite show that the volume of Arctic sea ice increased 50% from ...
8
votes
1answer
200 views

Do Tectonic Plates Merge?

I had a question concerning the nature of continental plates. When looking at the Eurasian Plate today, for the most part, there is one solid fragment of the Earth's crust. However, having had a look ...
8
votes
1answer
386 views

How come the tide is low when the moon is high in the sky

Happily spending my holidays in the Fiji Islands, I noticed a couple of days ago that when the moon was very high in the sky (my shadow was maybe 0.5-1m long) the tide was low. That really puzzled me....
8
votes
1answer
140 views

What is the residue after plant matter is completely decomposed?

What typical fraction of decomposing plant matter, left on the surface rather than buried, is not released in gaseous form? My simple world view is that the plant structure has all come from the air, ...
8
votes
2answers
298 views

Is seismology really the only way to measure the thickness of Earth's layers?

Answers from these two questions: How can we guess the size of the earths inner core? & How can we measure the thickness of the earths mantle? use seismic waves as the method for detirmining ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

Pyroclastic flow protection

Related to the question Why don't scientists use fire entry suits to study volcanoes?, where the issue of volcanologist protection against lava splatter and bombs is discussed. Another major and ...
8
votes
3answers
6k views

Is Atlanta too far inland and too far above sea level to be affected by the comet in “Deep Impact”?

In "Deep Impact", the president says that "New York City, Boston, Atlanta, Philadelphia, all will be destroyed". New York and Boston are on the water and would be in danger from a tsunami of any size, ...
8
votes
1answer
549 views

Is the Principle of Fossil Succession accurate?

After wondering on the validity of the principle of Original Horizontality, I'm now focusing on the principle of fossil succession. This principle states that : Fossils of species that did not ...
8
votes
2answers
102 views

What goes into a tide power prediction for every fifteen minutes over the next twenty five years?

I was watching a segment about tidal power generation on a PBS NewsHour broadcast. I've set the time code at about 11:45 to capture a little background. This bit ...
8
votes
3answers
4k views

ppmV versus μmol/mol for atmospheric CO2 - how to convert?

For a uniform mixture of ideal gases, I think that the concentration of a gas reported in parts per million by volume (ppmV) and micro-moles per mole (μmol/mol) would be the same. When I see ...
8
votes
0answers
74 views

Predicting volcanic eruptions by experimentally proven volatile outgassing observations

In the abstract for the article Forecasting Etna eruptions by real-time observation of volcanic gas composition (Aiuppa et al. 2007), the authors assert that real time monitoring of volcanic volatiles,...
8
votes
1answer
433 views

Is ground level ozone dangerous to human health when other pollutants are not present, for example, at high altitudes?

In mountainous areas there is often little or no air pollution such as particulate matter, sulphur/nitrogen dioxide etc. However, ground-level ozone is frequently more present at these higher ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

How viscous is the Earth's mantle?

I'm posting here to get some more expert information based on this question. If the Earth were to stop rotating, removing the centrifugal force causing the equatorial bulge, how long would it take ...
8
votes
4answers
3k views

Are the oceans rising or the continents going down? How can we know?

The century old sustained rising of oceans, at a rate of 2-4 mm/y, remains a unexplained phenomenon; there is no correlation with temperature variations, so it is not due to the thermal variation of ...
8
votes
0answers
134 views

Relation of El Niño to Monsoons

Scientists are forecasting a weak to moderate El Niño event to emerge in the coming months, what causes this to happen? Once developed, how will the El Niño conditions effect progressive monsoon ...
8
votes
2answers
30k views

Is oxygen the most abundant element on Earth?

When I was in school, I was taught that we need oxygen to breathe, but it actually constitutes only a small fraction of the atmospheric composition, and that nitrogen constituted the largest fraction ...
8
votes
1answer
130 views

Dataset for expected sea level rise in case of massive meltdowns (Greenland/Antarctica)

Around the time climate change became a 'public issue' (let's say shortly after An inconvenient truth came out), figures started getting published about the expected (global) sea level rise in case of ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Are average daily temperatures affected by DST?

To calculate the average daily temperatures, do meteo professionals still use the Mannheim procedure with twice weighted measurement in the evening? (It could be obsolete by automated weather stations....
8
votes
1answer
156 views

How much carbon is sequestered out of the atmosphere through marine snow?

Marine snow in the deep ocean is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column. How much carbon is sequestered in this process? How does it compare ...
8
votes
1answer
139 views

Do humans cause a DST-related shift in average daily temperatures?

Inspired by the title to this question, is there a shift in average daily temperatures caused by the DST change in human activities? I can picture any number of mechanisms by which a shift could ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

Does the geographic North Pole move?

The magnetic North (or South) Pole moves due to activities in the inner of Earth. And earthquakes can tilt the Earth's orientation a tiny bit. But can and does the axis' orientation relative to the ...
8
votes
1answer
648 views

Are we now and/or have we been in the RCP8.5 scenario?

Is it generally understood that we (globally) have been living in an RCP8.5 scenario over the past 7-8 years? Such that a predictive climate model using RCP8.5 assumptions that was run circa 2011 can ...
8
votes
3answers
376 views

Does general relativity influence climate (vs Newtonian mechanics)

That may sounds like a silly question but here it is. One of the early great successes of general relativity was to explain the discrepancy between the prehilion advance of Mercury predicted by ...
8
votes
3answers
6k views

Does the elliptical orbit of the Earth have effect on Earth's climate?

I know the Earth is nearest to Sun during the summers of the southern hemisphere. Does the orbit affect the climate actually? For example, would there be any difference if the Earth had a perfectly ...
7
votes
1answer
998 views

Golden and red colored light even after sunset

I heard about the golden hour, but yesterday I saw golden and red colored patches in the sky even after sunset. Why does it happen? And I would like to know more about the science behind the golden ...
7
votes
1answer
100 views

How old are Chile's fjords?

Do we have any knowledge about the age of Chile's fjords, more specifically, those found near the Northern Patagonian Ice Field? Is it reasonable to conclude that they were formed in Quaternary given ...
7
votes
1answer
213 views

What definition of “seamount” is used by the largest utilised databases of seamounts?

Appears that answering what seamounts are is a non-trivial question. My take is what matters is data, since authoritative opinions on the topic are at best subjective. As such, my position is the ...
7
votes
1answer
92 views

Is there a formula that gives the temperature of an object or person exposed to the sun?

It is well known that temperature sensors are often shaded, partially to mitigate the variability due to varying cloud cover. However, most people experience temperature within the sunlight. Other ...
7
votes
2answers
253 views

What are the tectonic implications of the Quaternary Igwisi Hills, Tanzania, kimberlite volcanics?

The Igwisi Hills Kimberlite volcanic features in Tanzania are described in the article Mapping the Igwisi Hills kimberlite volcanoes, Tanzania: understanding how deep-sourced mantle magmas behave at ...
7
votes
2answers
4k views

Why does the intensity of sunlight depend on your latitude? [duplicate]

People at the equator get to bask in more sunlight than Santa Clause and other inhabitants of the arctic regions. Not quite as pronounced, but they get more than me too. Why is the sunlight more ...
7
votes
1answer
112 views

Would a global cooling event disable solar energy usage?

Imagine that we've improved the level quality, affordability, and ease of use of photo-voltaic solar, and it's use is widely distributed in the USA. We've improved the grid for power distribution, we ...
7
votes
3answers
413 views

Algorithmically Determining the Rainy Season

I have historical precipitation data for hundreds of cities around the world. I would like to algorithmically determine when the rainy season (if exists) is for each location. Are there any algorithms ...
7
votes
2answers
746 views

How do perennial rivers in high alpine areas maintain year round flows?

We have several perennial rivers in my country that originate out of high altitude alpine glacier melt. I can understand snow or glacier melting in the summer to increase the flows but it is observed ...
7
votes
1answer
331 views

What ozone depleting chemicals can salt produce?

According to How Long Will Life Last On Earth, 250 million years ago Siberia underwent a large a prolonged period of volcanic activity. It has been speculated that large salt deposits that existed in ...
7
votes
1answer
818 views

Statistical weather prediction

Assuming I have time evolution of air temperature, air pressure, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity and cloudiness, how can I predict weather based on this information? I know that high ...
7
votes
1answer
396 views

What “g” would be needed to keep helium on Earth?

I know that helium is a very light and rare gas on Earth because Earths gravity is not strong enough to keep it. Instead, helium and hydrogen are rising through the atmosphere and escape into outer ...
7
votes
1answer
361 views

Mineral Rock Identification [closed]

Went out hiking after some heavy rains and came across an area that looked like broken glass sticking out from mud. On a closer look this is what we found. Not sure what it is and would like to know ...
7
votes
1answer
94 views

What is the geochemical source for the helium detected in deep Arctic explosive eruptions?

Recently, there has been explosive deep-ocean volcanism detected along the slowly-spreading Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean (see map below), according the National Geographic news article Arctic ...
7
votes
1answer
815 views

Why is it colder in the mountains than at sea level?

I have heard numerous reasons why that is. I just want to know which one is right.
7
votes
0answers
100 views

Oceanic-atmospheric coupling between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean basins

The two great basins - Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean have their respective oscillations Indian Ocean Dipole and El Nino Southern oscillation that affect the climate of the regions as well as the ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

How does argon-argon dating work - need a simple but not-wrong explanation

The Washington Post article Scientists discover hundreds of footprints left at the dawn of modern humanity describes the geological dating of stratified layers of mud by analyzing and dating minerals ...
6
votes
1answer
491 views

How was the Earth formed?

What events took place in our Solar System which led to formation of the Earth? I have heard from sources that a big giant star exploded and the Earth was formed. Is this true ?
6
votes
1answer
2k views

How much rain falls on the Earth each year?

In this resource, it says that the average amount of precipitation falling on the Earth per year is approximately 100 cm. Integrated across the surface of the Earth, that yields approximately 5.1 × ...
6
votes
2answers
273 views

How large can local surface CO2 concentration vary due to natural processes?

I'd like to have a rough idea of how large local surface CO2 concentration vary due to natural processes. For example, a purely hypothetical experiment: If I set up some CO2 monitors in a wide ...
6
votes
2answers
330 views

How does ice-penetrating radar “see” through kilometers of ice without being absorbed?

The BBC News article Isolated lakes found beneath Canadian ice sheet links to the open access Science Advances article Discovery of a hypersaline subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap, ...

15 30 50 per page