# All Questions

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### What kind of rock is this being eaten by a rock-eating worm?

The New York Times article This Creature Eats Stone. Sand Comes Out the Other End. describes the shipworm Lithoredo abatanica, an organism that appears to "eat solid rock". It links to the item in ...
1k views

### Can climate change cause earthquakes, tsunamis, or volcanic eruptions?

Different scientists have brought forth a theory that climate change can cause earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions. For example: Professor Bill McGuire of University College London in his ...
482 views

### Where and how can seismic data for earthquakes and volcanoes be downloaded?

I need it in this format. I went to USGS and IRIS websites but couldn't understand the downloading procedure
332 views

### Are there significant amounts of rare earth elements on Iceland?

The rare earth elements form in magmatic rocks. The Iceland is very active vulcanic region, and it's, to my knowledge, entirely build from magmatic rocks. So it wouldn't be surprising if there were ...
15k views

### How to compare earthquake magnitudes

On the USGS website, it says Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; However my book says ...
482 views

### Did global warming cause the extreme cold 2013-14 winter in North America?

There have been some claims made (example) that global warming had something to do with why the 2013-2014 winter was so cold in the Midwest area of America. If this is true then how did global ...
2k views

### Is there any correlation between La Niña/El Niño and seismic activity?

I've read in the past that extreme precipitation levels may have an effect on seismic activity, and wondered if anyone has ever analysed the La Niña / El Niño cycles to see if there are any ...
447 views

### Relation between direction of shear and tropical cyclone formation

In an earlier question/answer Why are there no cyclones in the southern Atlantic basin there was a point raised about direction of shear(abetting/retarding) cyclone formation. It appears ...
244 views

### Is it right practice to validate temperature data with reanalysis data?

For a project I am working on I received raw data from many meteorology stationes. Is it right practice to test this data against air temperature from noaa's ncep/ncar data?
2k views

### Intuitive explanation of precipitation amount

I'm trying to learn how to make sense of numbers in a forecast. I can interpret temperature and wind speed, but I don't know what to make of rainfall. What does it mean, for a human, that there will ...
260 views

### Equation for predicting contrail formation

I am working on a data visualisation of airline flight paths and their probability of forming contrails. Given weather data for a specific area (location, time, temperature, pressure and humidity) ...
718 views

### Relationship between natural disaster and global warming, in the media

Sorry in advance if this is too broad a question. Feel free to let me know if it is off-topic. I don't know more than the next person around about climate change, but I am really not a climato-...
2k views

### What is the fastest the Earth has ever spun?

How fast can the Earth rotate and support life? In prehistoric times, dinosaurs were so massive that archeologists wonder how they were not crushed under their own weight. Could a faster spinning ...
779 views

### How are organic walled microfossils preserved in the fossil record?

Organic walled microfossils have no hard mineralised parts, how are they preserved in the fossil record?
4k views

### Is the epicenter always directly above the hypocenter?

All the graphics I've seen showing epicenters with a hypocenter (labeled focus in the graph below) appear to show that epicenters are always directly above their related hypocenters. Is this correct?
1k views

### Did the Neolithic Revolution have an effect on the earth's climate?

I imagine that human agriculture had a major effect on the composition of flora across the planet's surface. Did the transition from gathering to growing have a measurable effect on climate? If so, ...
2k views

### Why do tropical cyclones around Australia have erratic paths?

According to the Australia Bureau of Meterology: Research has shown that cyclones in the Australian region exhibit more erratic paths than cyclones in other parts of the world. A tropical ...
495 views

### What geological processes affect the speed of Kilauea lava flows?

The recent lava flows from the current eruption from the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii have generated a considerable amount of interest and concern for property. In the article slow-motion disaster as ...
264 views

### Is there conclusive evidence for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current developing after the glaciation of Antarctica?

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the continuous oceanic current that encircles the Antarctic continent, as is often explained in the literature as being the cause of the onset of glaciation ...
480 views

### What periods of the fossil record are most lacking in specimens?

What parts of the fossil record are most lacking in specimens? That is, if you were to trace the evolution of a modern mammal (humans, for example) from abiogenesis to now, which periods are the most ...
193 views

### Why would there be no hydrocarbons in the Sveconorwegian belt?

I've had an inconclusive chat about the Sveconorwegian belt of the Fennoscandian shield, the western parts in particular, and reasons as to why there would not be any deposits of hydrocarbons there. ...
472 views

### What does the term “Snow Interval” mean?

When looking Weather Station readings from the National Weather Service website, what does the term "Snow Interval (inches)" actually mean? 6 hr and 24 hr readings are obvious, but I can't seem to ...
2k views

### What impact on climate did 2011 earthquake and tsunami have?

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami was one of the biggest in modern history; the earthquake even moved Earth's axis for a very small, but measurable bit. The four years since then is not enough ...
2k views

### How much does sea level rise due to sediment deposition?

There has been a lot of noise in the news in the last few days because Congressman Mo Brooks from Alabama claimed that erosion played a role in rising sea levels. Quoting from Science magazine: ...
7k views

### How long does it take to form amber?

How long does the formation of the amber take? Are there any approximation of the minimal time needed to convert resin into amber in the most favorable conditions? Would it be possible to produce ...
380 views

### What makes a nuclear winter so extreme and destructive?

This may be a sort of, pertinent to the times, and disturbing question, inspired by the difficulties surrounding North Korea and the situation with it and nuclear weapons. I've heard of this idea of "...
595 views

### What is the nature of the “unexpected geomagnetic pulse that took place beneath South America in 2016”?

Popular news has several articles linking back to the news article in Nature Earth’s magnetic field is acting up and geologists don’t know why which discusses the need for an early update to the World ...
259 views

### What principles do we consider when selecting an air pollution monitor location?

I'm working on a project aiming at finding some potential point as a new air pollutant monitor site for a city to measure $SO_2$, $NO_2$, $PM_{2.5}$, etc. After modeling the surface concentration of ...
4k views

### Why is Egypt so dry?

If you look at this wind map (for July, but following the link you can also view other months): you will see that Egypt gets its air from the Mediterranean sea. During other months it could get less ...
743 views

### Will the oceans swallow all of the land?

I am wondering why, since the oceans could feasibly hold all of the dry land, they in fact do not. For example, the Mariana Trench drops to -10.9km, while Mount Everest only reaches to +8.8km. ...
222 views

### Did an impact crater influence the formation of uranium deposits in South Australia?

As a supplementary question Did an impact crater cause the formation of the gas fields in north eastern South Australia . South Australia is a well documented uranium province. Could an impact crater, ...
196 views

### Where did the daily temperature variation go?

Currently central and northern Europe are experiencing a very cold, false-spring like weather phenomenon. When i look at local weather charts, the daily temperature cycle seems to be completely gone, ...
3k views

### Pyroclastic flow protection

Related to the question Why don't scientists use fire entry suits to study volcanoes?, where the issue of volcanologist protection against lava splatter and bombs is discussed. Another major and ...
333 views

### Is it ever possible for an continental plate to subduct under an oceanic plate?

It is well known that oceanic plates subduct under continental plates. This may be attributed to the plate's age and density, plus the water on top of it. So I was wondering if it is ever possible for ...
442 views

### Do Tectonic Plates Merge?

I had a question concerning the nature of continental plates. When looking at the Eurasian Plate today, for the most part, there is one solid fragment of the Earth's crust. However, having had a look ...
8k views

### Does the elliptical orbit of the Earth have effect on Earth's climate?

I know the Earth is nearest to Sun during the summers of the southern hemisphere. Does the orbit affect the climate actually? For example, would there be any difference if the Earth had a perfectly ...
352 views

### What is the reasoning behind the statement “Faulting will occur along the plane where the shear stress is the highest”?

In "An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes and Earth Structure", authors Seth Stein and Michael Wysession made the statement: "Faulting will occur along the plane where the shear stress is the ...
81 views

### Predicting volcanic eruptions by experimentally proven volatile outgassing observations

In the abstract for the article Forecasting Etna eruptions by real-time observation of volcanic gas composition (Aiuppa et al. 2007), the authors assert that real time monitoring of volcanic volatiles,...
247 views

### Is there a hemisphere where there's more land than ocean?

From a previous question, around 40% of the northern hemisphere is land. Would there be a plane splitting the earth into two equal parts, where in one part there are more land than ocean?
372 views

### What evidence is there that plant evolutionary history “dances to a different beat” than that of animals?

Floral transformations have been due to gradual replacement and piecemeal, not mass extinction. Plant “geoevents”; have not been synchronous with epochal animal originations/ extinctions and hence ...
397 views

### How does the composition of volcanic rock change as it makes its ascent towards the surface?

A schematic for the fluid mechanics of a volcano is represented below. Graciously borrowed from Figure 1 of the reference cited below From the caption of that figure: During explosive eruptions, ...
221 views

### Monsoonal interactions with mid latitude disturbances

For the past few years in succession India has witnessed extreme flooding events caused by monsoonal troughs colloding with what appears transitory mid latitude disturbances and these appear to ...
318 views

### Considering how old the Antarctic ice cover is, why isn't it much thicker?

The Wikipedia article on the subject of the "Antarctic ice sheet" says that: The icing of Antarctica began in the middle Eocene about 45.5 million years ago and escalated during the Eocene–...
172 views

### How much carbon is sequestered out of the atmosphere through marine snow?

Marine snow in the deep ocean is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column. How much carbon is sequestered in this process? How does it compare ...
380 views

### Is the Arctic sea ice volume increasing?

According to the graph below, Arctic sea ice volume has been decreasing from 1979-2012: Though this graph from the ESA’s CryoSat satellite show that the volume of Arctic sea ice increased 50% from ...
709 views

### How are data from tiltmeters used to monitor volcanic activity?

I've just learned in this answer that tiltmeters (which I assume measure changes in tilt) are used near active volcanos. (Saw a mention in item 4. here also.) What kind of geological (volcanological?)...
111 views

### The Tambora eruption caused the “Year without a summer”. How much would such an eruption today affect the output of solar pv on a global scale?

Are there any estimates for the reduction of global solar insolation at the Earth's surface that a Tambora scale eruption would bring? If our electrical power generation became heavily reliant on ...
199 views

### How Can We Establish Precisely What Earth's Core is Made Of?

The consensus view is that that the Earths core is composed mainly of iron alloyed with about 10 percent nickel and traces of other heavy metals, but I have seen at least one account which says it is ...
Nitrous oxide ($N_2O$) - primary greenhouse gas Carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) - primary greenhouse gas Methane ($CH_4$) - primary greenhouse gas, explosive Nitrogen monoxide ($NO$) - secondary greenhouse ...