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8
votes
3answers
6k views

ppmV versus μmol/mol for atmospheric CO2 - how to convert?

For a uniform mixture of ideal gases, I think that the concentration of a gas reported in parts per million by volume (ppmV) and micro-moles per mole (μmol/mol) would be the same. When I see ...
8
votes
1answer
150 views

Dataset for expected sea level rise in case of massive meltdowns (Greenland/Antarctica)

Around the time climate change became a 'public issue' (let's say shortly after An inconvenient truth came out), figures started getting published about the expected (global) sea level rise in case of ...
8
votes
2answers
111 views

What goes into a tide power prediction for every fifteen minutes over the next twenty five years?

I was watching a segment about tidal power generation on a PBS NewsHour broadcast. I've set the time code at about 11:45 to capture a little background. This bit ...
8
votes
1answer
901 views

Why is it colder in the mountains than at sea level?

I have heard numerous reasons why that is. I just want to know which one is right.
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Are average daily temperatures affected by DST?

To calculate the average daily temperatures, do meteo professionals still use the Mannheim procedure with twice weighted measurement in the evening? (It could be obsolete by automated weather stations....
8
votes
1answer
140 views

Do humans cause a DST-related shift in average daily temperatures?

Inspired by the title to this question, is there a shift in average daily temperatures caused by the DST change in human activities? I can picture any number of mechanisms by which a shift could ...
8
votes
1answer
151 views

What is the residue after plant matter is completely decomposed?

What typical fraction of decomposing plant matter, left on the surface rather than buried, is not released in gaseous form? My simple world view is that the plant structure has all come from the air, ...
8
votes
4answers
3k views

Are the oceans rising or the continents going down? How can we know?

The century old sustained rising of oceans, at a rate of 2-4 mm/y, remains a unexplained phenomenon; there is no correlation with temperature variations, so it is not due to the thermal variation of ...
8
votes
2answers
33k views

Is oxygen the most abundant element on Earth?

When I was in school, I was taught that we need oxygen to breathe, but it actually constitutes only a small fraction of the atmospheric composition, and that nitrogen constituted the largest fraction ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Gaps in locations of volcanos (Peru & Chile)

The figure below is taken from Reath, K. et al. (2019) A couple of things can be seen from this representation Volcanism seems to be strongly correlated with subduction zones, in this case the Nazca ...
8
votes
1answer
460 views

Is ground level ozone dangerous to human health when other pollutants are not present, for example, at high altitudes?

In mountainous areas there is often little or no air pollution such as particulate matter, sulphur/nitrogen dioxide etc. However, ground-level ozone is frequently more present at these higher ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

How viscous is the Earth's mantle?

I'm posting here to get some more expert information based on this question. If the Earth were to stop rotating, removing the centrifugal force causing the equatorial bulge, how long would it take ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

Does the geographic North Pole move?

The magnetic North (or South) Pole moves due to activities in the inner of Earth. And earthquakes can tilt the Earth's orientation a tiny bit. But can and does the axis' orientation relative to the ...
8
votes
0answers
141 views

Relation of El Niño to Monsoons

Scientists are forecasting a weak to moderate El Niño event to emerge in the coming months, what causes this to happen? Once developed, how will the El Niño conditions effect progressive monsoon ...
8
votes
2answers
326 views

Is seismology really the only way to measure the thickness of Earth's layers?

Answers from these two questions: How can we guess the size of the earths inner core? & How can we measure the thickness of the earths mantle? use seismic waves as the method for detirmining ...
7
votes
1answer
3k views

How does argon-argon dating work - need a simple but not-wrong explanation

The Washington Post article Scientists discover hundreds of footprints left at the dawn of modern humanity describes the geological dating of stratified layers of mud by analyzing and dating minerals ...
7
votes
1answer
190 views

Where did the continents come from?

In animations that show the location / drift of the continents over the aeons, it seems that the continents (or cratons?) are just floating / drifting around, sometimes fusing or splitting, but having ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Where can I get archived hourly wind speed data for Germany?

Can some one suggest me a web site for archived hourly wind data for Germany. I have seen here but it was not useful for me.
7
votes
1answer
125 views

How old are Chile's fjords?

Do we have any knowledge about the age of Chile's fjords, more specifically, those found near the Northern Patagonian Ice Field? Is it reasonable to conclude that they were formed in Quaternary given ...
7
votes
1answer
95 views

Is there a formula that gives the temperature of an object or person exposed to the sun?

It is well known that temperature sensors are often shaded, partially to mitigate the variability due to varying cloud cover. However, most people experience temperature within the sunlight. Other ...
7
votes
1answer
205 views

I'm still confused about what “probability of precipitation” means

I'm trying to understand what weather forecasts mean more precisely. As I understand it from reading Wikipedia, blogs, etc., the percentage value for rain/precipitation that you see in a forecast is ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

How do hematite and magnetite form?

I want to understand the conditions under which hematite $\ce{Fe_2O_3}$ and magnetite $\ce{Fe_3O_4}$ form in nature. The linked Wikipedia articles explain various conditions under which they form, but ...
7
votes
1answer
116 views

Would a global cooling event disable solar energy usage?

Imagine that we've improved the level quality, affordability, and ease of use of photo-voltaic solar, and it's use is widely distributed in the USA. We've improved the grid for power distribution, we ...
7
votes
0answers
115 views

Oceanic-atmospheric coupling between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean basins

The two great basins - Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean have their respective oscillations Indian Ocean Dipole and El Nino Southern oscillation that affect the climate of the regions as well as the ...
7
votes
1answer
449 views

What “g” would be needed to keep helium on Earth?

I know that helium is a very light and rare gas on Earth because Earths gravity is not strong enough to keep it. Instead, helium and hydrogen are rising through the atmosphere and escape into outer ...
7
votes
3answers
522 views

Algorithmically Determining the Rainy Season

I have historical precipitation data for hundreds of cities around the world. I would like to algorithmically determine when the rainy season (if exists) is for each location. Are there any algorithms ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Golden and red colored light even after sunset

I heard about the golden hour, but yesterday I saw golden and red colored patches in the sky even after sunset. Why does it happen? And I would like to know more about the science behind the golden ...
7
votes
1answer
394 views

What ozone depleting chemicals can salt produce?

According to How Long Will Life Last On Earth, 250 million years ago Siberia underwent a large a prolonged period of volcanic activity. It has been speculated that large salt deposits that existed in ...
7
votes
2answers
5k views

Why does the intensity of sunlight depend on your latitude? [duplicate]

People at the equator get to bask in more sunlight than Santa Clause and other inhabitants of the arctic regions. Not quite as pronounced, but they get more than me too. Why is the sunlight more ...
7
votes
1answer
98 views

What is the geochemical source for the helium detected in deep Arctic explosive eruptions?

Recently, there has been explosive deep-ocean volcanism detected along the slowly-spreading Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean (see map below), according the National Geographic news article Arctic ...
7
votes
2answers
832 views

How do perennial rivers in high alpine areas maintain year round flows?

We have several perennial rivers in my country that originate out of high altitude alpine glacier melt. I can understand snow or glacier melting in the summer to increase the flows but it is observed ...
7
votes
1answer
903 views

Statistical weather prediction

Assuming I have time evolution of air temperature, air pressure, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity and cloudiness, how can I predict weather based on this information? I know that high ...
7
votes
1answer
219 views

What definition of “seamount” is used by the largest utilised databases of seamounts?

Appears that answering what seamounts are is a non-trivial question. My take is what matters is data, since authoritative opinions on the topic are at best subjective. As such, my position is the ...
6
votes
6answers
330 views

Are there any weather services that provide hourly forecasts beyond 7 days?

I'm working on a small project and am trying to find a way to get the very extended hour-by-hour forecast for a location. Most services (Darksky, etc.) seem to offer 7-day extended hourly forecasts, ...
6
votes
2answers
186 views

Can I just walk around Greenland with a UV light and find rare Earth minerals on the ground?

The NPR.org news article and podcast Greenland Is Not For Sale. But It Has The Rare Earth Minerals America Wants is interesting, and it includes a few large GIFs (too large to post here) that appear ...
6
votes
1answer
124 views

When sea level rises, does the increased ocean area cause the earth to cool down somewhat?

When the sea level rises, more of the planet's area is watery and less of it is land. Does this change in surface condition result in a change in global warming, such as a decrease in the net ...
6
votes
1answer
139 views

Giant Cavern the Size of Manhattan Under Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica

Avery Thompson writes in Popular Mechanics In Thwaites’ case, that radar uncovered a gigantic cavern between the glacier itself and the bedrock below it. That cavern is likely filled with air much ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Why are there 5 oceans?

Like many people, while in school I learned there were four Oceans on Earth - Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic. In general I think it was described that the currents and the surrounding continents ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Volcanoes in the Alps and Himalayas and the subduction of Tethys Sea

Geologist have theorized that the Tethys Sea subducted under Eurasian plates. But where are the volcanoes that would have resulted due to this? Where are the volcanoes in the Alps and the Himalayas?
6
votes
1answer
192 views

Why do we measure eustatic sea-level from the center of earth?

Earth is rotating so it has a ellipsoidal shape. The measurement will therefore be different from equator and pole. So why do we measure eustatic sea-level from the center of earth?
6
votes
1answer
511 views

How was the Earth formed?

What events took place in our Solar System which led to formation of the Earth? I have heard from sources that a big giant star exploded and the Earth was formed. Is this true ?
6
votes
2answers
565 views

What produces these distinct shapes in the Rub' al Khali seen from space?

update: Searching "Rub' al Khali Empty Quarter" found "Q2: What are sabkhas?" in https://www.geocaching.com/geocache/GC6BYQ0_rub-al-khali-the-empty-quarter which seems to be ...
6
votes
3answers
760 views

Is there a name for these “pouring” clouds?

I snapped this photo with my phone flat against the window of a bus, facing south while traveling west across a bridge in New Taipei City. I'd say it was at about 24.995N, 121.438E. It was about 14:00 ...
6
votes
0answers
103 views

Did an impact crater cause the formation of the gas fields in north eastern South Australia

In the paper High Impact Reservoirs, the authors claim that impact craters have lead to both the creation and destruction of petroleum source rocks, reservoirs and traps. Recently it was announced ...
6
votes
1answer
237 views

Are there probably decent oil fields located in the middle of the ocean?

I did a google image search for a world map of offshore oil. Surprisingly I found virtually nothing. I had to search country by country for such maps. I noticed most if not all were located very near ...
6
votes
2answers
366 views

How large can local surface CO2 concentration vary due to natural processes?

I'd like to have a rough idea of how large local surface CO2 concentration vary due to natural processes. For example, a purely hypothetical experiment: If I set up some CO2 monitors in a wide ...
6
votes
1answer
4k views

How much rain falls on the Earth each year?

In this resource, it says that the average amount of precipitation falling on the Earth per year is approximately 100 cm. Integrated across the surface of the Earth, that yields approximately 5.1 × ...
6
votes
2answers
82 views

Observations of sea ice typology in the Arctic

What are the main datasets characterizing sea ice typology, thickness, density, "passability", presence of pressure ridges in the Arctic? Is it something that can be detected from the air or a space ...
6
votes
1answer
454 views

How are the ZNE, ZRT and LQT coordinate systems defined?

I'm confused about the direction of Z (upward or downward?), R (outward or toward the source?) and T.
6
votes
3answers
17k views

What is a temperature inversion and can it trap smog/pollution?

Just as the title says, I heard about this term but am not sure how it works.

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