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6
votes
1answer
400 views

How are the ZNE, ZRT and LQT coordinate systems defined?

I'm confused about the direction of Z (upward or downward?), R (outward or toward the source?) and T.
6
votes
1answer
184 views

Why do we measure eustatic sea-level from the center of earth?

Earth is rotating so it has a ellipsoidal shape. The measurement will therefore be different from equator and pole. So why do we measure eustatic sea-level from the center of earth?
6
votes
1answer
1k views

How do hematite and magnetite form?

I want to understand the conditions under which hematite $\ce{Fe_2O_3}$ and magnetite $\ce{Fe_3O_4}$ form in nature. The linked Wikipedia articles explain various conditions under which they form, but ...
6
votes
2answers
274 views

How large can local surface CO2 concentration vary due to natural processes?

I'd like to have a rough idea of how large local surface CO2 concentration vary due to natural processes. For example, a purely hypothetical experiment: If I set up some CO2 monitors in a wide ...
6
votes
0answers
96 views

Did an impact crater cause the formation of the gas fields in north eastern South Australia

In the paper High Impact Reservoirs, the authors claim that impact craters have lead to both the creation and destruction of petroleum source rocks, reservoirs and traps. Recently it was announced ...
6
votes
2answers
370 views

What produces these distinct shapes in the Rub' al Khali seen from space?

update: Searching "Rub' al Khali Empty Quarter" found "Q2: What are sabkhas?" in https://www.geocaching.com/geocache/GC6BYQ0_rub-al-khali-the-empty-quarter which seems to be related. From the NASA ...
6
votes
1answer
491 views

How was the Earth formed?

What events took place in our Solar System which led to formation of the Earth? I have heard from sources that a big giant star exploded and the Earth was formed. Is this true ?
6
votes
3answers
15k views

What is a temperature inversion and can it trap smog/pollution?

Just as the title says, I heard about this term but am not sure how it works.
6
votes
2answers
78 views

Observations of sea ice typology in the Arctic

What are the main datasets characterizing sea ice typology, thickness, density, "passability", presence of pressure ridges in the Arctic? Is it something that can be detected from the air or a space ...
6
votes
1answer
95 views

Could we cool the ocean by reflecting away sunlight to influence hurricanes?

I was wondering if we could possibly reduce the severity of, or steer a hurricane by changing albedo (e.g. dying the part ocean with a temporary light colored dye)? My thought would be to put this ...
6
votes
1answer
211 views

Are there probably decent oil fields located in the middle of the ocean?

I did a google image search for a world map of offshore oil. Surprisingly I found virtually nothing. I had to search country by country for such maps. I noticed most if not all were located very near ...
5
votes
1answer
72 views

What is a Rotating Shadowband Radiometer, and how does it work?

This answer explains that the device labeled "B" in the photo below is a "Ultraviolet Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer." What is a Rotating Shadowband Radiometer, and how does it work? ...
5
votes
3answers
3k views

Would adding sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere have a global cooling effect?

There is reasonable evidence to suggest that the Earth is warming. The most probable cause appears to be increased CO2 in the atmosphere, which has been reasoned about for quite some time. There ...
5
votes
2answers
816 views

As the earth's core cools, will the size be affected?

Objects can change in size when their temperature changes. I'm wondering whether the cooling of the earth's core will affect it's size? Or will the change be insignificant due to the elements and ...
5
votes
1answer
163 views

Yellowstone Eruption Possibility?

What is the probability of the Yellowstone supervolcano erupting during any given year? I had heard that it erupts once every 100,000 years. Does that mean there is a .001% chance of it erupting ...
5
votes
2answers
603 views

Were all of Earth's minerals created before Earth's formation, during, or after?

I've heard that during the accretion of proto-planets that formed the earth, 60 minerals were created through the reactions of atoms and molecules in the nebula. Do these first minerals still make up ...
5
votes
2answers
509 views

What is the meaning of step in ERA reanalysis data?

The webpage to download ERA data includes an option called "time" which is intuitive, but also an option called "step". I can't find an explanation of the meaning of this. It can't be a time step ...
5
votes
2answers
148 views

Why did the carboniferous period have so much atmospheric oxygen?

Even if all the carbon dioxide (which makes up less than 1% of the atmosphere) in the air were sequestered by plants, would the atmosphere not remain about 21% oxygen? Why did the carboniferous period ...
5
votes
1answer
357 views

What is this stone? [closed]

My Uncle got this stone from Australia and he would like to know what it is exactly The paper is 210 mm on the long side. The stone feels like glass and is softer than metal. On the other side it ...
5
votes
1answer
393 views

What is the tectonic explanation for parallel ridges in the Arctic Ocean?

Looking at a map of the underwater features of the Arctic Ocean reveals three roughly parallel ridges, separated by basins (see image below): Image source The three ridges, as labelled are the Alpha ...
5
votes
3answers
559 views

Is there a name for these “pouring” clouds?

I snapped this photo with my phone flat against the window of a bus, facing south while traveling west across a bridge in New Taipei City. I'd say it was at about 24.995N, 121.438E. It was about 14:00 ...
5
votes
2answers
161 views

What would the geology and climate of a supposed landmass near the pole be like, assuming a thoroughly warmer planet? [closed]

I am designing a fantasy setting for pen-and-paper role-playing (and potential novel) purposes. I have decided that a continent be situated right on a Pole of some imaginary planet with axial tilt ...
5
votes
1answer
55 views

Is sterescope still used to do cartography with orthophotography?

I used this tool at my degree a couple of lusters ago to do cartography with aerial orthophotos. We used it on cartography and geomorphology subjets. Source: gumtree.com The method consists ...
5
votes
1answer
124 views

Methane in Martian Soil

Measurements taken by the Curiosity rover have detected minute amounts of methane in the Martian atmosphere. I was wondering, is it possible that greater amounts of methane are present beneath the ...
5
votes
2answers
5k views

Are there more earthquakes near the equator or poles?

When comparing the average distance of the all known earthquake epicenters to the nearest pole, is the longitudinal distance to the equator or the poles the smallest of the two? Please note that any ...
5
votes
1answer
277 views

How do spectral methods work in the context of numerical weather prediction models?

I am broadly familiar with the concept of numerical weather prediction models using various finite methods to solve the primitive equations used in these models, but how do spectral methods work, ...
5
votes
0answers
190 views

Is the Grand Canyon the “greatest” canyon in the world? [closed]

The Grand Canyon is nearly 446 km (300 miles) long, 29 km (18 miles) wide, and over 1,8 km (1 mile) deep. To the best of my knowledge, there is no other canyon of comparable size in the world. Is ...
5
votes
2answers
101 views

Why is the core of Earth in a reduced state? ($\text{Fe}$ and $\text{Ni}$)

I understand gravitational differentiation caused the layered structure of Earth when it is still molten. However, why are the heavier constituents in a reduced state, i.e. metal $\text{Fe}$ and $\...
4
votes
1answer
499 views

Why are lenticular clouds circular?

I recently visited Japan, where I observed a lenticular cloud above Mount Fuji: Curious by the cloud, I looked it up and found it it's a lenticular cloud, that forms because of rising moist air ...
4
votes
1answer
56 views

Catalog of all significant earthquakes since 1900?

Where can I find a list of all earthquakes that happened on Earth since 1900?I need time, longitude/latitude, and power -- preferably in .csv format.
4
votes
2answers
175 views

Are we changing Earth's weather with global warming?

I think that when the air heats up in the day, the radiation from the ground contributes way more to its heating at altitudes more than 300 meters above the ground than convection currents of air heat ...
4
votes
3answers
460 views

Is the term “fertile ash” a misnomer?

I understand that volcanic ash contains minerals and can make soil more fertile. But I've also heard the term "fertile ash" in some documentary (I have forgotten in what context). Is that a ...
4
votes
1answer
80 views

Giant Cavern the Size of Manhattan Under Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica - how was satellite and airborne radar data combined?

This is a follow-up question to Giant Cavern the Size of Manhattan Under Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica. The work is reported in an open access paper in Science: Heterogeneous retreat and ice ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

How do I convert Relative Humidity into specific humidity [duplicate]

I am using NCEP_DOE reanalysis 2 data set. It include only relative humidity while I need specific humidity. How do I convert the relative humidity into specific humidity?
4
votes
1answer
72 views

What causes aurorae?

I know that aurorae are caused by solar activity interacting with the Earth's magnetic field as charged particles are funneled down into the polar magnetic mirrors. On one hand, I know that as ...
4
votes
2answers
176 views

Does the moon have any affect on earthquakes being created? [duplicate]

Here, in New Zealand, we just had a 7.5 magnitude earthquake hit. Alot of people are saying that the super moon caused this. I have doubts as to the super moon actually 'causing' it but could have it ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

The higher value range for the same satellite product (NO2_OMI_TEMIS)

I'm dealing with NO2 column density of troposphere, and my data source is TEMIS. The NO2 level3 data can be derived from the original information of OMI instrument. I have downloaded two types of ...
4
votes
1answer
607 views

Are volcanoes formed from earthquakes?

I know that some earthquakes are caused by volcanoes and that some earthquakes can trigger volcanic eruptions close to where the earthquake is. But what if a great earthquake(8.0 or above) occurs and ...
4
votes
2answers
7k views

How can we measure the thickness of the Earth's mantle? [duplicate]

According to Wikipedia the earth's mantle is approximately 2900 km (1,800 miles) thick. How is it possible to achieve such measurements? Obviously we haven't sent anything down that far to check.
4
votes
1answer
149 views

Why would geostrophic theory be invoked in the tropics with regards to the MJO?

In this paper reviewing the Madden-Julian Oscillation, frequently geostrophic theory (or approximately geostrophic) is often invoked. However, for geostrophic theory to be invoked, $$Ro=\frac{U}{f_0L}&...
4
votes
4answers
5k views

Are EF6 Tornadoes officially recognized

Are EF6 Tornadoes officially recognized on the fujita scale or not, I have been quite confused on this and I have been very curious about it.
4
votes
1answer
135 views

Percentage of Oxgen left after burning all the available biomass

A documentry stated that during the Permian asteroid strike the atmosphere heated up to above 400C, potentially to 600C. As this would ignite most of the biomass, including us, I wondered if this fire ...
4
votes
0answers
76 views

What would be the depth variation of a “water ellipsoid” above a reference ellipsoid Earth?

The question If the Earth was a smooth spheroid how deep would be the ocean? has an excellent answer which explains the shape and surface area of an oblate spheroid before calculating the average ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the maximum value of Easting in UTM coordinates?

What is the maximum value of Easting in UTM coordinates? In many websites I found the answer of maximum value is about 834000 meters, but if you convert some of these coordinates below the value will ...
3
votes
2answers
396 views

How to best visualize temperature increase (due to climate change) using GHCN data?

Immediately below is an illustration of my first/prototype attempt to visualize this, which is further explained after that... What you're looking at is a year-by-year animation of TMAX (daily max ...
3
votes
0answers
116 views

Conversion of an NWP model into climate model

I am wondering if anybody has an idea about the difference between regional climate models and numerical weather prediction models that are run at the same domain. I have a basic idea that the ...
3
votes
1answer
3k views

ERA Interim, how to handle total precipitation

I am trying to compute accumulated annual precipitation for year 2000-2001 based on the ERA Interim, but I am stuck with some unresolved questions: If I download the synoptic monthly means of "total ...
3
votes
0answers
161 views

Where does molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere come from?

This figure from Wikipedia's Atmosphere of Earth shows a hydrogen fraction of 0.000055 percent by volume. Question: Where does molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere come from? Does this come directly ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

What is a seamount? [closed]

Per Oxford Dictionary of Earth Sciences: Seamounts are isolated, submarine mountain rising more than 1000m above the ocean floor. The sharp, crested summits of seamounts are usually 1000-2000m ...
3
votes
1answer
167 views

Why doesn't Earth absorb our carbon emissions?

If we look at the carbon cycle, we see that man-made carbon emission only account for a tiny fraction of all $\text{CO}_2$ emissions. However, we see a steady rise in atmospheric $\text{CO}_2$-levels....

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