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How to calculate water vapor flux divergence from temperature, relative humidity, u wind and v wind?

I have temperature, u wind, v wind and relative humidity. I am wondering to calculate water vapor flux divergence and convergence. Would anybody kindly help to find our a solution for this?
3k views

ERA Interim, how to handle total precipitation

I am trying to compute accumulated annual precipitation for year 2000-2001 based on the ERA Interim, but I am stuck with some unresolved questions: If I download the synoptic monthly means of "total ...
161 views

Where does molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere come from?

This figure from Wikipedia's Atmosphere of Earth shows a hydrogen fraction of 0.000055 percent by volume. Question: Where does molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere come from? Does this come directly ...
167 views

Why doesn't Earth absorb our carbon emissions?

If we look at the carbon cycle, we see that man-made carbon emission only account for a tiny fraction of all $\text{CO}_2$ emissions. However, we see a steady rise in atmospheric $\text{CO}_2$-levels....
1k views

How much do tides affect earth's rotational velocity?

Many of us are familiar with an exaggerated picture of the Moon's effect on Earth's tides: Since the Earth is not uniformly covered with water, however, I imagine that the tidal effect will depend on ...
3k views

What is the difference between chalcophile and siderophile elements?

As it is described (W. M. White, Geochemistry): Siderophile elements have an affinity for a metallic liquid phase and chalcophile elements have an affinity for a sulfide liquid phase. What ...
100 views

Is the rainforest too wet to burn?

I want to know if a living rainforest in the Amazon, completely untouched by humans, is too wet for the fire to spread, even in the dryer months around July? I.e. if somebody dropped 5000 gallons of ...
406 views

Website that contains the maps of atmospheric pressure and wind speeds

Is there a website that contains the maps of atmospheric pressure and wind speeds for specific climatic events such as hurricanes day after day ?
638 views

Why don't lightning strikes cause a lot of injury or damage to property?

We hear about people being injured or killed, or property being damaged or destroyed, by flash floods all the time. Or by straight line winds. Or by hail. Or by tornadoes. Why not lightning?
926 views

Why don't spring tides occur at full/new moon (age of tide)?

Tides observations everywhere show that spring tides occur not at full or new moon, at the time of maximum driving forces, but typically a day or two later. What causes this delay?
3k views

What is a seamount? [closed]

Per Oxford Dictionary of Earth Sciences: Seamounts are isolated, submarine mountain rising more than 1000m above the ocean floor. The sharp, crested summits of seamounts are usually 1000-2000m ...
116 views

Conversion of an NWP model into climate model

I am wondering if anybody has an idea about the difference between regional climate models and numerical weather prediction models that are run at the same domain. I have a basic idea that the ...
61 views

Is there a sort of “global natural disaster” index?

Is there what could be called a "global disaster index", i.e., a measure of the number, weighted by their intensities, of all the world's natural disasters at given moments in time throughout history?
396 views

How to best visualize temperature increase (due to climate change) using GHCN data?

Immediately below is an illustration of my first/prototype attempt to visualize this, which is further explained after that... What you're looking at is a year-by-year animation of TMAX (daily max ...
69 views

How would this experiment's different particle types produce atmospheric reflectivity?

The MIT Technology Review news item Harvard Scientists Moving Ahead on Plans for Atmospheric Geoengineering Experiments discusses a proposed experiment to study in a carefully controlled way the ...
33 views

Winter Wheat & Wildfires

TL;DR: How susceptible is winter wheat to wildfire, in the environment that winter wheat is used? The scenario: Shallow water table, a steppe environment, deep-root winter wheat and a HIGH ...
61 views

Endogenous Theories For the Origin of Earth's Water (Dry/Wet Accretion?)

I have really two questions: (1) what evidence is there in favour that the majority of Earth's water formed with the planet. (2) what evidence is there that the majority of water did not form with ...
74 views

Are there measurements or calculations that suggest atmospheric ice plates would be horizontal to within 0.1 degrees?

This question describes a recently released explanation for flashes of light seen at the sub-solar point above Earth from the DSCOVR satellite, which is located in a special orbit between the Earth ...
68 views

Ocean air reaching maximum humidity

How many miles (or how many hours/days) does air have to travel over the ocean to reach maximum humidity or carry the maximum amount of water it would hold at typical humidity assuming a wind speed of ...
573 views

How to calculate 3-hour flux values in ERA-Interim?

Referring to the post: https://www.myroms.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=3003 I understood how to calculate the slhf and sshf for 03, 06, 09 and 12 time steps. But I have values for 00, 15, 18 ...
150 views

Land's effect on winds and currents?

If we did a thought experiment and imagined the Earth to be covered in a global ocean (ie. no land to slow winds or direct ocean currents) would winds and waves be perpetually enormous or would they ...
73 views

Why a stratus cloud does not always reach all the way to the ground?

The surface of the ground at night cools down because of outgoing long-wave radiation. In my understanding the cooling of the surface also causes cooling of the adjacent air. If the air contains ...
93 views

Why the “Mission to Earth’s core” proposal suggests using liquid iron instead of lead?

Nature communications article "Mission to Earth's core — a modest proposal", suggests placing a large volume of liquid iron in a crack and let it sink all the way to the Earth's core, carrying along a ...
11k views

Hypothetically, what would happen to the earth if a large hole was drilled through the center?

This may be a slightly unusual question. I know it wouldn't be possible, but what would the short and long term effects be, if a large (say, 1 mile diameter) round hole appeared, and went straight ...
137 views

Why are all rainbows are not the same? [closed]

How does these rainbows water drops differ? I know it has to do with the size of water drops refracting light. Is there a formula that determines the type of rainbow? Icebow Unlike this questions ...
2k views

Difference between Meteosat and Insat satellite Images

I have seen many times that their are two kinds of Satellite Images shown on the websites like Skymet for India i.e. Meteosat satellite images Insat satellite images I want to understand the basic ...
208 views

How would our weather change in the event of a magnetic pole shift?

Every two hundred thousand years or so the magnetic poles flip. Obviously it is not life ending but how would our weather change? How long does the transition take? Is there a map or model to show ...
196 views

What divides Hydrological Unit Code areas of the same level?

I'm trying to better understand the Hydrological Unit Code (HUC) system of the United States. I understand the basic hierarchy of it (HUC4, 6, 8, 12) and watersheds/drainage areas. Here's what I want ...
37 views

What does a “closed basin” mean in groundwater terms?

This answer talks about a "closed basin" that has an outflow to the sea. I had previously assumed that "closed basin" meant the same as "endorheic basin", but that is obviously not the case. What is ...
50 views

How does friction and radiolysis provide hydrogen for “unusual types of methane”?

The fascinating New York Times article Gas That Makes a Mountain Breathe Fire Is Turning Up Around the World talks about the Flames of Chimaera and the Deep Carbon Observatory: And a series of ...
170 views

Seeking rock identification [closed]

This rock was found it Easton, Pennsylvania by the Delaware River. I'm just starting to become interested and collecting and hoping to use this site to gain knowledge on the rocks and minerals I find! ...
108 views

How did these grassy hillsides in Colombia become terraced?

In Colombia, many grassy hillsides are terraced, like in the photo below. This terracing also occurs on hillsides that never had these palm trees on them. I assume that it also occurs outside of ...
521 views

Why do cities at high altitude regions have high atmospheric pressures?

Why do cities at high altitude regions, such as Lhasa, altitude 11995ft (3656 metre), have high atmospheric pressures such as 30.11inHg (101.97 kPa) in the weather report?
58 views

At what point are water droplets too small to make a rainbow?

This question asks How to tell if fog is made out of water droplets or ice crystals? I know that ice fog makes a rainbow where fog does not. Ice crystals aside: How does the water droplet size ...
2k views

Why is the density of Earth higher at the core

If gravitation decreases as we approach the core and if density is a function of gravity we should expect a void core. Unless the accretion disk was formed starting with the objects of highest mass ...
580 views

What would happen to the Earth if there were no seasons?

If the Earth was in a fixed equinox state, what would the equilibrium temperature be at each pole? Assume daily cycle and convection and so on operate as usual, just that it's permanent sunset at both ...
655 views

How does soil fertility differ between Scandinavia and Russia

How is climate and soil fertility different in Scandinavia comparing to Russian territory of 1500s? Did Scandinavia have more favorable climate and more of arable and higher yielding soil than Russia ...
25 views

How interpret NOAA Aurora 3 day Forecast?

My family is taking road trip in Quebec Oct 4 to 18, 2019. I posted our route on Google. Just double checking how interpret NOAA's Aurora 3 day forecast? It shows aurora borealis any where north to ...
259 views

What is the highest balloons possible in a chain?

The BU60-1 balloon attained an altitude of 53.0 km (32.9 mi; 173,900 ft). Weather permitting, would a series of climbable balloons in a chain be able to be linked from the ground to that height of ...
125 views

Why does hot air sink in the eye of a tropical cyclone? [duplicate]

We know that warm air rises in the atmosphere due to the reduced density of the parcel itself. But in the eye of a tropical cyclone the warm air sinks down and does not reach the surface, but gets ...
93 views

Does this weather pattern have a name?

The past few weeks of spring in northern Ohio I believe I have noticed a weather pattern where the weather forecast will show a string of days with rain, but what happens is the day is mostly clear, ...
195 views

What would a graph of magnitude >7.5 earthquakes over last 400 years compared to Grand Solar Minimums look like?

I am a novice here and I really appreciate the graph of magnitude >7 earthquakes related to 11(22)yr solar minimum cycles. I was wondering what the correlation would be (if any) if we changed the ...
68 views

Help understanding radar data in subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap

The BBC News article Isolated lakes found beneath Canadian ice sheet links to the open access Science Advances article Discovery of a hypersaline subglacial lake complex beneath Devon Ice Cap, ...
46 views

What statistics do we have regarding the probability of window breakage by wind speed?

One thing that has stood out from our past hurricanes in central Florida and also from watching those around the country is the real large propensity for folks to board up windows. But it has also ...
58 views

Is “Chasm One” the really the name of this feature on the Brunt Ice Shelf?

The BBC News article Antarctic: No role for climate in Halley iceberg splitting says: With no-one on the ice surface, notice of any breakaway will have to come from automated in-situ ...
704 views

If the Oceans Were Deeper

Back home, the average depths of the world's oceans--and the Mediterranean Sea--are as follows: Atlantic--3926 meters Pacific--4028 meters Indian--3963 meters Arctic--1205 meters Southern--4500 ...
66 views

Forest rings shape regularity

In the answer to "Why is ground water rising on these forest rings?" it is written: these rings are too numerous and too regular in shape to be related to either kimberlites or (even more ...
101 views

Sailing Around the World on a Jet Stream

An ultra light plane can stay in flight up to 2400 km (the World Record) with out an engine using thermal lift. Can a huge kite like airship (not a blimp) be built to indefinitely sail in and out of ...