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13
votes
1answer
4k views

What is the difference between roughness length and zero plane displacement?

Both roughness length $z_0$ and zero plane displacement $d$ seemed to be defined as the height above the ground at which wind speed theoretically becomes zero. But wind speed is also supposed to go to ...
13
votes
5answers
4k views

How to reduce the atmospheric temperature artificially?

Is there any gas/substance which absorbs/reduces atmospheric temperature? Ozone filters UV rays from the sun light and allows in infrared rays. In my knowledge these infrared rays are the cause of ...
13
votes
1answer
305 views

What can I use as a heatproof, non-magnetic glue for samples?

I, and many of my palaeomagnetist colleagues, often use thermal demagnetization (potentially up to 800°C) in our studies. Usually a stepwise technique is employed, so each sample is heated -- often 20 ...
12
votes
1answer
1k views

Can climate change cause earthquakes, tsunamis, or volcanic eruptions?

Different scientists have brought forth a theory that climate change can cause earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions. For example: Professor Bill McGuire of University College London in his ...
12
votes
4answers
2k views

When will the Final Ice Age happen?

As the Sun's luminosity slowly rises, the Earth's surface temperature will climb. Will Earth ever be too warm to have any more glacial periods? If so, when will that be? Edit: The existing answer ...
12
votes
1answer
183 views

Why does every tsunami travel differently?

Tsunamis are quite interesting, as they only happen after a large displacement of water. Usually, the waves travel quite weirdly. Sometimes there are waves which bounce off of land and go back to sea....
12
votes
2answers
2k views

Can an Atlantic hurricane enter Mediterranean sea?

I can't find any examples, has it just never happened before or is it impossible because of environmental factors?
12
votes
4answers
373 views

Can an earthquake occurring within two plates trigger another earthquake in a far away plate boundary?

Can an earthquake occurring between two plates, like the Pacific Plate and North American Plate cause any effect which would trigger an earthquake in a far away place like the boundary between the ...
12
votes
1answer
471 views

Did global warming cause the extreme cold 2013-14 winter in North America?

There have been some claims made (example) that global warming had something to do with why the 2013-2014 winter was so cold in the Midwest area of America. If this is true then how did global ...
12
votes
1answer
357 views

What is the current theory about the formation of Tibet?

Although I basically understand, that how the Himalayas formed, it has always confused me how did the vast high Tibetian Plateau came into existence behind it? And what would be its future, is it ...
12
votes
1answer
803 views

Is there a standard definition of the term “mountain”?

Is there any standard internationally recognizable definition of the term "mountain"? If international texts describe some terrain as mountains, do they use some international definition of the term,...
12
votes
1answer
464 views

Where and how can seismic data for earthquakes and volcanoes be downloaded?

I need it in this format. I went to USGS and IRIS websites but couldn't understand the downloading procedure
12
votes
1answer
2k views

Is there any correlation between La Niña/El Niño and seismic activity?

I've read in the past that extreme precipitation levels may have an effect on seismic activity, and wondered if anyone has ever analysed the La Niña / El Niño cycles to see if there are any ...
12
votes
4answers
995 views

What do the derivative or the integral of amplitude of a seismogram mean?

I'm doing a project in which I'm analyzing earthquake seismogram waves. I used a program to graph the exact amplitudes and how they changed over the course of a single earthquake. For the project I ...
12
votes
1answer
476 views

Formation of limestone without living organisms?

Limestones are formed mostly from skeletal fragments of marine organisms. However, calcium carbonate dissolves naturally in water, so the living organisms are not the only source of it in water. Is ...
12
votes
1answer
427 views

Relation between direction of shear and tropical cyclone formation

In an earlier question/answer Why are there no cyclones in the southern Atlantic basin there was a point raised about direction of shear(abetting/retarding) cyclone formation. It appears ...
12
votes
1answer
306 views

Are there significant amounts of rare earth elements on Iceland?

The rare earth elements form in magmatic rocks. The Iceland is very active vulcanic region, and it's, to my knowledge, entirely build from magmatic rocks. So it wouldn't be surprising if there were ...
12
votes
1answer
4k views

Why does the shoreline sometimes recede prior to a Tsunami?

It is well known among regular beach goers that a sudden shoreline drawback is often a warning sign for an impending Tsunami. My understanding of Tsunamis is they they form as a result of the ...
12
votes
2answers
11k views

How to compare earthquake magnitudes

On the USGS website, it says Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; However my book says ...
11
votes
1answer
144 views

Are there any metal anomalies other than iridium in the K-Pg boundary?

The iridium anomaly marks the elevated concentration of iridium in sedimentary deposits of the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The iridium is said to come from the impactor, which is supposed to have ...
11
votes
1answer
2k views

Why do tropical cyclones around Australia have erratic paths?

According to the Australia Bureau of Meterology: Research has shown that cyclones in the Australian region exhibit more erratic paths than cyclones in other parts of the world. A tropical ...
11
votes
2answers
3k views

Is the epicenter always directly above the hypocenter?

All the graphics I've seen showing epicenters with a hypocenter (labeled focus in the graph below) appear to show that epicenters are always directly above their related hypocenters. Is this correct?
11
votes
1answer
2k views

Intuitive explanation of precipitation amount

I'm trying to learn how to make sense of numbers in a forecast. I can interpret temperature and wind speed, but I don't know what to make of rainfall. What does it mean, for a human, that there will ...
11
votes
3answers
231 views

Is it right practice to validate temperature data with reanalysis data?

For a project I am working on I received raw data from many meteorology stationes. Is it right practice to test this data against air temperature from noaa's ncep/ncar data?
11
votes
1answer
422 views

What does the term “Snow Interval” mean?

When looking Weather Station readings from the National Weather Service website, what does the term "Snow Interval (inches)" actually mean? 6 hr and 24 hr readings are obvious, but I can't seem to ...
11
votes
1answer
736 views

How are organic walled microfossils preserved in the fossil record?

Organic walled microfossils have no hard mineralised parts, how are they preserved in the fossil record?
11
votes
4answers
2k views

Hudson Bay Has Low Gravity?

Is there lower gravity at the Hudson Bay? How does this happen? And where exactly is this because I might want to go.
11
votes
1answer
242 views

Equation for predicting contrail formation

I am working on a data visualisation of airline flight paths and their probability of forming contrails. Given weather data for a specific area (location, time, temperature, pressure and humidity) ...
11
votes
1answer
1k views

Did the Neolithic Revolution have an effect on the earth's climate?

I imagine that human agriculture had a major effect on the composition of flora across the planet's surface. Did the transition from gathering to growing have a measurable effect on climate? If so, ...
11
votes
1answer
442 views

What periods of the fossil record are most lacking in specimens?

What parts of the fossil record are most lacking in specimens? That is, if you were to trace the evolution of a modern mammal (humans, for example) from abiogenesis to now, which periods are the most ...
11
votes
1answer
257 views

Is there conclusive evidence for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current developing after the glaciation of Antarctica?

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the continuous oceanic current that encircles the Antarctic continent, as is often explained in the literature as being the cause of the onset of glaciation ...
11
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the fastest the Earth has ever spun?

How fast can the Earth rotate and support life? In prehistoric times, dinosaurs were so massive that archeologists wonder how they were not crushed under their own weight. Could a faster spinning ...
11
votes
1answer
185 views

Why would there be no hydrocarbons in the Sveconorwegian belt?

I've had an inconclusive chat about the Sveconorwegian belt of the Fennoscandian shield, the western parts in particular, and reasons as to why there would not be any deposits of hydrocarbons there. ...
10
votes
1answer
487 views

What geological processes affect the speed of Kilauea lava flows?

The recent lava flows from the current eruption from the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii have generated a considerable amount of interest and concern for property. In the article slow-motion disaster as ...
10
votes
2answers
4k views

Why is Egypt so dry?

If you look at this wind map (for July, but following the link you can also view other months): you will see that Egypt gets its air from the Mediterranean sea. During other months it could get less ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

What impact on climate did 2011 earthquake and tsunami have?

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami was one of the biggest in modern history; the earthquake even moved Earth's axis for a very small, but measurable bit. The four years since then is not enough ...
10
votes
1answer
348 views

What makes a nuclear winter so extreme and destructive?

This may be a sort of, pertinent to the times, and disturbing question, inspired by the difficulties surrounding North Korea and the situation with it and nuclear weapons. I've heard of this idea of "...
10
votes
1answer
7k views

How long does it take to form amber?

How long does the formation of the amber take? Are there any approximation of the minimal time needed to convert resin into amber in the most favorable conditions? Would it be possible to produce ...
10
votes
1answer
237 views

What principles do we consider when selecting an air pollution monitor location?

I'm working on a project aiming at finding some potential point as a new air pollutant monitor site for a city to measure $SO_2$, $NO_2$, $PM_{2.5}$, etc. After modeling the surface concentration of ...
10
votes
3answers
464 views

Will the oceans swallow all of the land?

I am wondering why, since the oceans could feasibly hold all of the dry land, they in fact do not. For example, the Mariana Trench drops to -10.9km, while Mount Everest only reaches to +8.8km. ...
10
votes
1answer
724 views

How deep was the Vredefort Crater when it happened?

The Vredefort Crater is one of the biggest known impact craters on earth. How deep would it have been, relative to the original ground height, immediately after the dust settled, and before any ...
9
votes
1answer
192 views

Where did the daily temperature variation go?

Currently central and northern Europe are experiencing a very cold, false-spring like weather phenomenon. When i look at local weather charts, the daily temperature cycle seems to be completely gone, ...
9
votes
1answer
175 views

What kind of rock is this being eaten by a rock-eating worm?

The New York Times article This Creature Eats Stone. Sand Comes Out the Other End. describes the shipworm Lithoredo abatanica, an organism that appears to "eat solid rock". It links to the item in ...
9
votes
2answers
309 views

Is the Arctic sea ice volume increasing?

According to the graph below, Arctic sea ice volume has been decreasing from 1979-2012: Though this graph from the ESA’s CryoSat satellite show that the volume of Arctic sea ice increased 50% from ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Differences between TEOS-10 and EOS-80 for salinity

In 2009, the oceanographic community decided to adopt the Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater - 2010 (www.teos-10.org) as the standard to calculate the properties of seawater. As part of that, they ...
9
votes
1answer
104 views

The Tambora eruption caused the “Year without a summer”. How much would such an eruption today affect the output of solar pv on a global scale?

Are there any estimates for the reduction of global solar insolation at the Earth's surface that a Tambora scale eruption would bring? If our electrical power generation became heavily reliant on ...
9
votes
4answers
281 views

Considering how old the Antarctic ice cover is, why isn't it much thicker?

The Wikipedia article on the subject of the "Antarctic ice sheet" says that: The icing of Antarctica began in the middle Eocene about 45.5 million years ago and escalated during the Eocene–...
9
votes
1answer
210 views

Monsoonal interactions with mid latitude disturbances

For the past few years in succession India has witnessed extreme flooding events caused by monsoonal troughs colloding with what appears transitory mid latitude disturbances and these appear to ...
9
votes
2answers
653 views

Relationship between natural disaster and global warming, in the media

Sorry in advance if this is too broad a question. Feel free to let me know if it is off-topic. I don't know more than the next person around about climate change, but I am really not a climato-...
9
votes
1answer
352 views

How does the composition of volcanic rock change as it makes its ascent towards the surface?

A schematic for the fluid mechanics of a volcano is represented below. Graciously borrowed from Figure 1 of the reference cited below From the caption of that figure: During explosive eruptions, ...

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