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0answers
13 views

What if Pinatubo's eruption in 1991 had been followed by a La Niña rather than an El Niño?

If there had been a La Niña rather than an El Niño in 1991-92, would the sulfur aerosol veil caused by the release of 17-20 megatons of sulfur dioxide during the Pinatubo eruption of June 1991 have ...
3
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0answers
29 views

Climate change impact / risk assessment

I work for a local council in the UK. We want to include climate change as a mandatory consideration in all of our decision making. This would require project managers to look at the risk (what ...
1
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1answer
36 views

At what point is the atmospheric pressure considered to be high or low?

I am working with a program that I want to inform the atmospheric pressure level at atm and if the pressure is high, ...
1
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0answers
14 views

Question Concerning Meteorite Ejecta Travel

I was researching more into the studies done by Kjaer and his team ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235527/ ) concerning the hypothesis about the Younger Dryas impact crater named ...
0
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0answers
11 views

Would a water rocket be better/worse for greenhouse effect compared to more standard methalox/kerolox cycles?

So there is a company called Arcaspace whose launch vehicle gimmick is that by replacing the first stage boosters, which are generally either solid/cryogenic propellants with water/steam propulsion. ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Has Earth's geological activity calmed down in the past 250 million years?

In the past, the Earth's ecosystem has experienced catastrophic mass extinctions as a result of large-scale volcanic eruptions. One example is the event known as the "Great Dying", 252 ...
0
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0answers
19 views

Identifying thrust faults on a geologic map

I am not able to upload the map as the file is too large, but I have a map which states there is an over thrust fault. It has two ticks on it indicating downthrow to the NE. The downthrow is pointing ...
0
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3answers
73 views

Over what distance can weather be assumed to be constant?

Good afternoon, I'm working on an application makes calls to a weather API for different coordinates across the United States. Instead of getting the weather at each and every point, I'm planning on ...
0
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0answers
25 views

What are the green grape looking things called that washed a shore on east coast beaches? [closed]

I went to Miami Beach today and noticed these little green grape looking things that seamed to have water inside and washed up with parts of the coral reef. Just wondering what they are
3
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1answer
46 views

How much wind power is there roughly in Britain and its surrounding?

Given the prominence of the climate crisis, it's important to get some estimates of how much wind power is available in Britain as part of a renewably energised future. Q. What is yearly average of ...
1
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0answers
22 views

What are the leading methods for temporally interpolating wind data?

Weather providers, such as GFS and ECMWF usually provide their data in 3-6 hour intervals. What would be the best method to interpolate between the intervals to get a good intermediate wind model? I ...
1
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0answers
43 views

It is possible to reduce global sea level via filling empty lowlands with ocean water?

There are empty lowlands in Australia and Iran like Dasht-e Lut. If we fill these lands with ocean water then could we reduce the global sea level and save coastal cities like venice?
1
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1answer
42 views

Where do I get hourly temperature data for cities with a high resolution?

I want to do a project with very high resolution temperature data from a city (any city) with very high resolution (<10 m), in an attempt to create an animated 3D microclimate map for that city. ...
1
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0answers
16 views

Historical detailed rainfall recordings New Zealand

I'm wanting to know where/if I can find 2019 records of hourly rainfall in New Zealand particularly for November in Greymouth South Island
3
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1answer
25 views

Are there four-times daily sea surface temperature (SST) data product for Tropical Cyclone research?

Now I am working on a Tropical Cyclone project, and want to figure out the SST status when a TC passes by. I've been searching for SST products, yet there only show up to daily SST. My question is ...
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0answers
32 views

What kind of stone is this? [closed]

The stones are quite heavy, matte white with brown coloration throughout.
0
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1answer
26 views

Is COMSOL Multiphysics good for subduction CFD modelling? Are there alternatives?

As a beginner for CFD modelling of plate subduction, I heard comsol to be a good software. Can anybody suggests alternatives and the demerits of using COMSOL Multiphysics? Thank you.
5
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1answer
59 views

Book on the history of Earth and life on Earth

I am interested in getting a better overview of the full history of the Earth and the evolution of life. Therefore I am looking for a book that goes through the different geological time scales of the ...
3
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0answers
24 views

Tidal current energy chart - Messina Strait

I am a student in industrial engineering, and I am doing a business plan related to exploiting Messina Strait current for electrical energy. Does anyone have a tidal stream chart (either with velocity ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Why are thrust faults older than normal faults in the Himalayan-Tibetan plateau?

In the Himalayan-Tibetan plateau, both normal and thrust faults are observed. Geological age dating suggests thrust faults are older (before 18-20 Ma) than the normal faults (after 18-20 Ma). Explain ...
4
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0answers
44 views

What effect does climate change have on the Earth's rotation?

I recently read a blog entry from a leap-second expert explaining that in near term (i.e. last 3 years) the Earth has been spinning ever so slightly faster, delaying the need to insert a leap-second (...
0
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0answers
13 views

How to efficiently estimate merchentable volume for timber inventory using species, DBH, and merchentable heights?

I am trying to estimate wood volume for forest stands I have field-inventoried using a variable plot sample method, measuring species, DBH, and height of each tree counted 'in' using a BAF-10 prism. ...
2
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0answers
30 views

How would district heating affect the temperature of the earth's mantle/core?

I recently came across this article outlining the use of our advancements in oil and gas drilling to implement "district heating" (or geothermal heating for our buildings/cities as a whole) ...
3
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2answers
51 views

How much does the gravitational and magnetic fields of a planet effect the chemistry in it?

It is known that the earth has a magnetic field and gravitational field around it, I wish to ask to what degree is the chemistry on the planet is influenced by these fields? How would the chemical ...
2
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1answer
57 views

Why exactly did the use of Greek letters as names for Hurricanes happen the first place, despite the fairly obvious and predictable impracticalities?

The Washington Post article Hurricanes Eta and Iota brought disaster to Central America. Officials can’t retire their names. describes a complicated situation, aspects of which are: Eta roared ashore ...
0
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2answers
32 views

Are marine fossils in the mountain happens due to lower sea levels?

https://9gag.com/gag/aBme0M2 This one says it is I am not sure whether to ask this in geology or biology. How does marine fossils show up in mountains?
3
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0answers
16 views

How far would average sea level rise from a 25% increase in total ocean volume?

What amount of average sea level rise (in meters above 2020 levels) would be associated with a 25% increase in total ocean volume? The reason I ask is because of this study that indicates Earth has ...
2
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1answer
43 views

Are there any sulphides, sulphates, carbonates that cannot be dissolved by aqua regia?

I was looking into these specific minerals: arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, barite, calcite, dolomite. I investigate issues with tellurides not showing expected gold concentrations. There is gold ...
4
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3answers
96 views

Did we ever record a reduction in sea level when the Panama canal was constructed?

Are any instruments today or at the time of the creation of the Panama canal capable of detecting a reduction in sea level from the creation of it? Given the size of the canal in comparison to the ...
2
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0answers
31 views

The fastest way to produce fruits from trees [migrated]

I want to plant a fruit tree orchard, and I am a bit confused between: Planting trees from seeds and then grafting them Growing from existing tree cuttings Cloning branches and transplanting them ...
1
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0answers
28 views

How would I compare (CO$_2$-eq) kg$^{−1}$ with metric tons?

I'm doing a project and looking at one of my scholarly resources, it says that The carbon footprint per kilogram protein of plant-based substitutes was found in the range of 6–17 carbon dioxide ...
1
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0answers
15 views

Can not open Grib files from Nomands

I am trying to read in a file from https://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov I can read all multigrid files like here but my script fails to read files from other links that are ...
9
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4answers
152 views

Language to modernize a scientific Fortran codebase

Dear earth science community, I am seeking a language to modernize a large Fortran project that works with geospatial NetCDF files. The requirements for this language include: A rock-solid NetCDF ...
1
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0answers
54 views

Is it a Lake, Cove, Tidal Creek or a Spring?

We are very confused by this water body. This is called "Carolina Lake" however other suggests that it is not a Lake but a cove. Other say it is a tidal creek for it is influenced by tide. ...
1
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0answers
42 views

How are mGal-smooth free-air gravity anomaly measurements made exactly? (tiny variations of acceleration on a bumpy airplane ride)

Free-air gravity anomaly measurements from Operation Icebridge aircraft are described in A fault-bounded palaeo-lake basin preserved beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (open access). Question: These ...
3
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0answers
47 views

How would one go about drawing the contour lines for this map in order to draw the cross section?

Good Day. We Received this map as practice for our Geology university module and I have no idea how to draw the strike lines where the different heights intersect the different rock types in order to ...
3
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0answers
30 views

what elevation is top of southeastern US summer humidity/haze layer?

We're interested in purchasing a vacation lake house in the piedmont/foothills of North Carolina. In earlier summers there, when driving from the mountains home to lower (sub-1000ft) elevations, I've ...
3
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0answers
41 views

How would you predict the future climate with only 7 years of interest?

In my specific case, I have worked with a data set from 2001 to 2018 which had to be split up in 2012 due to major updates in the data. Therefore, I am now dealing with a data set of 12 years (2001 to ...
4
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0answers
26 views

How to download the GFS 2m Temperature data?

I am attempting to download the 2m temperature forecast from the GFS forecasts archived by AWS's open dataset archive. I am having some issues figuring out the feature name to search for in the file ...
0
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0answers
19 views

I would like to know where can I get historic global/national (preferably USA) level time-series data for the following (preferably gridded data)? [duplicate]

I would like to know where can I get historic global/national (preferably USA) level time-series data for the following (preferably gridded data)? Flood, Drought, Max temperature, Min temperature, ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Which type of plant absorbs the most net carbon dioxide per year per square km?

The answer to How many trees would I have to plant to solve Global Warming? demonstrates how unviable it would be to simply plant trees to counter climate change (we'd need to plant ~60 millions km$^2$...
1
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0answers
36 views

Subsidence Inversion

With minimal knowledge of meteorology I understand how a high pressure system might lead to an inversion that builds as a high becomes more established, but why doesn’t the subsidence layer ever reach ...
2
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2answers
38 views

How does metamorphism change talc into soapstone?

My understanding is that soapstone is talc (hydrated magnesium silicate) which has been metamorphically transformed. However, it is not clear to me how this transformation affects the talc. What is ...
1
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0answers
22 views

Structural geology

Map 4 shows two dykes that have been offset by a vertical fault. In different coloured pencils, draw strike lines on each dyke. (a) On a blank sheet of paper, use the strike lines that you have drawn ...
1
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1answer
47 views

Why does the annual temperature range get bigger where latitude is higher?

Why does the annual temperature range get bigger where latitude is higher? Is it because of the ocean currents? Or is there any other factor that causes this situation?
1
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0answers
48 views

Is there really precipitation on Mars? Does frost count?

The NASA Goddard science education page answer to Reading about Mars, I noticed that it has .03% of water vapor in it's atmosphere, and my question was if it has water vapor why doesn't it have ...
9
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1answer
388 views

What are Atmospheric Rossby Waves and how do they affect the weather?

I've been researching Atmospheric Rossby waves but from the multiple sources I used they all seem to be in conflict. Some say Rossby waves are parcels of air moving from east to west due to the ...
1
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1answer
26 views

Introductory course on interpreting GOES-R satellite images?

As you might be aware, GOES-R is a very rich satellite system that delivers near real-time weather information for the globe. There are at least 16 channels reported (this site is great for monitoring ...
6
votes
2answers
79 views

Will the sea get saltier forever?

The sea wasn't always salty. It's been getting saltier over millions of years as minerals dissolve. Is there a natural limit to this process, or the will the sea keep getting saltier forever? Is there ...
0
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0answers
24 views

Problem in downloading ERA5 data

it's my first time to ask question here, thank you for your answer(if any:) So I need to download the ERA5 land daily data, and as I try to download it from the website, the progress bar always shows ...

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