# All Questions

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### Looking for videos/GIFs of petrification/permineralization

Do you know of any good animations, videos, or GIFs of petrification/permineralization? For some students verbal and written explanations don’t work, they don't always visualize well. So it’d be ...
22 views

### Tropical cyclones in North Indian Ocean in winter

The North Indian Ocean basin which consists of Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea witnesses mainly two tropical cyclone seasons: pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. My question is that what is it that causes the ...
49 views

### Measuring the circumference of the earth - revisited

I have done a bit of research on this topic already and the easiest way seems to be the experiment by Eratosthenes. We pick two locations on the same latitude (of which we know the distance) and then ...
53 views

### Now Mars is pulsing 3 times per night in the UV, can anyone explain these waves in simple terms? Does this happen on Earth?

I link below to questions on another kind of Mars pulse) Phys.org's NASA's Maven observes Martian night sky pulsing in ultraviolet light links to the new paper Imaging of Martian Circulation Patterns ...
37 views

### What is the scientific reason for Falgu river being subterranean?

According to wikipedia "The Phalgu or Falgu, a river that flows past Gaya, India in the Indian state of Bihar, is a sacred river for Hindus and Buddhists. Lord Vishnu's Temple Vishnupad Mandir is ...
95 views

### Have we looked for human-like signals in the geological record?

This is somewhat of a follow up to some interesting discussion here about using synthetic radioisotopes to define the start of the anthropocene. It is also sort of related to a question asked here, ...
41 views

### South Georgia Island and Settlement

I know there were settlements in South Georgia in the past, but they were all abandoned. Is there any environmental reason why a new settlement could not be made? Especially with global warming, the ...
26 views

I had this albedo conversion written down: $$\alpha = 0.53\alpha_{VIS}+0.47\alpha_{NIR}$$ I had on my notes that this equation was form Collins et al (2002). However, I cannot find where this came ...
37 views

### Glassy Rock/Mineral Identification in Victoria, BC (Canada) [closed]

The following rock (image below) was found in my in-laws backyard recently. The location is Victoria, BC (Canada) and is fairly far in-land (tens of kilometers from any coastlines). Its surface is ...
9k views

### Is there any river that does not discharge into larger body of water?

Do you know any example of a river that does not flow into sea or lake? For example, if water rises from the underground spring and forms a river but water vaporises in hot climate before it reaches ...
41 views

### How to obtain the saturation point of a soil layer from the volumetric soil water content data?

Would you please let me know if the following is accurate as an answer to the question: Suppose we have sensors which measure the volumetric soil water content of a soil layer for a long period (more ...
15 views

### Where can I find canopy reflectance data for crops (soybean in particular) for different dates across the growing season

I have been trying to find literature values for reflectance of soybean for different dates along the growing season (I am specifically interested in 30, 60 and ~120 days after planting - so the V3/V4 ...
53 views

### Thunderstorm Frequency Depending on the Year [closed]

Why is it that some years have significantly more thunderstorms than others while other years have significantly less? For example, in 2008, there were 15 thunderstorm days in Asheville but above 40 ...
71 views

### Why Caspian “Sea” was not renamed into Caspian Lake? [closed]

This is beyond me. It buggers me why cartographers that eventually traveled around Caspian Lake and confirmed that it is indeed a lake, didn't rename it on maps? I understand that for tribes that ...
46 views

### What are the geographical records of Russia?

There are all kinds of "The Most..." around the world: The tallest place on earth is Mt. Everest in the China/Nepal border. The lowest place on earth is in the Dead Sea in Israel / Jordan ...
48 views

### How to curb losses during annual heavy rainfalls

Every year I see these sort of news articles where states are flooded particularly due to their geographical location and vicinity to flood prone areas, however year after year there is no improvement ...
51 views

### How to start studying dinosaurs and pre-historic mammals/sea creatures

I'm kind new to this hole thing of dinosaurs that I'm really interested in, are there any good books/websites/webpages to study the biology of pre-historic creatures? Dinosaurs, mammals, fishes, ...
45 views

### Book Introduction to Climate Change

The question might be in an opinion-based grey zone. If it is, I apologize. My wife and I want to get informed about climate change. We want to read a book (no online course etc.) and it should be ...
80 views

### Color of Sunsets

I heard that hot weather in the summer makes the pastel colors of the sunset sky more vivid and more red? Is this true? But I also heard that in the winter, the colors of the sunset sky are brighter ...
53 views

I am trying to formulate a research topic centered around the environmental effects of general aviation's continued use of leaded gasoline (containing tetraethyllead) to power piston aircraft. In ...
181 views

### Why is the creation of water from the combustion of hydrocarbons not listed as a cause for rising sea levels?

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa8390 According to this paper, water is created by burning hydrocarbon fuels. It seems like a major thing to exclude from "reasons the sea ...
57 views

### Where to find reliable snowfall rate data?

Would you please let me know where I can find/download reliable snowfall rate datasets? I am looking for multiple weather stations (in different regions) or field measured data, that contain both ...
69 views

### Does evaporated hand sanitizer pollute the environment?

With all the COVID-19 stuff going on, I feel the usage of alcohol-based hand sanitizers has increased many fold. I wonder what happens to all that evaporated alcohol in the atmosphere. How soon does ...
178 views

### Review of calculation of CO$_2$ contribution to warming

In a Swedish Facebook group for "climate change skeptics" Erik Larsen has shared his calculation of how big part of temperature change can be attributed to human emissions of carbon dioxide. ...
63 views

### Why do the highest temperature levels occur at midday?

I also see that weather forecast sites show temperatures decreasing starting from 3 to 4 pm, but the thermometer shows that it starts droping at sunset.
382 views

### Is it possible to predict the maximum daily/annual tide height without calculating hourly heights?

It's possible to predict tide at a given location and at a given time reasonably well (e.g. predicting low tide). And there are tools available that make it possible to do this calculation for any ...
48 views

### What are good oceanographic journals

I am a developer with a oceanographic side project. I did some ML on wave & tide data and thought of publishing it in a paper. What are some good journals to send it to? Any recommendations? ...
12 views

### Australia east coast data access WW3

I am currently looking into https://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/waves/product_table.shtml?-multi_1- And wondering why no station for the Australia East Coast is defined in the list. The northernmost station ...
25 views

### Beam forming FK analysis of a seismic wave

So after reading alot of literature on source localization, I found out that FK analysis is one of the most widely used methods to determine source location without explicitly calculating the ...
23 views

### What software libraries, tools or frameworks do you use for turning tabular sensor data from the field into cleaned data files

Cleaning data and turning it into a useable format that can be integrated with other datasets is a time-consuming task that earth scientists face when using sensor data. Most sensors output data in a ...
72 views

### Are rainbows a reaction from earths natural release of gas after a rain? [closed]

In my studies, Ive dropped a limestone or porous stone into water, with salt and sugar. The results where an impressive light show of color flashes. With the Earths natural release of gas, these ...
15 views

### Is there a database for Strahler numbers of rivers?

I'm looking for the Strahler stream order number of rivers in Germany. Of course it would be possible to obtain the Strahler number myself by looking up each source of each rivers. But I have to ...
78 views

### Can the frequent mowing without watering cause the total desertification in arid climate?

The law describes several modes of lawn care like ...
19 views

### How to use gridded data for a catchment scale analysis?

I need to use gridded rainfall data (0.1 degree grids) and station discharge data for analysing rainfall-runoff relationships. How do I process the data in such a way that it is justifiable to compare ...
37 views

### How does one compute an ECEF vector? [closed]

I know how to compute an n-vector given the latitude and longitude of a location. I want to compute the ECEF (Earth-centered, Earth-fixed) vector of two positions so that I can subtract those vectors ...
24 views

### Fix pH Value ongoing with right plant

I am a very beginning in planting three. I sent a ground sample for analysis and one of the results is the pH value of pH 6.2 in water solution and pH 4.75 in ...
37 views

### Seeking climate and related sciences textbook recommendations

I will be starting a Master's program in data science soon and my eventual hope/goal is to do climate-related data science work. I did an independent study for one semester in college on the ...
148 views

### Will life still be sustainable on earth when solar eclipses stop?

Estimates put the last solar eclipse at 600 million years. The question then becomes how much time is left on Earth? Stephen Hawking believes we have less then a 100 years left on Earth but that ...
32 views

### Do Self-Aggregation Simulations Depend Crucially on Radiative-Convective Equilibrium (RCE) Initial Conditions?

I've been reading papers on convective self-aggregation, such as Bretherton (2005) and Khairoutdinov (2003), and it's not clear to me why (or whether) self-aggregation depends on the model being ...
1k views

### Why did a branch against a window prevent condensation?

Last night was pretty chilly here in South East Queensland, Australia. We woke this morning to condensation on the bedroom windows but noticed something curious. Where a small branch was touching the ...
58 views

### How far downwind of a covid-19 emitter has a 1000-fold reduction in PPM?

How far downwind of a covid-19 emitter has a 1000-fold reduction in PPM? Assuming that covid-19 (0.12μm diameter) particles have the aerodynamic properties of a gas: Particles < 20 μm behave same ...
129 views

### Are we entering a new Ice Age according to Milankovitch cycles?

Milankovitch cycles consist of three orbital parameters: eccentricity, obliquity, and precession of equinoxes. According to Milutin Milankovitch, the most recent glacial period ended nearly 11,000 ...
57 views

### Can Horizontal Radiation Fluxes Contribute to Net Column Heating?

I've noticed that in many papers it's common to assume the (daily or longer averaged) vertically integrated radiative heating can be expressed $F_z(\text{TOA})-F_z(\text{SURF})$, where $F_z$ is the ...
73 views

### Why are temperatures within a few degrees of the all-time high actually pretty common?

I see from a news report that the all-time high temperature, anywhere on Earth, is 129 F. But temperatures within 10 degrees of that record are not rare, and temperatures within 20 degrees are pretty ...
89 views

### Rain during Hot Weather

During hot weather, it is uncommon for there to be rain without lightning and thunder if the weather is hot. I find that the general rule of thumb is that if it is raining while it is 70 degrees or ...
120 views

### Using Enhanced Rock Weathering in the Sahel Region of Africa

A recent Guardian article "Spreading rock dust on fields could remove vast amounts of CO2 from air" has gotten some attention in the nongovernmental and UN organizations working in the Sahel ...
67 views

### Is the lack of aerosols increasing temperatures in 2020?

2020 is predicted to be an unusually warm year and we are already seeing a lot of unusual temperatures. I was wondering, how much of an impact the reduction of aerosol emission from the global ...
64 views

### Rainfall units conversion from depth to rate/intensity

Given 6-hour rainfal data with units in meters(m), how can one convert the 6-hourly rainfall depth in meters(m) to ...