# All Questions

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### How on “Earth” can you make all those measurements of Earth forming?

This question is a result of recent news that Earth had a "boring billion" years in which mountains ceased to grow, and subsequently hindered life evolution. The article went on to give ...
63 views

### For a tree over its entire existence, does it actually have a net negative effect on atmospheric CO2?

A tree while alive converts CO2 + water -> carbohydrates + O2. However, once the tree dies, it decays, releasing CO2 back into the atmosphere. My question is, over an individual tree's overall ...
42 views

### How to derive the total potential energy of the atmosphere?

In one of Lorenz’s paper (I mean the meteorologists Edward Lorenz), he stated that the total potential energy of the whole atmosphere $P + I$ (means the sum of potential energy and internal energy) is ...
26 views

### Any recommendations for a good online lecture series on Metamorphic Petrology

Any recommendations for a good online lecture series on Metamorphic Petrology? Thank you in advance.
7k views

### Why do trees break at the same wind speed?

Several people have independently mentioned to me that all trees break at the same wind speed. This phenomenon is independent of type and size of the tree. Supposedly, Galileo already had described ...
18 views

### sub soil data finding

I am going to search and finding some subsoil data, (vanGenuchten Parameters, specific storage, Hydraulic conductivity, porosity, Manning coefficient and humidity of root zone) I have no idea about ...
29 views

### How spatial resolution of a NWP model works?

I would like to know how the resolution of a Numerical Weather Prediction model conceptually works. i.e. "Global Forecast System's forecasts with 0.5° horizontal spatial resolution" "...
50 views

### What does the term “topology” mean in geology?

What does the term "topology" mean in geological sciences? Is there an agreed upon distinction between the two terms "topography" and "topology"? When trying to answer ...
231 views

### How hot the earth will be if we have 20% CO2 in the atmosphere instead of ~0.04? and how cold would it be if doesn't have any CO2?

I know Earth once had this amount in the past, but if we got the former atmosphere with around 20% of CO2, how much the temperature will rise? assuming the atmosphere is still dominated by 78% ...
112 views

### Factor 1000 in mixing ratio formula

I am seeing two different formulas for the mixing ratio, which differ by a factor 1000. To be more specific: $w = 0.622 \cdot (e/p)$ and $w = 1000 \cdot 0.622 \cdot (e/p)$ where $e$ and $p$ are the ...
86 views

### Why are there no subduction trenches on continental land?

The ocean has some of the deepest locations on earth, typically caused by subduction zones. Why are there no subduction trenches on land?
36 views

### A database with measurments of meteorological parameters at various altitudes

I am a P.h.D student working on effects of Evaporation duct on radio propagation. Pandemic is successfully stopping me from obtaining my own measurements for my thesis, but I would like to compare the ...
109 views

### Is the maximum human population carrying capacity of Earth higher or lower than the current total human population?

Not sure if this is the right stack for this but: I have been arguing with friends on overpopulation, several are convinced that Earth cannot sustain the current population. Without getting into all ...
26 views

### Calculating/estimating volatiles based on other representative samples

I am currently working on a set of geochemical data representing calc-alkaline igneous intrusions from central Canada. The samples were analyzed in ~2013-2014. These samples have been tested for LOI ...
71 views

### How do long, thin, island chains such as North Carolina's outer banks, form?

I can't think of a possible explanation, there's no volcanic activity in the area, and it gets destroyed every time a hurricane passes through. How did it get there?
37 views

### FLUXNET15 - how to convert latent heat flux to actual evapotranspiration?

Can we convert latent heat flux to actual evapotranspiration using simply this conversion rate: 2.45 MJ m-2 day-1 = 1 mm day-1 (Allen, 1998)?
52 views

### Why does the Prime Meridian line shift in Google Earth when panning?

I'm not asking about the history of the line, nor am I asking about the tectonic plates underneath. If you look at the gif below, you will see that when panning very close to the earth on Google Earth,...
87 views

### Is there a mountain-shaped iceberg?

From Iceberg - Wikipedia, the closest mountain-shaped iceberg seem to be dome iceberg: Different shapes of icebergs. 1: Tabular; 2: Wedge; 3: Dome; 4: Drydock; 5: Pinnacled; 6: Blocky. However, dome ...
27 views

### SWAN doesn't run [duplicate]

I'm Ocean Engineering Master Student. I'm not an expert in SWAN. I have some problem with it. Previously my result like rotated so I take another option to make grids using GridBuilder but SWAN doesn'...
46 views

### SWAN WAVE model: Strange result

I'm Ocean Engineering Master Student. I have some problems with my research. When I plot the result it is rotated. The color blue one is land. This my script, what should I do to fix the problem? <...
23 views

### Difference between Kenorland and Arctica

Whats the difference between Kenorland and Arctica? Is it believed that both existed or is it a matter of choosing one or the other? Both consist of Laurentia, Baltica, and Ur. But Kenorland includes ...
103 views

### Deriving shallow water equations: why is the vertical velocity equal to the material derivative of the surface level?

I'm reading about the derivation of shallow water equations, and I have a hard time understanding why $$w(\eta) = \frac{D\eta}{Dt}$$ where $w$ is the vertical velocity, $\eta$ is the (top or bottom) ...
77 views

### Correct way to spin-up for sensitivity analysis in a Global Chemical Transport Models

In my understanding, in Global Chemical Transport Models, initial conditions are provided by spinning up the model or through previous simulation. But, can I use the same initial condition that I ...
45 views

my first time here! I was going down the rabbit hole after watching a video on YouTube that made me want to read about it on Wikipedia. It led me to this Picture: (View from Varandha Pass near Mahad ...
31 views

### What method do I use to derive the organic material content (as a percentage) per layer in SoilGrids

I am doing soil related calculations for moisture content and the soil characteristics I need (among others) is the content of the soil as a percentage for: sand clay organic matter I am thinking I ...
87 views

### Is a hotter climate making trees grow faster and have lighter wood?

I started thinking about this after seeing several articles about falling trees, in particular a few articles about very large trees falling in Los Angeles and New York City. Plus, just thinking about ...
28 views

### Is VLF-EM scanning for fractures a valid way to find groundwater for a well?

I posted this question on Engineering Stack Exchange as well. I'm not sure if here or there is the better place. There is no agriculture stack exchange (much as I wish there was) so I am posting there ...
59 views

### Stratigraphy of limestone applied to the Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza is made from blocks of limestone quarried from the Giza plateau. The pyramid is composed up of about 200 layers, with individual blocks varying in thickness from 20 to 60 ...
53 views

### Korea a lot colder than New England this year

Normally, here in New England we consider our weather to somewhat parallel Korea's weather. However, this year it seems to be much colder in Korea. They are having record lows while we are having a ...
78 views

### difference between different meteorological models

I need to work with historical weather data (temperature and precipitation), we use meteoblue.com. There (https://docs.meteoblue.com/en/meteo/data-sources/data-sources#data-sources) they write about ...
49 views

### How long to breathe (the equivalent) of all of the atmosphere?

I have done some rough calculations of how long it might take humanity: approx 80,000 years (that's taking Earth's population as 7.5 billion, 11,000 litres a day of breathing per person, the weight of ...
26 views

### How to read stratigraphy data?

I have a list of geological data. The data is for 3 variables: member, level and L+/- These variables correspond to a particular position on a stratigraphic column/chart. I would like help with ...
65 views

### Why is Ozone hole above single area of earth? Why that area?

As titled. How does the hole fell specifically on that region of the stratosphere above the Antarctic and why?
91 views

### Why is Belgium (and Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, Norway) still above consumption CO2 levels per capita of 1990? While many others did go down

"Consumption-based emissions reflect the consumption and lifestyle choices of a country’s citizens." Via this article https://ourworldindata.org/consumption-based-co2 I see that Belgium's ...
97 views

### Why has the Earth's average sea level risen 'only' by nine inches after one degree C increase in temperature?

I am only doing gross calculations here, but... If the Earth has warmed by about one degree Celsius in the last century or so, and the thermal expansion coefficient of water is about .0002085, then ...
50 views

### How can the 'crystal cleavage' of apatite have a four-digit number?

On Wikipedia's page for apatite, the crystal cleavage is listed as [0001] or [0101], which I assume are Miller indices.... But how can there be four numbers/digits instead of two, like there usually ...
15 views

### Equilibrium condition for Kelvin's Vapor Pressure-curvature equation

This is regarding the Correction due to 'Curvature of the drop' made by Lord Kelvin to the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation. So, the idea is that, during large scale nucleation of water vapour into cloud ...
64 views

### Is the weather of Miami, Florida and the weather of Lagos, Nigeria the same

I've been to Lagos and it rains a lot sometimes overflooding but it's pretty sunny. I'm aware that it rains a lot too in Miami. Is the climate the same apart from Lagos being near Equator and ITCZ ...
30 views

### Dating recent skeletons with radiometric dating techniques

Can we use radiometric dating techniques on recent skeletons from, say, around the year 2000 and so on and get the same result as the recorded date of death of the owner of the skeleton? If yes (or no)...
54 views

### How do you infer what a cross section might look like below sea level?

Here is a schematic of a cross section which should represent an anticline: https://postimg.cc/4HcmmZ26 Below sea level, I have inferred what the units might look like with the dashed lines. As I have ...
47 views

### Water Freezing Quandary

Good Day All, I have quandary that I am unable to find an answer for. I live in Ontario, Canada. Then home I reside on is directly on a lakefront. It makes for beautiful views and wonderful times in ...
89 views

### How is it possible for rocks to be trapped within another type of rock?

More specifically, I would like to know how the rocks in these pictures have formed: If this is because magma has melted and trapped the other rocks inside, do they have a different melting point ...
141 views

### Which part of solar radiation (VIS, NIR) keeps Earth warm?

Which part of solar radiation (visible light vs. infrared radiation) plays main part in keeping Earth's surface warm?
63 views

### What factor(s) could cause this sort of temperature increase, mid-night/early morning?

I am new to having a PWS (Personal Weather Station). I have not found any answers explaining why this sometimes occurs aside from explanations given factors that were not variables in my case (winds, ...
37 views

### What is the best way to split strike and dip data on the image provided into “domains” in order to interpret folding on a stereonet?

Link to the original image: https://postimg.cc/v4bRqxxR I believe this image represents two folds which are overturned and plunging. I would like to analyse these folds on a stereonet, but I am unsure ...
67 views

### Did the Three Gorges Dam shift the North Pole by 2 cm?

Numerous sources repeat that, apart from slowing down the rotation of the globe, the Three Gorges Dam caused the geographic pole to shift by 2 cm. For example: https://blog.prv-engineering.co.uk/...
66 views

### Can small-scale backyard gardening produce more food per acre than broadscale [grain] farming?

Mark Shepard in his book "Restoration Agriculture" proclaims [...] small-scale backyard gardening which has shown in study after study to produce more food per acre than broadscale grain ...
18 views

### How to map a comID to latitude/longitude?

I'm working with a dataset of river flow from NOAA and the locations of the measurements are indicated with a comID. From what I gathered these comIDs are rooted from a dataset called NHD, although I ...