# All Questions

5,297 questions
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
742 views

### How does the ozone layer “stay in place”?

It is said about ozone: a layer in the earth's stratosphere at an altitude of about 10 km (6.2 miles) containing a high concentration of ozone Over the Earth’s surface, the ozone layer’s average ...
51 views

### Do clouds always move?

Can a cloud ever be stationary with respect to the ground surface? For some reason (experience, logic?) it seems to me such case is not possible. I read that stationary fronts are defined as two air ...
46 views

### Why Hong Kong typhoon signals only 1, 3, 8, 9 and 10?

Why doesn't Hong Kong have typhoon signal numbers 2, 4, 5, 6, 7? Please explain like I'm 5. I read Quora, but I don't understand those complex answers!
50 views

### Why autumn follows the rainy season

My location is India (this is to mention the context). The question I submit here is a common man's query (the level of this question and the expected answer). Water is essential for the growth of ...
30 views

### What is the best way to calculate anomaly of meteorological variables with the (GFS/GEFS) forecast

To calculate the anomaly of a variable (temperature, for example) I need the climatology (at least 30 years) of that variable. Which climatology data source should I use? Should I use the "...
57 views

### Recursion relations of Associated Legendre Polynomials with Schmidt Semi-normalization

Can someone please provides me with the recursion relations of Associated Legendre Polynomials when using Schmidt quasi-normalization? I need that in the context of Geomagnetism to obtain the ...
100 views

### Why aren't there ultra acid igneous rocks?

In my study, I found that in volcanoes when the magma is going up it formed different types of rocks. There are basic, acidic and ultrabasic. My question is why isn't there ultra acid igneous rocks ...
85 views

### What is this fossil? [closed]

While walking in a state park yesterday in the Chattanooga, TN area we came across a rock that looked like this. Is it some kind of holdfast or washout from cement work? (There is an old reservoir ...
8k views

### How it's possible to measure temperature 2000 years ago with such precision?

I saw this graph about the global temperature, it goes back for 2000 years. How is it possible to measure temperature 2000 years back with such a precision of like ~0.1 C? The image from Reddit post I ...
42 views

### Crustal age global map

I've been searching for a map depicting the age of each part of the crust for a long time. I'm not a geologist but I'm a physicist so I would like to know about the most up-to-date and accurate ...
101 views

### Why does Meteorology rely on a spherical model of the earth, rather than a flat earth, to function? [closed]

I hear all the arguments one explains to a flat earther as to why the earth is Spherical and not flat. I am not a meteorologist, but I know enough Meteorology for me to fly safely as a pilot. Getting ...
100 views

### If the Isthmus between North & South America did not exist what would happen to the Gulfstream and thus the weather in Western Europe?

Given the differences in temperature, salinity and elevation between the Pacific & Atlantic oceans, what would happen to the Gulf Stream and thus the weather in western Europe and also the eastern ...
29 views

### What would be the phase shift and polarity of a seismic wave upon reflection

What would be the phase shift and polarity of a seismic wave a) when it hit the free surface b)when the free surface reflection goes down and hit a reflector and returned to the receiver placed on the ...
47 views

### Tipping bucket rain gauge measurement, normalizing

I have bought this cheap rain gauge (only the rain gauge, not the other parts) for measuring rainfall with a Raspberry Pi. It works as far as I can tell, every bucket swing will result in an interrupt ...
69 views

### How to measure voltage differential across different altitudes

Imagine two points, one directly above the other ( Point A - 10,000 feet (PA) Point B - 20,000 feet (PB) Imagine there's voltage potential between those two points Q1: How could you measure the ...
60 views

### Can we define “drainage density” for a soil column (point-scale)?

From what I read all over the web and articles, drainage density is a parameter that is defined for a catchment. I want to use a hydrological model to simulate the percolation from the bottom of a ...
96 views

### Are thunderstorms normal at the end of a heat wave?

As far as I know, heat waves form when a high-pressure system builds up over an area. This forms a sort of "cap" over the affected area which prevents air from rising and cooling and then ...
67 views

### Manmade ditches in lowlands of New England

Recently in travelling back to New England I discovered ditches in the lowlands/wetlands of the shoreline on Google Maps satellite view. They are clearly man-made, but even with all the agriculture ...
41 views

### Why is the Regener-Pfotzer maximum (radiation in upper atmosphere) above central California?

The site https://spaceweather.com/ has a section called Space Weather Balloon Data which shows the image below and says: The data points in the graph above correspond to the peak of the Regener-...
3k views

### Comparing the Earth with a basketball?

(Please excuse my English) The picture above is an image of the Earth without water. We know that the picture above is a very exaggerated one. If the Earth were to shrink to the size of the picture ...
47 views

### What is the carbon footprint of Spacex's plan for earth-to-earth transport plan compared to commercial aviation?

According to many articles around the web as well as the SpaceX official website (https://www.spacex.com/human-spaceflight/earth/index.html), Elon Musk plans to replace intercontinental flights with ...
15 views

### What percentage of oceans and seas fall in tropical, subtropical, temperate and cold zones?

It is easy to find information on total area of oceans and seas. For example Atlantic ocean is 106 500 000 km², Indian ocean is 70 560 000 km² and Pacific ocean is 165 200 000 km². But waht percent of ...
98 views

### Difficulty interpolating near poles using lat/lons

I've been writing a 2D interpolation scheme for use on the globe which utilizes lat/lon values. Once I try to use values closer to the poles, latitude distortion becomes an issue. For example: ...
105 views

### How thin is our atmosphere relative to the size of Earth?

According to the GRC NASA website, Earth's atmosphere is a thin sheet of air extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of space. Some videos on youtube also point out that if the Earth is ...
96 views

### Can they still not predict rain even one week in advance?

Every ten minutes, I make an API call to the SMHI's API with the GPS coordinates less than 1 km from here (which cannot possibly matter for accuracy, but does for privacy). SMHI is the Swedish weather ...
104 views

### How do subsurface oceans form under a rocky crust?

New data about Ceres has just been released. Raymond et al. (2020) show the existence of gravity anomalies interpreted as low density pockets of brine under the crust. They show how impacts can ...
14 views

### R SPEI package on waterbalance timeseries for multiple locations with NA's: unexpected data output distribution

I want to use the spei() function in the SPEI package on a waterbalance dataset from 2015-2020 of 99 locations. The waterbalance is calculated out of MODIS PET values (8-day summed to monthly) and ...
61 views

### OpenEEW - earthquake early warning by everyone?

This site https://grillo.io/ and here https://github.com/openeew/openeew/ advertises such a system. But from the make-up of the site and no geo-science related work that they link to (at least what I ...
72 views

### What condition(s) need to be met to be able to determine the hypocenter of a microseism?

Today, this XKCD popped up in a chatroom: comic CC BY-NC 2.5 linked to the source User Rob mentioned that (as usual with XKCD) this is based on the findings in a research paper. In Source location of ...
49 views

### Lightning categorization of a high-speed “ball” of light

While driving behind the back side of an intense thunderstorm, I saw a lightning phenomenon I haven't seen before - just a bright blueish light at high speed, following an erratic path, just like the ...
39 views

### Are events like the Siberian heat wave factored into models of sea ice decline?

I've been looking at a lot of charts of Arctic Sea Ice lately, wondering when it will be gone, and whether the more extreme predictions are credible. When scientists come up with a chart that points ...
91 views

### Book recommendation for 7 year old

By some poorly understood series of events, I have managed to convince my 7 year old daughter that she wants to be a geologist when she's older. Of course I'm aware that this likely won't be the case, ...
25 views

### Looking for videos/GIFs of petrification/permineralization

Do you know of any good animations, videos, or GIFs of petrification/permineralization? For some students verbal and written explanations don’t work, they don't always visualize well. So it’d be ...
38 views

### Tropical cyclones in North Indian Ocean in winter

The North Indian Ocean basin which consists of Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea witnesses mainly two tropical cyclone seasons: pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. My question is that what is it that causes the ...
86 views

### Measuring the circumference of the earth - revisited

I have done a bit of research on this topic already and the easiest way seems to be the experiment by Eratosthenes. We pick two locations on the same latitude (of which we know the distance) and then ...
142 views

### Now Mars is pulsing 3 times per night in the UV, can anyone explain these waves in simple terms? Do these waves happen on Earth?

I link below to questions on another kind of Mars pulse) Phys.org's NASA's Maven observes Martian night sky pulsing in ultraviolet light links to the new paper Imaging of Martian Circulation Patterns ...
49 views

### What is the scientific reason for Falgu river being subterranean?

According to wikipedia "The Phalgu or Falgu, a river that flows past Gaya, India in the Indian state of Bihar, is a sacred river for Hindus and Buddhists. Lord Vishnu's Temple Vishnupad Mandir is ...
105 views

### Have we looked for human-like signals in the geological record?

This is somewhat of a follow up to some interesting discussion here about using synthetic radioisotopes to define the start of the anthropocene. It is also sort of related to a question asked here, ...
47 views

### South Georgia Island and Settlement

I know there were settlements in South Georgia in the past, but they were all abandoned. Is there any environmental reason why a new settlement could not be made? Especially with global warming, the ...
35 views

I had this albedo conversion written down: $$\alpha = 0.53\alpha_{VIS}+0.47\alpha_{NIR}$$ I had on my notes that this equation was form Collins et al (2002). However, I cannot find where this came ...
9k views

### Is there any river that does not discharge into larger body of water?

Do you know any example of a river that does not flow into sea or lake? For example, if water rises from the underground spring and forms a river but water vaporises in hot climate before it reaches ...
54 views

### How to obtain the saturation point of a soil layer from the volumetric soil water content data?

Would you please let me know if the following is accurate as an answer to the question: Suppose we have sensors which measure the volumetric soil water content of a soil layer for a long period (more ...
17 views

### Where can I find canopy reflectance data for crops (soybean in particular) for different dates across the growing season

I have been trying to find literature values for reflectance of soybean for different dates along the growing season (I am specifically interested in 30, 60 and ~120 days after planting - so the V3/V4 ...
57 views

### Thunderstorm Frequency Depending on the Year [closed]

Why is it that some years have significantly more thunderstorms than others while other years have significantly less? For example, in 2008, there were 15 thunderstorm days in Asheville but above 40 ...
51 views

### How to curb losses during annual heavy rainfalls

Every year I see these sort of news articles where states are flooded particularly due to their geographical location and vicinity to flood prone areas, however year after year there is no improvement ...
54 views

### How to start studying dinosaurs and pre-historic mammals/sea creatures

I'm kind new to this hole thing of dinosaurs that I'm really interested in, are there any good books/websites/webpages to study the biology of pre-historic creatures? Dinosaurs, mammals, fishes, ...
54 views

### Book Introduction to Climate Change

The question might be in an opinion-based grey zone. If it is, I apologize. My wife and I want to get informed about climate change. We want to read a book (no online course etc.) and it should be ...
94 views

### Color of Sunsets

I heard that hot weather in the summer makes the pastel colors of the sunset sky more vivid and more red? Is this true? But I also heard that in the winter, the colors of the sunset sky are brighter ...