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2
votes
1answer
35 views

Discrete distribution of daily rainfall [closed]

How can I estimate the rainfall rate every ten minutes during a day having the total amount of rainfall during that day ?
2
votes
2answers
63 views

Is this series of earthquakes near Broome, Australia normal?

There have been a series of earthquakes (some strong) near Broom, Western Australia. See this screenshot of the Geoscience Australia earthquakes map: I didn't believe there were any faults around ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

solar irradiance/radiation difference

I currently read a few papers and one of them stated to forecast solar irradiance using measures of solar radiation. I hope this question is not trivial as I'm actually from germany, but if there is a ...
2
votes
1answer
121 views

Help to Identify a Rock Found in Gray Clay [closed]

Found digging a pond. The rock was inside Gray Clay 18 feet below grade. The person who gave it to me tried cutting it with a grinder. This left an area that looks like steel. Location: ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

How rare was Hurrican Barry's storm track?

Unlike most hurricanes that affect the eastern and central U.S. Barry did not form in the Atlantic. Instead it formed apparently from a low that veered into the Gulf of Mexico from the continental U.S....
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Does the feel of temperature change, when you're in two different places [duplicate]

I'm from Baltimore Maryland. And our summers can be very intense sometimes a heatwave could put us at 100 degrees and with humidity it could feel like 110 degrees. Now, I have friends from the U.S. ...
1
vote
1answer
113 views

I found this stone with metal linings can someone identify it?

I am more curious about the metal on the surface (if it's even metal?) on this stone :) I don't really remember where I found it, probably at this beach of the Baltic Sea, but there is also a chance ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Get NPK values of soil without spectroscopy

I stumbled upon this new device called Teralytic. Which can measure salination, NPK values and all sorts of things. Unfortunately it's sold out and I think when it'll be available again rather ...
-2
votes
1answer
91 views

Is radiocarbon dating based on assumptions?

https://benpiper.com/2011/07/the-truth-about-carbon-dating/ The site above explains that Carbon-14 dating is based on a few assumptions, like to deduce the age of an organism by looking at the amount ...
-2
votes
1answer
68 views

What portion of global warming is caused by radioactive CO2 produced from cosmic rays?

The Earth's magentic field has been weaking recently, and the sun's magnetic field has been weaking recently, and it is a known fact that when either of these magnetic fields weaken (let alone both of ...
5
votes
1answer
96 views

Does subduction of continental crust happen at continental-continental convergent boundaries?

What exactly happens at a continental-continental (cc) convergent boundary? I read myself through the web for the last few days and what I came up with is that such a boundary will start as an oceanic-...
4
votes
1answer
61 views

wavelength of seismic wave with a gaussian source

i want to know how i get the wavelength/frequency of a seismic wave, if i only have a gaussian source and the velocity (c = 4000m/s) of a medium given. e.g. for a ricker wavelet it would be easy to ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Transmitter receiver coil separation for Electromagnetic Terrain Conductivity Measurement

Why increasing transmitter-receiver coil separation in EM survey (EM31, also here) increases depth of penetration? Suppose there is a horizontal flat conductive layer underneath a flat resistive ...
3
votes
2answers
256 views

If a specific mass of air is polluted, will the pollution stick with it?

Let us say a car pollutes 1m3 of air. Is that pollution attached to that specific air mass or will it fall to the ground or take its own path through the air, independent of the air it first polluted? ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Regional and Relative Sea level

I am a little confused by the terms "regional" and "relative" in the sea level change context. Do the two words have the same meaning? Does the "regional MSL trend" in https://www.aviso.altimetry.fr/...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Rock ID: black rock found in Central Europe [closed]

I'm note sure if it's an anthracite, augite, jet (lignite) or something completely different. I don't know where exactly i found it because it's from my old rock collection. I would appreciate your ...
0
votes
2answers
49 views

Can we carbon-date the remains of homo floresiensis found in 2003?

According to the Wikipedia article on the species Homo floresiensis, the remains discovered in 2003 consist of unfossilized bones. I would assume that means they are still composed of the original ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Seismic amplitude distribution

Recorded (or raw) and processed pre/post-stack seismic data (relative amplitudes) usually display a standard normal distribution, albeit with a very small amount of skewness. What would be possible ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Seismic wavefield theory: velocity anisotropy

Does the reciprocity principle hold true in an anisotropic subsurface environment?
1
vote
0answers
18 views

How to determine the orientation of coastline from NetCDF file

I have a NetCDF file (gridded data) with a landsea mask. I would like to determine, for the coastal grid-cells, what the orientation of the coastline is. I need to do this in order to calculate the ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Shattered veined rock from Alberta, Canada [closed]

This rock was about 3-4 inches bigger than a basketball. When dropped it shattered into a couple large pieces and a lot of small ones. The inside was marbled yellow (almost like quartz); the marbling ...
0
votes
2answers
52 views

Why is it hard to predict earthquakes?

An analogy I came up with is: Predicting earthquake strength and timing is like throwing a sheet of glass on the ground and predicting how many pieces it will break to and where they'll end up. Is ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

What is the vertical axis of this waveform shown in this tweeted IRIS GIF?

This IRIS tweet shows a video of siesmic waves from the recent M6.4 Earthquake in California rolling across the US. I've made a small GIF to give the idea but the "GIF" in the tweet shows the whole ...
14
votes
2answers
3k views

Why doesn't sea level show seasonality?

North-hemisphere ice-shelf melts on summer and grows on winter. I would expect appreciable changes on sea-level between seasons, but sea-level looks equal on winter than on summer. Why doesn't sea ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Do earthquakes produce folds on rocks?

Earth rocks are frequently folded at surface. Folds in alternating layers of limestone and chert in Crete, Greece. Source: commons.wikimedia Are earthquakes the main mechanism ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

How to calculate Lifted Index from ERA5 pressure level data?

I have taken a thunderstorm case where I need to calculate indices but I am not getting any code related stability indices in Python language, the code is available in GRADS, NCL for me it's difficult ...
1
vote
2answers
74 views

How do we know the rate of decay for radiometric dating is constant?

http://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/research/2010/100830FischbachJenkinsDec.html The link above talks about a research paper from Purdue University that the researchers had detected slight fluctuations in ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Found a light brown rock with concentric circles on it. Is it a fossil? [closed]

I found the rock in the picture while visiting Pawnee National Grassland (Colorado, USA). The rock shows concentric circles on both sides. On one side these circles are very clear, on the other side ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

What types of rocks are these [closed]

I can’t figure out what type of rocks these are I would like to create pigment out of them to make a watercolor want to make sure they are safe, one is brick red the other is more of a deep magenta, ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

What would the weather patterns on Earth really be like if Earth were tidally locked to the sun? [duplicate]

This question is different from How would weather change on a tidally-locked terrestrial planet?. None of its answers answer my question. I think it's answer might even have wrong information as I ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Possible and probable source of Curiosity Rover's $\small\sf{CH_4}$ detection on Mars

Past week, NASA announced Curiosity Rover measured 21 ppbv of $\small\sf{CH_4}$ on Mars. This week, NASA's Curiosity Mars rover found a surprising result: the largest amount of methane ever ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

How does jetstreams lead to formation of heat waves in Europe?

Jetstreams move at an altitude of roughly 6-9km above the sea level. Since, it is moving at such a great altitude how could it have possible impacts on the land? And how will jetstreams that flow at ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

What types of high-level mathematics are useful in doing climate modelling/meteorology?

I'm aware that PDEs, linear algebra, numerical analysis and such are staples of most applied mathematical endeavors. I want to know if there are other areas of "higher" mathematics that have useful ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Space Symmetry Groups: Wyckoff notation, diagram and positions

In the subject: "Introduction to Chemical Geology", I have given the spatial symmetry groups. At present, I know the different symmetry operators: rotation axes, center of symmetry (or inversion), ...
5
votes
2answers
75 views

How does agriculture release so much greenhouse gas?

I recently came over some numbers of GHGs released per energy in food produced, and the result is pretty flooring. I can see how animal-based food production is quite inefficient so let's ignore that ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Atmospheric conditions needed that blocks all bright light during sunsets and allows you to stare directly at the sun

Today (July 5th, 2019 just before 8 pm KST), along the Han River in Seoul, the surface of the sun could be viewed with my naked eye (no protection needed), and this was safe on the eyes. It appeared ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Where can I download historical sesimic data in CSV/Excel format for processing in R?

I'm not familiar with these kinds of data sets but I'm looking for some data for a project I'm working on. Essentially I would like multiple time series of seismic data from different stations over ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

How to read Seismic Survey?

Recently I am tasked to create a POC on detection of patterns using a neural . But I am from a computer science background so I know about neural networks but I don't have any knowledge about geology ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

Beta plane approximation: variation of Coriolis parameter

The Beta plane approximation put me in confusion. Beta plane approximation explain me how the Coriolis parameter changes with latitude. Beta parameter changes with the cos(latitude) but this is ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Can the shape and orientation of a large glacial rock deposit indicate glacial flow direction

If a rock is tapered, does the tapered point indicate the glacier direction?
0
votes
0answers
22 views

What's a Good Soil Quality Index for Plowed Farm Lands?

I'm currently conducting research using Satellite/Weather/Soil (Mostly Sentinel-2 Satellite Imagery) Data to Model Smallholder Farms and their dynamics before Planting. Key to my progress is to find ...
2
votes
4answers
94 views

What is the difference between dew and rain?

What is the main difference between dew and rain? Would it be correct if we say that rain is done in the upper troposphere while dew done in the lower troposphere? Or there are better definitions for ...
4
votes
1answer
63 views

How much energy does the Moon transfer to the Earth, does this affect the Earth's surface temperature?

I'm wondering by how much the gravitation effects, tides etc caused by the moon (and other energy such as moonlight IR) increase the surface temperature of the Earth. So how much warmer than the ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

What is the effect of sea-level changes on the extent of the Earth's atmosphere?

If sea-levels rise, does the Earth's atmosphere extend to the same distance out to space, with the pressure increasing, or does it expand? If sea levels rose 10m, how much change would there be to ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

What is the ratio of energy absorbed by atmospheric CO2 from IR coming from the Earth vs directly from the Sun [duplicate]

I'm trying to understand the atmospheric greenhouse effect. If CO2 absorbs lots of IR radiation emitted from the Earth's surface, does it not also shield the same wavelength radiation that is coming ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Should I perform EOF analysis on an unevenly-spaced time series?

I have a dataset of sample concentrations of several ions/elements (Ca 2+, SO4 2-, K +, S, Ca, V, etc.) from an ice core which I am using to detect volcanic eruptions. The raw version of the dataset ...
2
votes
2answers
74 views

What was the lowest temperature ever recorded on the surface of Earth?

This article Lowest recorded temperatures lists a -89 Degrees Celsius in Vostok, Antartica as the lowest recorded temperature. However, this other article List of weather records lists a −93.2 °C (−...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Is there limestone under the Oregon Coast Range?

I've found some diagrams of the Oregon Coast Range, but they are very basic. An friend said he thinks there is limestone deep underground, but my understanding of the formation of these mountains is ...
3
votes
2answers
67 views

How far above sea level can you get on the equator?

Quite simply what is the highest point above sea level that is right on the equator, I figured it would be a mountain in the Ecuadorian Andes but the Kenyan highlands look to be a likely candidate as ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

If gypsum turns into plaster around 210 F, is there any natural plaster deposits or formations out there?

For a while I have been working with gypsum I mined from a site in Utah, and I realized how low the temperature is to turn it into plaster, so I was wandering; has there ever been any cases of large ...

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