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1answer
90 views

Are there General Circulation Models that can simulate the atmosphere of Venus?

I would like to know what would happen with the atmosphere of Venus when it gets tidally locked, i.e. when one side would perpetually face the Sun. Probably a thermal low would be at the subsolar ...
-1
votes
2answers
96 views

Could the recent temperature anomalies in the arctic be used as a proxy measure of global heating?

Because the arctic temperature record would probably not require any of the climategate urban heat island adjustments it would seem to definitively sustain that global temperatures are significantly ...
6
votes
2answers
160 views

How does a subduction zone form mountains?

When an oceanic plate goes under a continental plate are the resulting mountains a result of the melting and then rising of the oceanic plate or are the mountains formed by the continental plate being ...
3
votes
2answers
135 views

Thermal expansion of Earth

Matter tends to change its volume in response to changes in temperature--or, hot things tend to be expanded. Is the thermal expansion of Earth significant? That is, is it significant when compared ...
3
votes
1answer
65 views

Why do P waves have a higher velocity in the lower mantle than in the core even though the core has a much higher density?

I've just started teaching 9th grade Earth science and my students and I have noticed something about P and S wave depth vs velocity graphs. In the typical graph, eg: https://www.researchgate.net/...
1
vote
0answers
69 views

Why is the water in Pingualuit crater so pure?

The question Is there a lake whose sole source of water is rain and has a hole at the bottom draining it? doesn't have an answer that answers my question. Also, it has a mistake in it. According to ...
6
votes
2answers
76 views

Curious natural patterns on the surface of basalt blocks that make up the sidewalk

During one of my walks through the city streets, I noticed that some basalt blocks that make up the sidewalk have in their surface some very curious natural patterns: The photos above was taken at ...
3
votes
1answer
55 views

What is a reasonable range of values for resistance to heat flux?

I am developing a simple parameterisation scheme script to predict surface temperature. The script calculates six heat fluxes including sensible heat flux using a resistance to heat flux parameter. ...
1
vote
2answers
76 views

How can I convert the negative values of the ERA5 PET data into positive?

I planned to use the ERA5 Potential evapotranspiration data for drought analsysis (SPEI), however values are presented in negative number. Of course I understand the logic for presenting PET negative. ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

List some common metrics to analyze the atmospheric vertical motion?

Could you give me some basic understanding of how to analyze the atmospheric vertical motion? For example, could you list some basic metrics to diagnose the vertical motion? Like divergence, vertical ...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

What causes this cloud formation?

This was taken about November 18 in southern Arizona, USA. I’ve never seen any clouds like this before. Is it natural or caused by some airplane?
0
votes
1answer
82 views

Migration Routes for Animals from Asia to America [closed]

The jaguar is a close relative of the Asiatic leopard and must have had a common ancestor within the last 5 million years. The South American tapir is obviously closely related to the Malayan tapir ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

Does WRF simulation use sigma or eta vertical coordinate system?

Could you tell me what the WRF's vertical coordinate system is? Sigma or eta? According to the User WRF Guide document, uses a terrain-following hydrostatic pressure coordinate while the WRF ...
1
vote
1answer
185 views

By what objectively correct process could we determine the truth about the actual severity of anthropogenic climate change?

I began to do the best that I could to boil the key facts down to the most basic essence of proving significant anthropogenic climate change: (1) It is a verified fact that since 1959 $\small\...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

download NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections for single lat lon

I have a lat lon - 23.14, 83.14 and I need to download the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) data from the below website only for this lat lon. https://dataserver....
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Determining Horizontal Coordinate System data (azimuth, altitude) for geographic locations

I would like to determine, specifically, azimuth and elevation data for any given location on the surface of the earth relative to another location on the surface of the earth (for my purposes, the ...
3
votes
0answers
18 views

what is a sensitivity analysis in heavy rain 2D surface / 1D drainage network models

For my thesis, the lecturer proposed to make a "sensitivity analysis" with a 2D surface model connected with a 1D drainage Network model for a storm rain event. However, I'm having problems to figure ...
1
vote
0answers
83 views

Is there any climate science explanation for this graph besides severe anthropogenic heating? [duplicate]

Since 1950 surface temperatures have risen significantly even though the total radiant energy from the Sun has been decreasing over this same period. To the best of my current understanding as long as ...
1
vote
2answers
76 views

Weather Forecasts

Are weather forecasts such as on weather.com or other apps continuously updated for each location and updated by an operator or is it just a computer automatically updating the forecast?
3
votes
2answers
80 views

Database of mineral with images for a neural network application

I'm diving into data science and I'm looking for a complete database of minerals. I downloaded the csv file from http://rruff.info/ima/ . It contains 5516 lines of data but it does not have images or ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

The state of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium during Anaerobic Digession

I am planning to go for organic farming and I would like to utilize available weeds as fertilizers with either anaerobic or aerobic digestion. I understand that during the aerobic process (composting),...
6
votes
3answers
5k views

Are we experiencing lower level of gravity now compared to past?

Whole civilizations have been buried underground and we have built new landscapes over them. The fact that tall buildings and houses are being excavated from under the ground means that we are living ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Thunderstorms in the Great Smoky Mountains [duplicate]

What time of the year does it rain the least in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and what month gets the least amount of thunderstorms
4
votes
0answers
72 views

Is this description of the effects of global warming supported by scientific research?

I found the following web-page which contains a dramatic degree-by-degree account of how climate change could play out in the future: http://globalwarming.berrens.nl/globalwarming.htm. It is more ...
2
votes
2answers
78 views

Temperate Rainforests

I have heard that the Appalachian Mountains is qualified as a temperate rainforest. What qualifies a temperate rainforest and what makes the Appalachian Mountains a temperate rainforest?
4
votes
0answers
58 views

Why is wind shear consistently high in the South Atlantic?

I have read that perhaps the largest reason that tropical cyclones are so rare in the South Atlantic is due to chronically-high vertical wind shear which inhibits their structural development. But ...
6
votes
2answers
835 views

What is the name of this landform?

These are from the movie Insomnia. Also available in this video from 4 seconds to 8 seconds. What is the name of this landform? Are these just snow on Lapies? or These are some form of glaciated ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

Where I can download Vertical Velocity data in the MERRA Reanalysis

I want to download Vertical Velocity data in the MERRA Reanalysis. But I can not find it even I carefully went through the entire list of MERRA data. This is the website I searched through: enter link ...
5
votes
2answers
56 views

Does erosion make mountains become higher?

Recently at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, I saw a display set that claimed erosion makes mountains rise higher, counterintuitively. The explanation was that the material removed ...
4
votes
2answers
91 views

Which markers could suggest that there was extinct or extant life on Mars?

Researchers who are involved in study of life on Mars are saying that there might be multicellular life present on Mars, today or in the past. Which traces, markers or environments on Mars could ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Which Farm Crops Are Most Efficient at Reducing Local CO2?

The presence of nearby rainforest is known to measurably deplete the local atmospheric $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ content, but how much would $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$-hungry crops reduce local $\small\mathsf{...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Planets are different in all forms but seasons are similar [closed]

We all have basic ideas about planets and their seasons..But my question is that why do NEPTUNE and EARTH have similar seasons although there compositions are completely different..On earth Nitrogen ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

Natural Raw Water [closed]

I have been drinking natural unfiltered raw water straight from rivers, streams, springs and ponds and I haven’t ever gotten sick from it. I strongly believe and know it in my heart that water from ...
3
votes
1answer
50 views

What's the story of the shear face in the new Mac OS Catalina wallpaper?

The new Mac OS boasts a beautiful default desktop background with the western tip of Santa Catalina Island. The rock formation in the foreground looks like it was sliced on the diagonal with a power ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

Spatial allocation of road emissions and unit conversion

I have a grid shapefile that has a resolution of 1km x 1km. This grid is then used to spatially allocate road emissions. My goal is to get the emissions in the unit: μg m-2 s-1(microgram per ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

MERRA-2 Reanalysis data V and U wind are missing values over land at 1000 hPa pressure level

I need 6-hour MERRA-2 reanalysis data to do some research. I downloaded the data from this website: https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/datasets/M2I6NPANA_5.12.4/summary?keywords=merra When I used ncview to ...
3
votes
0answers
49 views

Why aren't tornadoes embedded in squall lines or tornadoes in high-precipitation supercells destroyed by downdrafts?

I often hear that tornadoes die when the RFD (Rear Flank Downdraft) strengthens and destroys their source of inflow... How do tornadoes get any inflowing updrafts when they are embedded in rain? How ...
2
votes
4answers
137 views

Is Oregon lake extremely pure water? If so, why?

My question is, Is the lake shown in the YouTube video Clear Lake, Oregon extremely pure water by volume not counting dissolved air which might be about 1 in 20 by volume? In case you didn't ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

ERA-5 data downloader… other than CDS-API?

The CDS API does not behave well on our machines. Has anyone had any luck scripting their own ERA-5 reanalysis large-data download script? Perhaps something that is not nearly as large, clunky, and ...
2
votes
0answers
92 views

Predicting the weather in two months

On Nov 1, I looked at the Dallas monthly weather averages (pasted below) and tried to predict the average temperature for Jan 2020. It's hard to see any trend, so I would simply predict 46.2 +/- 3.5 °...
7
votes
1answer
80 views

Does Antarctica have a lot of aquifers?

I got to thinking about freshwater on Antarctica. Obviously, there is a lot of freshwater ice. However, the deeper you go underground, eventually the dirt will be warmed geothermically. So does the ...
3
votes
2answers
174 views

How reliable would measuring global heating from satellite be?

Some anthropogenic global heating (AGH) skeptics deny that any global heating is occurring. I figured out a way that could be used to refute them. A weighted average of all of the thermal points on ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Natural air-CO2 deviations in the troposphere

I'm working on a room air quality management algorithm, and many sensors seem to respond with $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ measurements of as little as 200 ppm. Obviously a sensor giving off this value will ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Why does the ocean seem much cleaner than the bay I live near

I live in Melbourne near a bay, and it always seems really dirty, whenever I go out to the open ocean the water always seems much cleaner. Is there a reason for this, does the bay trap pollution or do ...
1
vote
3answers
40 views

How to deal with a pond silting up [closed]

I live in a town that has a sizable pond that is dammed with a concrete overfall spillway. Decades ago the state demanded that the dam be installed to guarantee that the surface height of the pond ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

mineral prospecting in Iran

I live in Iran and I want to do personal mineral prospecting for natural crystals and gemstones and beautiful minerals. Unfortunately, there are no reliable information available. Anyone can help me ...
9
votes
2answers
197 views

What caused peak CO2 to rise, starting about 400,000 years ago?

This question assumes the accuracy of this (and similar) charts. Source of image. From the image, CO2 peaked at about 260, perhaps 265 ppm during the interglacial periods between 800,000 years ago ...
1
vote
2answers
91 views

Large Igneous Provinces are like Lunar Mare?

Would Large Igneous Provinces like the Deccan Traps have looked like ancient lunar Mare from space? Glowing lava oceans shinning in the night? Are these two things similar in nature? Would smoke from ...
3
votes
2answers
94 views

Do tectonic plates “float” over the mantle and “collide” like icebergs?

I'm always hearing about tectonic plates as large chunks of crust floating on the mantle just like boats. In timescales of millions of years they move and even collide. But I'm starting to think this ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

In the USA, are pesticides regulated differently for animal vs human consumption? [closed]

I'm looking into growing edible oyster mushrooms. I'm considering using whole-oat horse feed in the growing process. I realize that additional steps are taken to ensure food is fit for human ...

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