# All Questions

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27 views

### SWAN doesn't run [duplicate]

I'm Ocean Engineering Master Student. I'm not an expert in SWAN. I have some problem with it. Previously my result like rotated so I take another option to make grids using GridBuilder but SWAN doesn'...
50 views

### SWAN WAVE model: Strange result

I'm Ocean Engineering Master Student. I have some problems with my research. When I plot the result it is rotated. The color blue one is land. This my script, what should I do to fix the problem? <...
23 views

### Difference between Kenorland and Arctica

Whats the difference between Kenorland and Arctica? Is it believed that both existed or is it a matter of choosing one or the other? Both consist of Laurentia, Baltica, and Ur. But Kenorland includes ...
107 views

### Deriving shallow water equations: why is the vertical velocity equal to the material derivative of the surface level?

I'm reading about the derivation of shallow water equations, and I have a hard time understanding why $$w(\eta) = \frac{D\eta}{Dt}$$ where $w$ is the vertical velocity, $\eta$ is the (top or bottom) ...
80 views

### Correct way to spin-up for sensitivity analysis in a Global Chemical Transport Models

In my understanding, in Global Chemical Transport Models, initial conditions are provided by spinning up the model or through previous simulation. But, can I use the same initial condition that I ...
46 views

my first time here! I was going down the rabbit hole after watching a video on YouTube that made me want to read about it on Wikipedia. It led me to this Picture: (View from Varandha Pass near Mahad ...
31 views

### What method do I use to derive the organic material content (as a percentage) per layer in SoilGrids

I am doing soil related calculations for moisture content and the soil characteristics I need (among others) is the content of the soil as a percentage for: sand clay organic matter I am thinking I ...
92 views

### Is a hotter climate making trees grow faster and have lighter wood?

I started thinking about this after seeing several articles about falling trees, in particular a few articles about very large trees falling in Los Angeles and New York City. Plus, just thinking about ...
30 views

### Is VLF-EM scanning for fractures a valid way to find groundwater for a well?

I posted this question on Engineering Stack Exchange as well. I'm not sure if here or there is the better place. There is no agriculture stack exchange (much as I wish there was) so I am posting there ...
60 views

### Stratigraphy of limestone applied to the Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza is made from blocks of limestone quarried from the Giza plateau. The pyramid is composed up of about 200 layers, with individual blocks varying in thickness from 20 to 60 ...
53 views

### Korea a lot colder than New England this year

Normally, here in New England we consider our weather to somewhat parallel Korea's weather. However, this year it seems to be much colder in Korea. They are having record lows while we are having a ...
80 views

### difference between different meteorological models

I need to work with historical weather data (temperature and precipitation), we use meteoblue.com. There (https://docs.meteoblue.com/en/meteo/data-sources/data-sources#data-sources) they write about ...
50 views

### How long to breathe (the equivalent) of all of the atmosphere?

I have done some rough calculations of how long it might take humanity: approx 80,000 years (that's taking Earth's population as 7.5 billion, 11,000 litres a day of breathing per person, the weight of ...
29 views

### How to read stratigraphy data?

I have a list of geological data. The data is for 3 variables: member, level and L+/- These variables correspond to a particular position on a stratigraphic column/chart. I would like help with ...
67 views

### Why is Ozone hole above single area of earth? Why that area?

As titled. How does the hole fell specifically on that region of the stratosphere above the Antarctic and why?
111 views

### Why is Belgium (and Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, Norway) still above consumption CO2 levels per capita of 1990? While many others did go down

"Consumption-based emissions reflect the consumption and lifestyle choices of a country’s citizens." Via this article https://ourworldindata.org/consumption-based-co2 I see that Belgium's ...
98 views

### Why has the Earth's average sea level risen 'only' by nine inches after one degree C increase in temperature?

I am only doing gross calculations here, but... If the Earth has warmed by about one degree Celsius in the last century or so, and the thermal expansion coefficient of water is about .0002085, then ...
51 views

### How can the 'crystal cleavage' of apatite have a four-digit number?

On Wikipedia's page for apatite, the crystal cleavage is listed as [0001] or [0101], which I assume are Miller indices.... But how can there be four numbers/digits instead of two, like there usually ...
16 views

### Equilibrium condition for Kelvin's Vapor Pressure-curvature equation

This is regarding the Correction due to 'Curvature of the drop' made by Lord Kelvin to the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation. So, the idea is that, during large scale nucleation of water vapour into cloud ...
65 views

### Is the weather of Miami, Florida and the weather of Lagos, Nigeria the same

I've been to Lagos and it rains a lot sometimes overflooding but it's pretty sunny. I'm aware that it rains a lot too in Miami. Is the climate the same apart from Lagos being near Equator and ITCZ ...
30 views

### Dating recent skeletons with radiometric dating techniques

Can we use radiometric dating techniques on recent skeletons from, say, around the year 2000 and so on and get the same result as the recorded date of death of the owner of the skeleton? If yes (or no)...
56 views

### How do you infer what a cross section might look like below sea level?

Here is a schematic of a cross section which should represent an anticline: https://postimg.cc/4HcmmZ26 Below sea level, I have inferred what the units might look like with the dashed lines. As I have ...
47 views

### Water Freezing Quandary

Good Day All, I have quandary that I am unable to find an answer for. I live in Ontario, Canada. Then home I reside on is directly on a lakefront. It makes for beautiful views and wonderful times in ...
89 views

### How is it possible for rocks to be trapped within another type of rock?

More specifically, I would like to know how the rocks in these pictures have formed: If this is because magma has melted and trapped the other rocks inside, do they have a different melting point ...
144 views

### Which part of solar radiation (VIS, NIR) keeps Earth warm?

Which part of solar radiation (visible light vs. infrared radiation) plays main part in keeping Earth's surface warm?
64 views

### What factor(s) could cause this sort of temperature increase, mid-night/early morning?

I am new to having a PWS (Personal Weather Station). I have not found any answers explaining why this sometimes occurs aside from explanations given factors that were not variables in my case (winds, ...
40 views

### What is the best way to split strike and dip data on the image provided into “domains” in order to interpret folding on a stereonet?

Link to the original image: https://postimg.cc/v4bRqxxR I believe this image represents two folds which are overturned and plunging. I would like to analyse these folds on a stereonet, but I am unsure ...
68 views

### Did the Three Gorges Dam shift the North Pole by 2 cm?

Numerous sources repeat that, apart from slowing down the rotation of the globe, the Three Gorges Dam caused the geographic pole to shift by 2 cm. For example: https://blog.prv-engineering.co.uk/...
68 views

### Can small-scale backyard gardening produce more food per acre than broadscale [grain] farming?

Mark Shepard in his book "Restoration Agriculture" proclaims [...] small-scale backyard gardening which has shown in study after study to produce more food per acre than broadscale grain ...
18 views

### How to map a comID to latitude/longitude?

I'm working with a dataset of river flow from NOAA and the locations of the measurements are indicated with a comID. From what I gathered these comIDs are rooted from a dataset called NHD, although I ...
40 views

### What causes dye to bleed from an agate stone?

I came across this review on Amazon. The cold drink was placed on top of the agate stone and the dye bled and left a permanent mark on the table. Why does this happen? Is it because of the ...
90 views

### Why is the weather in San Francisco so different from that in San Jose?

San Francisco has around 5 months a year of intermittent rain. San Jose, just 50 miles south and nestled between mountains instead of between waters, has perhaps only 1 month of rain. San Francisco ...
38 views

### Free historical weather data API

Where can I find a free Python API that provides historical weather data (temperature, rainfall)? I'd need data of an Italian city, at least with hourly granularity.
59 views

### Why does air pollution comes with cold weather in tropical areas?

I reside in Bangkok where the local press have reported several times these two last months November-December about high levels of smog. A similar phenomenon occurred last year in this period (end of ...
73 views

### Last ice age: did glaciers move South or move downhill?

(Note: this is from U.S. point of view) I keep hearing how the glaciers "moved South" during the last ice age. But I thought glaciers moved downhill. I can see that the glaciers formed ...
65 views

### How to measure global temperature?

people always talk about global temperature (such as the global temperature goal of 1,5 K) - but how is this value achieved? It seems to me that it clearly depends on where the measuring stations are, ...
137 views

### What are the evidences that the earth climate is getting warmer?

Someone, who does not believe climate change asked me today -- How is it possible for us to conclude that the past five years are the hottest five years since record begun, since There are only a ...
169 views

### Why is Earth's density gradient a step-function, rather than smooth?

Why is the density of particles in Earth's atmosphere above surface-level so much less than ground and below? Why, instead, isn't Earth simply a ball of swirling gasses / liquids, which become ...
32 views

### Is there an average year of weather across the United States?

I am interested in which year has the best representation of average weather across a large area, the contiguous USA. This is challenging since what was average in the Midwest might have been unusual ...
53 views

### Would climate change result in an increase in seismic activities?

Would climate change result in an increase in seismic activities? I can see two potential forces acting: Temperature dilation of the Earth's surface. A change in the distribution of water mass, fewer ...
20 views

### Looking for variables to compare against pH of soil

I'm doing a project in junior year chemistry where I get to choose what I investigate as long as it covers course content. I'm interested in exploring how quantitative (ig. incremental) change in an ...
95 views

### What's eating this sandstone

I decided to remove the tiles in my front courtyard and turn it into a garden of succulents. After removing a couple of rows of tiles then digging into the soil, I started seeing a strange thick ...
119 views

### Relative Humidity approximation from Dew Point and Temperature

I would like to find a formula to approximate RH based on known air temperature and dew point. I need the approximation to be valid at least between -20...+40 degrees Celsius. I read the accepted ...
41 views

### Solution for the coexistence of overpopulated human species with nature [closed]

Is there any solution to deal with the overpopulation of our species at the same time protect the natural environment of ours? (other than finding a inhabitable planet?)
4k views

### Are metals and other elements in every continent?

I originally thought that you can only find certain things like iron, copper, and other things in certain places in the world and deep in mines but I saw in a few YouTube videos that you can find iron ...
19 views

### Identify my rock [closed]

I love to break down rocks ( specifically gravel ) to see what's in them. This rock had a pearl looking object in the center, that is surrounded by a small circle of pyrite. The small circle of pyrite ...
32 views

### Are Fluvial and River Terraces the same?

I study about fluvial terraces. However, resources related to this topic are limited. When I searched fluvial terraces in geomorphology books, I cannot find anything, but I find river terraces. My ...
62 views

### Why does wind direction change in a front? [duplicate]

Plenty of answers answer the question that it happens but I can't find a good answer as to why the wind shifts during the passing of a front. For an extreme example see: (in Dutch, x is hours and y ...