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Is there any significance of lacustrine gastropoda fossils regarding paleoenviroment interpretation?

How to interpret lots of gastropoda fossils seen in lacustrine marls? Do they indicate any paleoenvironment conditions? Depth, temperature, chemistry, ph?
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0answers
35 views

How to keep sheep from eating cows grain? [closed]

I have 2 cows that go up to a shed and eat grain that I put out every morning, and I also have 5 sheep in the same pasture, that want to eat the grain, so they usually push the cows out of the way, ...
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3answers
119 views

How much did the worst volcanic eruption in human history affect global temperature?

According to this, 2018’s Biggest Volcanic Eruption of Sulfur Dioxide In extreme cases, like the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, these tiny aerosol particles can scatter so ...
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1answer
41 views

Information on this rock, and identity? [closed]

My aunt gave me this rock. She has had for years. She was given it by a relative who passed many years ago. She said it was called a Tuffy (not sure which way it should be spelled) and that it came ...
3
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1answer
40 views

Gelifluction vs Solifluction

I'm currently studying cold environments, looking at periglacial processes. I've been looking into gelifluction and solifluction as processes of periglaciation. The two terms seem to be used, mostly,...
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0answers
28 views

Calculate normal and shear stresses with fault plane dimensions, slip, orientation and regional stress tensor

I'm trying to verify that some code I have is running correctly when calculating the Coulomb stress change. So for a example I have a fault with : Length = 70 m, Slip= 0.004 m, Orientation(strike/dip/...
6
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1answer
78 views

What does “glacier collapse” mean?

CNN's Mont Blanc glacier could collapse at any moment, Italy warns says: A staggering 250,000 cubic meters (8.8 million cubic feet) of ice could break away from the Planpincieux glacier on the ...
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0answers
30 views

How can I see aurora borealis predictions on specific future date more than 3 days?

I found just 3 day forecast on NOAA. Is there longer forecast? Are there data for past years? Past performance is no guarantee of future results. But seeing area of visible aurora for Oct. 2018, 2017,...
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0answers
25 views

How interpret NOAA Aurora 3 day Forecast?

My family is taking road trip in Quebec Oct 4 to 18, 2019. I posted our route on Google. Just double checking how interpret NOAA's Aurora 3 day forecast? It shows aurora borealis any where north to ...
2
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1answer
62 views

Why does atmospheric oxygen remain so “constant”? [duplicate]

I've always wondering why the oxygen in the atmosphere remains so perfectly at the level required for air-breathing life. What causes it to remain so perfect? Also, a side question, why aren't their ...
5
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1answer
61 views

Does muscovite occur as a contact metamorphism mineral?

Does muscovite occur as a contact metamorphism mineral, with dacitic intrusion into dacitic rocks?
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1answer
42 views

WRF/Chem: Editing NetCDF (wrfchemi files) for own emissions

Does anybody here have any experience with editing wrfchemi outputs from the prep_chem utility so that I overwrite the file with my own emissions? I am knowledgeable in python, but I am not that well ...
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0answers
44 views

Why it doesn’t always rain with lightning and thunder when it’s hot [duplicate]

Thunderstorms happen after a period of warm weather. There are times though in the summer after it’s been warm for a while and even after it was 95 degrees Fahrenheit, the thunderstorms they predicted ...
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0answers
29 views

CO2 reduction by depopulation

Population reduction is not envisaged as a practical (never mind humane) solution to CO2 emission reduction as far as I can tell. I stumbled however on a paper discussing the estimated effects of ...
1
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1answer
58 views

Is there a name for a “moving meridian” corresponding to particular solar time?

Imagine a meridian that moves over the Earth's surface such that it remains at the longitude that corresponds to a particular solar time (e.g. midday). This meridian would remain stationary relative ...
4
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2answers
137 views

When was it ever considered that the desert might be “man-made”, or otherwise anthropocenically-induced?

This answer pointed me to the Wikipedia page for Farouk El-Baz in which the desert research and theories subsection says: During the past 20 years in his research at Boston University, El-Baz has ...
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2answers
151 views

What is the most cost-effective solution to climate change based on scientific evidence? [closed]

Please don't answer without citing scientific research which has a general consensus or article from a reputable source based on verifiable research citations. I recently read this article about a ...
2
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2answers
96 views

Did global temperature increase or drop in the last 2 years (2017-2018)?

This website Climate change global temperature from a governmental organization, shows 2 graphs , one called "History of global surface temperature since 1880" and the other called "Yearly surface ...
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0answers
15 views

Do overlying strata subside before/during volcanic exogenous dome emplacement?

Is subsidence (graben faulting) expected before/during a volcanic exogenous dome emplacement on the surrounding strata?
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0answers
18 views

Avra valley aquifier region boundary

Attached is an image of the Avra valley in Southern Arizona, USA from Effects of Kriging and Inverse Modelling on Conditional Simulation of the Avra Valley Aquifier in Southern Arizona -- Clifton and ...
6
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2answers
49 views

Why do (some) silicic bodies behave effusively instead behaving explosively as in common?

We encounter dacitic/rhyolitic melts generally in explosive volcanic events. But some of them behave as effusive dome flow. Why do some silicic bodies behave effusively?
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0answers
24 views

What are Shoshonites? What conditions make them occur instead of andesites?

What is the significance of shoshonites? Why in some convergent margins, do shoshonites occur instead of andesites?
2
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1answer
37 views

What do opaque rims on biotite in a volcanic rock mean?

In a volcanic region, i have examined two samples petrographically. One of them has biotites with extensive opacitic rims. The other samples biotites hasn't got this property. They have the same modal ...
5
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1answer
134 views

What is the largest hurricane possible?

With Earth getting hotter and hurricanes also getting larger I wonder; Is there a limit on how big a hurricane can physically get?
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2answers
71 views

What determines the direction of wind [duplicate]

What determines the direction that a wind blows? I understand that the nature of my question is immensely broad but I see no other way to phrase the question. The question surfaced in my mind when I ...
4
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3answers
503 views

Are the cores of every mountain range igneous?

Every volcano is a mountain, but not every mountain is a volcano. Still, it strikes me that--at least for the mountain ranges I can think of in this moment--they all seem to have igneous cores. Is ...
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0answers
26 views

Is there any program that gives you air temperature (and precipitation) information if you feed them the date and location (latitude,longitude)?

I know I can google each data point (latitude, longitude, date) one by one and find if the government of that country has archived past weather information. But this will take infinite amount of time ...
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0answers
18 views

Land Use Land Cover Change Intensity Analysis

I got LULC maps for different years (single-band raster, categorical varible = 7 different LULC classes). Now I am trying to do Change Intensity Analysis in R-studio I followed this instruction (https:...
1
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1answer
309 views

Question about the sign of the shearing deformation terms

I have the following equation for the shearing term of the deformation zone in meteorology. The reference is this link: http://www.zamg.ac.at/docu/Manual/SatManu/main.htm?/docu/Manual/SatManu/CMs/Def/...
2
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1answer
62 views

How does nature dilute Ocean and Seas so that we can swim in them?

I have a question about the seas and ocean we swim in. How does the Ocean get rid off all the natural pollutants (for example dead animal debris) and man-made pollutants (human waste, garbage, etc)? I ...
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2answers
39 views

XRF analysis - recalculating results

For TAS diagram plot, one need to recalculate Major oxide data (NaO, K2O, SiO2). Do one need to recalculate the ppms of Zr,Nb and Y and % of TiO2 for Zr/TiO2 vs Nb/Y diagram plotting for rock ...
2
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1answer
49 views

Can planes damage the ozone layer?

So I heard that the Ozone Layer is a layer of gas in Earth's atmosphere. And I also heard once that the Ozone Layer is crucial in protecting life on Earth, as it blocks out harmful rays emitted by the ...
3
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2answers
68 views

Are there any differences between the subalkali and alkali rock occuring tectonic environments?

Here question ends. Beyond details exist Do they occur on the same tectonic regime? For a start to distinguish Subalkali rocks froms Alkali rocks, my knowledge says that mantle is the source of ...
2
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0answers
31 views

Ice cores: how is Oxygen-18 isotopic variation converted to temperature changes?

The Dansgaard paper I've seen shows a roughly linear relationship between the delta-O18 in precipitation and mean annual temperature (at a given location). See Figure 3 in the paper. When converting ...
2
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2answers
115 views

Why rely on climate models as opposed to paleoclimate data?

Something I hear often from climate scientists, and indeed even politicians, is that we "don't understand climate change very well". And, I'm sure this is true since the climate is a complex adaptive ...
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4answers
191 views

If planting trees is ineffective to tackle climate change, why do people plant them?

I've read answers that outline how if we afforested large (continental-scale) masses of land, it would do little in the way of tackling climate change. While it would sequester CO2 for about a century ...
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0answers
11 views

Model relating reservoir releases with downstream temperature

Are there any statistical/numerical models developed relating release from reservoirs with the downstream river temperatures? I know of complicated hydrodynamic models such as CE-QUAL-W2 etc. but I am ...
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1answer
129 views

Could someone please validate the Holmes equation [closed]

Dr. Robert Holmes has converted the ideal gas law to T = P M / (ρ R) in this paper: (Molar Mass Version of the Ideal Gas Law Points to a Very Low Climate Sensitivity) with T = temperature P = near-...
2
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1answer
59 views

How reanalysis data influence our research/results?

I am a student and I have a very simple and yet important question about reanalysis data. Recently, I attended a workshop where various other students discussing the use of ERA5 reanalysis data on ...
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0answers
26 views

How do thunderstorms generate ionospheric potential?

In all the explanations of how global electric circuit on Earth works, I've always encountered statements like "thunderstorms generate ionospheric potential" (which is about 250 kV). E.g. here: https:...
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1answer
42 views

What are the properties of the back arc extension related volcanic rocks?

What are the properties of the back arc extension related volcanic rocks and/or related magma? (e.g. Basin and Range region)
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0answers
25 views

How to prepare sulfur crystal specimens?

I mined sulfur crystals last week and I read the following on this guide: To prepare the specimens [...] it is necessary to soak them in water to which ammonium hydroxide has been added. This ...
2
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2answers
48 views

What does slat and elat (slon, elon) in latitude and longitude values mean?

I have data from the national storm prediction center that is marked with values of : elat slat elon slon ...
2
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2answers
85 views

A little question on climates

What is sub-tropical wet climate, semi-arid climate and semi-tropical continental climate. I encountered this while reading climate of my state Haryana. (I have no background in enviromental science)
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1answer
34 views

How can radiometric dating of meteorites determine the age of the earth? Wouldn't this only determine the age of the decaying nuclide in each rock?

How can the radiometric dating of different meteorites determine the age of the earth? Wouldn't radioactive decay have already been occurring in all of those meteorites long before they hit earth? ...
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1answer
58 views

How was the Earth's core made?

All I've heard until now is that when the Earth was very hot and slimy, the relatively heavier elements went down to the center of the Earth to form the core. But lately I've come up a contradiction ...
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1answer
55 views

The halocline and sonar

 I studied oceanography many years ago at university and recall a lecturer claiming that submarines in the second world war could pass undetected through the entrance to the Mediterranean.  ...
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2answers
63 views

The origin of permafrost

Old permafrost is loaded with frozen vegetation. As it now melts, it is rotting and releasing methane. Doesn't that mean that it froze quickly, centuries ago, and stayed frozen until now? What ...
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0answers
35 views

How does this calculate the water transport between crops in the webside?

click->http://gpe.letsgrow.com/ next click->moisture transport In the results of Moist transport through the crop, what is the relationship between crop height and diffusion, air movement, and total ...
1
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1answer
73 views

Were there times during human inhabitated Earth were Earth average temperature was hotter than today?

This article, Earth's temperature in the past 18,000 years seems to show Earth temperature during 5000-3000 years ago was approximately a degree hotter than today. Is this true, were there times ...

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