# All Questions

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91 views

### Why are there both climate regions from axial tilt and weather cells?

So Earth has an axial tilt and that creates weather regions. For example, approximately 23 degrees north and south, approximately the same as the planets axial tilt, will give you the tropics. This ...
35 views

### Books / resources on measurement methods in atmospheric sciences

I have found this very long book from weather.gov (free access) Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation which might be a bit too in-depth for what I'm looking for, so I was ...
52 views

### How does uplift lead to onlapping?

I read in a paper that: Interpretation of 2-D seismic lines shows the lower to middle Patchawarra Formation onlapping onto paleostructural highs at approximately 270 Ma and again at 273 Ma, ...
96 views

### Understanding the color coding of a weather map

I came across an infrared weather map like this I couldn't find any legend on the colorbar's color convention. Initially, I thought that might be the color for reflected light's wavelength, but there ...
107 views

### How much of the petroleum ever formed has made it into reservoire rocks?

I am aware that it's a bit general a question, and petroleum geology (or petrology ;-)) has never been a field of interest to me. A superficial search using related keywords brings up only economic ...
67 views

### Why don't they use balloons in ocean as battery? [closed]

We need more batteries, to store renewable. But why don't they just pull down big balloons in the ocean and let them go up when they need the power?
85 views

### What CRS does GFS use?

I'm trying to reproject GRIB data from NOAA forecasts onto other data using Python and the pygrib and proj packages (among many others). What is the proper Proj string for GFS GRIBs? The projection ...
72 views

### Doesn't increased human activity add to heating the atmosphere directly?

My question relates to the fact that 1- the human population is continually increasing, and 2- everybody is constantly 'doing more stuff' (or causing more to be done). So doesn't 'more people doing ...
24 views

### Principal component analysis (PCA) and normalization of radiometric data?

I did some experiments with airborne radiometric data in a region in southern Brazil and I would like to know your suggestion about the following topic: I tried to classify high, medium and low ...
86 views

### Is Mississippi and parts of Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky one giant island? [closed]

Apologies if this is a poorly written question, I'm writing this on my phone. I noticed that there were a lot of rather long rivers in the region in question, and I began to wonder just how connected ...
28 views

### Raised Dew Point from global warming: will cool weather burning off (for fuel load reduction) get harder?

Dew appears to be a factor in fire behavior and management, slowing and extinguishing fires in cool conditions. Higher temperatures mean less dew. Given the importance of fuel reduction fires during ...
98 views

### How/where is randomness/stochasticity used in weather prediction

I am seeking information on how weather models use randomness (if at all). From what I can gather daily weather forecasting uses partial differential equations with initial and boundary conditions ...
31 views

### Gamma vs Pearson distribution for Standardized Precipitation Index

What is the difference between Pearson and Gamma distribution and the impact of using one of these in the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)? Thank you!
113 views

### What behaviour does an ice sheet exhibit in crossing a cliff?

I've not come up against clear explanations when trying to think about a situation where an ice sheet is advancing and comes up against a cliff. What happens next? How does the ice sheet cross the ...
59 views

### Does the relative abundance of radioactive isotopes reflect their half-lives?

In Radiometric Dating: A Christian Perspective, the author argues (persuasively, I think) in favor of the mainstream interpretation of radiometric dating (as opposed to the claims of young earth ...
121 views

### What kind of soil is being worked in this video? [closed]

I have recently stumbled across this video on Youtube, where quite a magnificient building is carved into the soil with simple tools like a shovel and hoe. The location is somewhere in South America, ...
46 views

### When Earth formed 4.5 × 10⁹ years ago, how much radiation did surface rocks emit?

When Earth formed $\approx 4.5 \times 10^9$ years ago, Earth's surface rocks emitted more radiation because they had more unstable isotopes. All short half-life isotopes decayed long ago, and the ...
20 views

### Database of monthly climate data 2018 - 2019

Specifically I'm looking for climate data (average temperature, precipitation) for the summer months of 2018 in Belgium and of 2019 in Japan. Ideally of high spatial resolution, because my areas of ...
70 views

### Is there any animation to demonstrate if the sea level rise up?

I found a very cool video here: Draining Earth's oceans, revealing the two-thirds of Earth's surface we don't get to see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-uOwv_Krqk8&feature=emb_logo However, I ...
48 views

### How high must one be to see the curvatue of the earth with the naked eye? [duplicate]

I have read the various answers to this question provided by people with a higher intellect than me, however I am still confused. Even from the ISS your view is to the horizon some 1,435 miles in all ...
41 views

### Is it normal for clay soil to solidify into a very hard, but not brittle, material in air, and if not what might this soil be?

One part of my garden has a heavy, dark clay soil. It is now waterlogged with a lot of surface water that does not shift at all even after a day of waiting. When pressed into a 4mm thick ribbon, it ...
41 views

### Marine microfibres: less plastic than predicted

Marine microfibres: less plastic than predicted (Phys.org) Microfibers are fine strands of thread used to make clothing, carpeting and household items like mops. They are found in the air we ...
67 views

### Pressure Increase in stone and in water

Why does the pressure increase only by 0,3-0,4bar per km in stone but 1bar per 10m in water while stone has the higher density?
14 views

### How can I specifiy a substance in AERMOD?

Since I use OTHER as a pollutant ID, are there some parameters I could specify in order to get better results for dispersion of substance I am trying to model? eg. molecular weight or density?
59 views

### What is the most expensive project related to Earth's geology and/or to engineering geology on the Earth? [closed]

Costs related to space exploration are well documented. However, what about the costs of Earth projects like dam/mines/tunnels? What has been the most expensive projects? I know that nuclear power ...
77 views

### Why is Cambrian denoted with such a weird symbol?

I find Ꞓ such an odd-looking symbol. What's the historical significance, etc, of that symbol? Latin letter C with bar My understanding is, C was the Carboniferous, K for Cretaceous... why not ...
82 views

### What do scientists mean when they say the Earth formed 4.56 billion years ago? [duplicate]

Does that mean that the Earth gained the classification of a planet that long ago rather than some other celestial body? How did they determine that this happened that long ago? How discrete is the ...
31 views

### What local formation am I drilling?

I'm having a water well drilled on my property. The drilling crew has been working since Wednesday. They are using an airlift rig with a 6in bore. They are at 300ft and only have 4gpm. I would really ...
35 views

### What will the sea level be when the ice caps/glaciers melt? [duplicate]

I have my views and you have yours, so I ask a question, what was the average sea level in Athens, Greece 2,720 years ago? What was the average sea level in ancient Rome 2,420 years ago? https://en....
34 views

### What is the reason for the stratification of water column in oceans?

I read that isopycnal diffusion is 107 times larger than diapycnal diffusion and this is the reason why the concentrations in the thermocline and below do not propagate to shallow waters. However, I ...
114 views

### Total differentiation

The local derivative is linked to the total derivative by: $\frac{\partial T}{\partial t} = \frac{DT}{Dt} - \mathbf{U} \cdot \nabla T$ and the -$\mathbf{U} \cdot \nabla T$ term represent the change ...
53 views

### What exactly does it mean that Japan is the “land of the rising sun”? [closed]

Only in later years have I understood anything about how our planet moves around itself and around the Sun, and how it therefore appears to always "rise in the East" and "set in the West", apparently "...
48 views

### What would a rock thin section look like without any polarizers?

I'm interested in knowing what features can still be discerned. I've been struggling find any image of a thin section of a rock under a regular light microscope, or a petrographic microscope with the ...
170 views

### Why is the concentration of highly siderophile elements so uniform in the mantle?

The plot above is about the concentration of siderophile elements in the terrestrial mantle. From the logarithmic plot, we can deduce that the concentration of highly siderophile elements is quite ...
149 views

### How would I simulate the effects of the Antarctic ice sheet being deleted on Earth's climate?

This is a follow-up to my question If its ice sheet were removed under modern atmospheric conditions, what climatic and ice-sheet equilibrium would be re-established over Antarctica?. As it has ...
62 views

### Wasn't Earth a magma ocean before the Iron Catastrophe?

I've always thought that the process of planetary accretion was energetic enought to keep the proto-Earth entirely molten, and that the subsequent evolution of the planet (the formation of the crust, ...
67 views

### Why does the Earth's crust have more aluminum than magnesium while the Sun has more magnesium than aluminum?

Magnesium represents 0.07 % of the composition of the Sun's photosphere while aluminum represents 0.006 %. Therefore, there is much more magnesium than aluminum in the Sun's photosphere. But the same ...
31 views

### Is the slowing down of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation a response to climate change?

I have been taught that the changes in current were caused primarily by climate change but upon reading the conclusion of the paper named: "Observed decline of the Atlantic meridional overturning ...
73 views

### Is pollution the reason why rainbows are so rare nowadays?

Today I saw a rainbow after almost a decade. I live in Noida (a city) in India. Most people I know believe that: we don't see rainbows nowadays because of pollution and now after nearly 3 months since ...
55 views

### What is the relationship between the derivatives of specific volume and potential temperature with height?

While studying about atmospheric waves, I found a passage in my book in which a equation involved the term $$\frac{1}{\alpha }\frac{\partial \alpha }{\partial z}$$ where $\alpha$ is the specific ...
32 views

### How is Air Quality Index relevant to both PM2.5 and NO2

I am comparing NO2 and PM2.5 levels in the pre-2020 Jan-April and 2020 Jan-April (representing air quality during lockdown and under no-lockdown conditions). The data was from the aqicn website (...
51 views

### Why some area in the ocean seems to have like “wind barrier”?

When looking at the earth wind map, some lines clearly distinguish themselve and act as "frontier" between stream of wind. I was wondering what it was and what was causing them? Thanks.
38 views

### Why is Europe still considered a continent(along with Asia)? [closed]

It is true that there are multiple definitions of a continent. But it is also true that Europe fails to satisfy any of them. One of the boundaries between Europe and Asia was chose arbitrarily(the ...
78 views

### How do mountain springs get their water?

I am curious how do mountain springs get their water. The water flowing from them eventually forms rivers. Is it only from rain and snow? Or does water also come from underground-below the mountain (...
18 views

### Why we compare the oxygen fugacity of magma ocean with IW, FMQ or any other buffer?

e.g., Nitrogen solubility as high as near 25 ppm in forsterite, pyroxene, and garnet have been reported in an experimental study in the 1.5–3.0 GPa range with the oxygen fugacity controlled at those ...
36 views

### Rainbowish phenomenon outside my home

I took a photo of an amazing sight I had never seen outside my home ( southern india ) but I could not tell if it was a rainbow type thing or an aurora borealis. Also if it was to be a sun dog , ...
24 views

### Noise level estimation using Hildebrand & Sekhon method

I have some data from a radar to process in order to find the moments and in turn the wind speeds. I have no prior knowledge in signal processing so it's giving me a hard time to estimate the noise ...
65 views

### Torrential rain from a tiny cloud in otherwise blue sky [closed]

In the 1950s in England in an otherwise cloudless blue sky in summer a very small dense cloud appeared overhead around midday which looked like cumulus and for about 5 minutes we had torrential rain. ...