# All Questions

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118 views

### How does fertile soil reach newborn volcanic islands?

When a volcanic island first surfaces, I assume no vegetation can grow, as it probably only consists of volcanic rock. How would a volcanic island like Iceland that is far from any continent grow to ...
54 views

### What does it mean that “gas-producing countries such as Russia have likewise been dependent on a fixed set of pipeline export routes”? [closed]

Am new to this. I was reading New Geopolitics of natural gas by Agnia and came across this paragraph : because gas historically had been supplied primarily by land-based pipeline monopolies ...
144 views

### How can oceanic Rossby waves move from East to West?

I can find several examples of Rossby waves, mainly atmospheric, moving towards East. Is it possible that they also move towards West?
64 views

### [How deduce from shadows, the angulation of the Sun that the Sun is 15 degrees over horizon?

At r/rbi, u/A11edge asked Can anyone determine an hour when the photo was taken? The author of the photo is suspected of spraying pesticides during daytime (which is illegal because it causes death ...
72 views

### Are the precious metals (silver, gold, platinum) present everywhere throughout the Earth's crust at least in the trace quantities?

Do some rocks, soils, sands or waters exist that contain fewer than one atom of gold per cubic meter or tonne of their mass?
62 views

### How does the changing seasons affect the large scale easterly flow of the ITCZ?

I am new to climate science and have been learning the basic picture of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and how this leads to the predominant easterly "trade winds". The picture that I ...
572 views

### Non-invasive techniques to find rock composition

If we had access to a totally new kind of rock (maybe a new meteorite), is it possible to tell what the rock is composed of without touching it / drilling into it? I'm thinking of something like ...
15 views

### Does anyone know of any studies comparing juvenile and adult abundance data for an ontogenetic reef fish? [closed]

I'm trying to look into relationships between juvenile Hogfish which recruit in sea grass habitats to adult abundance data that move to deeper offshore reef and hard bottom habitat. I have data from ...
126 views

### If I build a concrete surface on a 1km x 1km area and painted it black, will I create convection (updraft from ground)?

Providing there are low wind conditions and a clear sky, will the 1 km x 1 km black surface create an upward convention? Let’s say I were to do this at 60$^\circ$ N longitude in march month, the ...
33 views

### What is the relative (magnetic) permeability of the Earth? How could it be measured?

I believe, Earth could be approximated by a molten, metallic, non-magnetic sphere, with a molten stony sphere around it. However, As far I know, the magnetic properties of the lava in the crust, in ...
14 views

### TDWR Radar Data Resolution & Dimension

Does anyone know the resolution of the TDWR radar data that is available from NWS. (Ex: https://console.cloud.google.com/storage/browser/gcp-public-data-nexrad-l3/2020/05/05/TEWR/) When I extract the ...
136 views

### What “blobs” of molten material in Earth's interior are responsible for the rapidly moving north pole? Where are these blobs exactly?

IFL Science's Earth's North Magnetic Pole Is Heading Towards Siberia – And Scientists Now Know Why explains that the motion of Earth's north magnetic pole can be understood as follows: A new study, ...
36 views

### Derivative of the Unit Vector in Spherical Coordinate system

I have a doubt regarding a step in the derivation of the momentum equation in spherical coordinates. I am referring to the textbook "Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling" by Mark Jacobson, 2nd Edition,...
54 views

### Has recent drop in airline flights over the US had a measurable warming effect as was found after 9/11?

I recall that after 9/11, when all US flights were canceled, there was a statistically detectable bump in average temperature. Something about jet contrails disappearing for 4 days. Has anything like ...
92 views

### Does Earth's rotation cause sea levels to increase from east to west?

Intuitively if the Earth were to rotate fast enough from west to east, the average sea level would be noticeably higher on the west edge of the oceans. Does Earth's rotation cause this effect in ...
33 views

### Effect on climate of the Earth’s rotation was a week instead of 24 hours

Cross-posted in Worldbuilding. Curious what the affects on daily temperatures and climate would be if the Earth had a slower rotation, say 84 hours of light and 84 hours of darkness. How extreme ...
18 views

### Filtered pressured oxygen 80 miilion years ago

Was dinosaur blood really red? Was the vegitation really green?Can that filter be used today?
130 views

### Why aren't the Hawaiian islands a continuous strip of land?

My understanding is that the Hawaiian islands were produced as the Pacific plate moved over a stationary hot spot, which sent magma burning up through the plate as it passed over, forming a trail of ...
35 views

### Is CO2 in the Pacific Ocean depleted or enriched in Carbon-13 compared to the Atlantic, and why?

Due to thermohaline circulation, the Pacific water is more 'aged' so there is a higher amount of total dissolved inorganic carbon (e.g. CO2) in the deep Pacific when compared to the Atlantic. However, ...
70 views

### What is real impact of Precision Agriculture? [closed]

I am just wondering what is the real impact of Precision agriculture. I came across Airbus Intelligence and their Earth Observation services (Agriculture, forestry, environment) - It seems nice and ...
119 views

### Geo-Spherical shape of Earth

I know that the best possible approximation of the shape of earth is an oblate sphere. But people also call it as geo-spherical shape of the Earth. What is the meaning of geospherical shape? Does this ...
73 views

### How do you choose appropriate parameters for a lowpass filter when filtering a Bouguer anomaly?

I am trying to filter my Bouguer anomaly data to remove the short wavelength features. I have created a lowpass filter to achieve this, but I am wondering how I can more objectively choose my cutoff ...
95 views

### Are airliners sensors used to feed weather prediction models?

Weather balloons, as well as specially prepared aircrafts, are used to retrieve several atmosphere parameters at different altitudes that are latter used to feed mathematical models for weather ...
26 views

### Correlation of Global Stratospheric AOD with Global Mean Temperature Anomaly

I'm trying to understand at a high level the relationship of aerosols to the global temperature and I'm new to these concepts. I have Stratoshperic mean global AOD data from: https://data.giss.nasa....
87 views

### How to calculate 'real-world' geometric height from ERA reanalysis data

This seems like a really simple question, but I have been struggling for a couple of days to find an answer online or in the ERA documentation. I am using ERA5 and ERA Interim reanalyses to get ...
17 views

### Are Bond cycles Dansgaard-Oeschger event(s)?

Are the c.1500 year cyclical climate cycles called bond cycles or Dansgaard-Oeschger event(s)? I thought the Dansgaard-Oeschger event(s)? occur on much longer timescales. If so, why are they also ...
70 views

### Do trees capture more CO2 during a fast growth stage?

I understand that trees capture CO2 from the air and use that carbon to grow. As trees reach mature height, do they begin to capture less CO2 as they would only need carbon for "maintenance" as ...
53 views

### Why do some parts of the West Coast of North America get hot later in the year than others?

Southern California is currently in the midst of a heat wave, which is an unwelcome stress for stay-at-home laws during the Covid-19 pandemic. Indeed, the California coast sees its warmest ...
86 views

### What were the Two Largest Forests of Western and Central Europe (circa 600 BC)

I am trying to find out what forests were the largest in Western and Central Europe, around 600 BC. I understand that accounts dating that far back may be difficult to find, but I hope other sciences ...
41 views

### What is the “pressure gradient” within the richards equation

I'm trying to understand the Richards equation that can be used to compute the flow of water in soil. In a textbook I found the following: Unfortunately, the textbook doesn't really explain what the ...
49 views

### What will be the depth that water can sink to the ground? [duplicate]

Currently there is a pond in one acre of land which is of 4 feet depth. If the pond is filled with water it is expected that some percent of the water will be absorbed by the ground under the pond. To ...
53 views

### How to estimate the runoff time for my area?

I want to use an rainfall-runoff model for pluvial flash floods and need to choose for my synthetic rain event the appropriate duration. In the literature it often says that the chosen duration should ...
63 views

### What is the radiative forcing change associated with the Chinese 2020 COVID lockdown, and how does this affect the circulation?

The lockdown imposed in China and other countries in response to the COVID 19 pandemic has resulted in a dramatic change in air quality. Factories and transport systems have shut or continue at ...
36 views

### In radiometric isochron dating why is at t=0 D*/Dref=const but P/Dref not?

I am a physics graduate and trying to understand one of the assumptions made for isochron dating of rocks: at crystallization time of the rock, $t=0$, the ratio of the parent isotope to a stable ...
67 views

### Is lower tropospheric temperature relevant to measure global warming?

So according to this, Global temperature update Last month, the lower tropospheric temperature dropped 0.28 $\sf^\circ$C from February to March, which seems like a huge drop even if it's due to ...
43 views

### Independent sources of information on radiation pollution in Europe

Bear with me if this is a wrong place to ask this question. I aksed this question on Physics at StackExchange and was told it will be more on topic here. Recent news show a fire has started close to ...
108 views

### Does higher hardness means that A cannot scratch B regardless of any other variable?

You have object A of hardness 4 and glass B of hardness 6. Is this information alone enough to determine that, under any circumstances object A will never be able to scratch glass B? For a more ...
44 views

### Estimations of time to turn a beach rock into this?

[ROUND BEACH STONECan anyone help determine how long it would have taken to turn this rock into the ball it is now? heavy density .Found on the South Coast here in the UK near Lyme Regis (Jurassic ...
125 views

### Why is Paris still polluted during the Covid-19 shutdown?

It does not seem that the air pollution level is getting any lower in Paris during the current shutdown due to COVID-19. Why is that? There are fewer cars. Are they only a small part of Paris' air ...
58 views

### Soft Question: How Best to Thoroughly Exhaust the Literature

I am trying to make sure I have done my due diligence in researching the literature when it comes to a particular topic in oceanography and/or atmospheric science. My specialization is in a different ...
66 views

### Why does Panama have a dry season?

So, I understand that during much of the year, Panama gets regular rain due to moist air being carried in by the trade winds from the Caribbean. However, the country also has a "dry season" from ...
85 views

### Splitting the Earth's emerged land in two equal parts

Is there a meridian that has exactly as much emerged land area 180° on its East than 180° on its West (on the assumption that it could exist...)? If there is no meridian, is there any other great ...
79 views

### What does supersaturation with respect to ice mean?

I've been reading about the Bergeron process, a process that generates much of the precipitation in the middle latitudes by generating ice crystals at the expense of water droplets. The part I don't ...
21 views

### How all of the files listed as stream (st) could be used or listed as traces (tr) in obspy (python)?

PPSD (seismic background noise) I list all of my files, basically as components (H1, H2, and V), as streas as follows: import os from obspy import read from obspy.signal import PPSD import ...
37 views

### Have cosmic ray muons or solar neutrinos been used to probe inside the Earth?

By looking at the attenuation of cosmic ray muons passing through pyramids as a function of their direction, it seems it is possible to "look inside" by mapping their 3D density distributions. ...
57 views

### Is it meaningful to assume static pressure to be constant along a streamline?

I am looking at Bernoulli's equation formulated in two dimensions, which reads $$\frac{v^2}{2}+c_p\theta_0\pi+gz \equiv \mathrm{const.}$$ along a given streamline $\gamma$, where $v=|\mathrm{v}|$ for ...
50 views

### Why is April the driest month (by far) in the Benelux?

According to Wikipedia*, April is the driest month in the Netherlands, with only 42.3mm rainfall on average, as opposed to neighbouring months March (66.8mm) and May (61.9mm). This difference (almost ...
72 views

### Earth's interior heat ratio between pressure and atomic decay

What is our current understanding between the ratio of Earth's interior heat between the downward pressure and atomic decay?