# All Questions

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1answer
181 views

### How to convert mol/m^2 to total mass ( e.g gram, kg etc )?

I want to calculate the total $\rm{NO_2}$ amount in a year using satellite Sentinel-5p NO2 dataset. But the problem is sentinel satellite data stored in $\rm\frac{mol}{m^2}$ unit. But I have to ...
1answer
57 views

### Why does exhaust smells linger some days?

Some days I can smell bad smelling exhaust 50 meters or more away from the bus stop. I think the air is usually moist those days. Does exhaust gases linger longer if the air is moist near the ground?...
2answers
94 views

### Has there ever been a case where we have found what appears to be a prehistoric fossil but have no way of dating it?

I find that when ever I learn of a new fossil, the age of said fossil is always mentioned. This perplexes me given how intuitively rare it seems to have radioactive material to date a formation. I ...
0answers
158 views

### Wind rose WRF-PYTHON

I'm trying to plot a windrose but I don't know how to get the variables ws and wd. Is there any variable in the wrf output that can be used to make a windrose? I tried with 'wspd' et 'wdir' but I ...
0answers
84 views

### Earth-like conditions on Titan: is it feasible that Titan once had seas and lakes of liquid water?

Given that: 1) Four billion years ago Saturn was hotter and radiated strongly in the infra-red. . . . . . . . . . 2) Like Earth's moon, Titan was then closer to its planet. . . . . . . . . . 3) Like ...
2answers
266 views

### Geomorphological feature identification

I was studying a satellite map of Iceland and came across an interesting, but unnamed feature located between Vatnajökull glacier and Trölladyngja volcano (between 64°50'35"N, 17°11'21"W and 64°48'33"...
1answer
40 views

### The effect of the 2019-2020 bushfires/wildfires in Australia

What was the total damage of the 2019-2020 bushfires/wildfires in Australia?
1answer
36 views

### How do they get “deep lunar mantle” samples?

Phys.org's Study suggests Earth and Moon not identical oxygen twins says They found that the oxygen isotopic composition varied depending on the type of rock tested. This may be due to the degree of ...
1answer
53 views

### Landsat 8 acquisition time and date

The the meta data text file that comes with Landsat scenes, contains an acquisition date and a scene center time in successive lines. I wanted to know if the image is recorded at the scene center time ...
4answers
100 views

### Why isn't the side of the earth facing the sun completely illuminated by sunlight from the north to the south pole every day of the year?

We all know that the earth rotates every 24 hours, that it is tilted 23.5 degrees, that it circles the sun every 365 days, and that it is located approximately 148,600,000 km (92,333,000 miles) from ...
1answer
45 views

### can wet winters require more home heating than colder winters, in same place?

This winter in UK has been wet and windy but rarely below freezing. Last winter was colder with snow but less rain and wind. My storage heating seems to need to be set higher this year. I suspect the ...
2answers
180 views

### How many days has it been since the Cambrian explosion?

I want to know how to calculate the number of days since an event in Earth's past, and am using the Cambrian explosion as an example. I define a day to be one rotation of Earth with respect to the ...
1answer
120 views

### What is the use of HV or VH polarization in Radar?

Radar is a common tool in remote sensing, it is a so-called active instrument, hence it emits and receives energy. Modern Syntethic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are capable of both transmitting and ...
1answer
85 views

### Performing time-frequency analysis (FTAN)

I am trying to do ambient noise tomography and I am quite confused on how to perform time-frequency analysis (FTAN) as shown in figure 13b and 13d of this paper by Bensen et al.. I am using Python and ...
2answers
116 views

### What has been the influence of the moon on Earth's temperature?

What proportion of Earth's internal heat is generated by tidal flexion as a result of the orbiting moon, and would it have been significantly greater four billion years ago when the moon was closer? ...
1answer
75 views

### Why is Venus so cracked?

Wired.com's Space Photos of the Week: Perfectly Safe Celestial Coronas includes radar images of the surface of Venus taken from spacecraft in orbit around it. One of them shown below. What causes ...
1answer
61 views

### How to calculate gps location based on direction and distance?

I need to calculate the gps coordinates of a point "North 52° West 2.67 chains" from a known location. What's the process to make this calculation? If possible, start with 37N-91W. There's an answer ...
2answers
113 views

### What sort of a plate is the Sunda plate?

I have read that the islands of Sumatra & Java have resulted from the subduction of oceanic crust of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Sunda plate. I want to know whether this boundary is ...
1answer
101 views

### Identification of Iguanodon and Maiasaura

What are some good ways to distinguish between Iguanodon and Maisaura fossils, or even just pictures of the two dinosaurs?
1answer
44 views

### Longitudes and latitudes are not regular in WRF-out files

I am working by WRF-ouput files (wrfout_d01_2016-01-16_00:00:00). I extracted and printed latitude and longitude data from the "wrfout_d01_2016-01-16_00:00:00", ...
1answer
39 views

### Is there an index that evaluate how even temporal rainfall distribution is?

Like some biodiversity indices that account for species evenness (whether it is dominated by a few species), I am wondering do meteorologists use an index to describe how even a temporal rainfall ...
0answers
31 views

### How to choose “relevant” precipitation durations for flash flood modelling?

For my thesis, I model flash floods in urban areas. A book with recommended practices says to use events with a recurrence interval of 30 and 50 years. Regarding the duration of the precipitation ...
1answer
135 views

### Convert NO2 concentration in Sentinel-5P data from mol/m2 to μg/m3 on the ground level

Sentinel-5P satellite provides high-resolution data products on concentration levels for several atmospheric trace gases (NO2, SO2, O3 , and others), which are measured in mol/m2 within the total or ...
2answers
104 views

### What is the connection (if any) between jarosite and subsoil biological activity near Spain's Río Tinto?

In the short BBC video Spain's otherworldly red river, Ricardo Amils, a researcher in Spain's Astrobiology Center says the following (amateur transcription): Río Tinto is a peculiar place in our ...
0answers
77 views

### Mass budget of coastal erosion and ocean deposion

This question made me wonder: how much mass (or volume) of material is eroded by the sea each year? Of this mass, how much is deposited in the oceans? (As Michael pointed out in his answer, part of ...
0answers
72 views

### How can I do cdo remapbil

Can anyone to help me? I am trying to use this command to interpolate my netcdf data into my wrfinput_d01 . I have used this: ...
1answer
6k views

### Debunking scientific paper “Has global warming already arrived?”

I read the IPCC reports, I know global warming is happening and is man-made. But as any skeptic should do periodically, I went to a few climate deniers websites and stumbled upon this peer-reviewed ...
1answer
77 views

### Format/interpretation of NOAA Elevation Data

I've downloaded the all10g data from https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/topo/gltiles.html and also the globedocumentationmanual.pdf from the "The Globe Project Report" link on that page. The only ...
1answer
102 views

### Could the LA County Museum of Art fall into the LaBrea Tar pit during an earthquake?

LACMA (the Los Angeles County Museum of Art) is built right next to the famous La Brea Tar Pits and that keeps me up at night†. Question: What is the subsurface structure like adjacent to the Lake ...
2answers
68 views

### CO2 Storage, it's possible, but what about

It is possible to store $CO_2$ geologically similar to natural burial. But at the rate that it needs to be buried, how do we know it is economic enough that more fossil fuels wouldn't have to be ...
1answer
69 views

### Have fossils ever been found in the asphalt lakes of Trinidad and Venezuela?

La Brea tar pits in California are the result of ancient oil seepages and famous for the fossils of extinct animals which were trapped in the tar. The asphalt lakes in Trinidad and Venezuela are also ...
1answer
102 views

### What would happend in distant future if we didn't extract fossil fuels

I'm sorry if that is stupid question. Geology is not my thing, but I'm curios about this. Let's assume that mankind has never extracted fossil fuels (or existed in the first place) and for millions ...
1answer
4k views

### What's causing this high SO2 concentrations in Kazakhstan?

I was using this website for weather conditions around the world called Ventusky (https://www.ventusky.com/) and one of its features allows you to view SO2 concentration. I stumbled upon this high ...
1answer
83 views

### Amount of Distortion at Continental Collisions

Something that I've wondered for a while now - When continents collide, how much of the landmass gets distorted by the collision before it settles? To perhaps give a clearer idea of what I'm talking ...
2answers
519 views

### Is sea erosion the opposite of sea level rising (or rather, an adjacent phenomenon)?

Because I understand the mechanism of sea erosion as to take earth away from shorelines (and scatter it deep into the sea floor) and also to derive from climate crisis, I ask the following question: ...
1answer
41 views

### At what sea level would beach area be maximized?

If the sea level was 30000 feet, all land would be submerged and no beaches would exist. If the sea level was -30000 feet, no sea would exist and there would also be no beaches. The beach area ...
1answer
87 views

### Historical data on world's forest area

Is there long historical data (at least a few centuries back), at the world level, of forest area? I've only found data by the FAO starting in 1990 (see here). There is some older evidence for a few ...
1answer
82 views

### Which are the points on Earth that receive the least solar radiation on average?

The points which, instantaneously, receive the least radiation during daylight hours must be (I assume) those that lie tangent to the Sun rays. These points rotate, so there's a whole circle of them ...
0answers
44 views

### Rainfall guage stations outside the watershed

How can I determine the rainfall depth for an event over the watershed, if I just have two stations, S1 and S2, that are outside the catchment? Methods I have thought of were to take the average of ...
0answers
34 views

### Use of radiolarian fossils to assess CO2 levels in early geological periods

Radiolaria are microscopic marine protozoans commonly found as fossils in rocks dating as far back as the early Cambrian. Their silica skeletons are damaged by high levels of CO2, so is it possible to ...
1answer
146 views

### How quickly is the Earth shrinking?

Except for ice, acetic acid, bismuth and gallium and a few other things materials generally shrink when they cool and solidify, so I'm pretty sure Earth has as well. It probably wouldn't be ...
0answers
69 views

### Earth's Electricity

This question s titled according to of one of the Nikola Tesla's patents. There he stated that lightning generates electric waves in Earth. "In the course of certain investigations which I carried ...
1answer
90 views

### Are hot springs in non-volcanic areas radioactive?

Hot springs in non-volcanic areas are attributed to the interaction of water with hot rocks deep in the earth's crust: In non-volcanic areas, the temperature of rocks within the Earth also ...
0answers
75 views

### Where and how big was Sicily between 5 and 1 Ma ago?

Sicily is a geologically complex island which seems to have been extensively studied geologically and from a tectonically point of view. There are an overwhelming number of papers dealing with the ...
2answers
170 views

### Why isn't Iberia a tectonic plate?

I usually read that Iberia is a subplate, while India is a plate. But it was a plate at the beginning of the Alpine Orogeny: Source: wikimedia.org Description: Tectonic map of southern ...
0answers
34 views

### How long for tectonic plates to develop from a planetary, molten planetary surface?

On Earth or an Earth-like planet, how long does it take for a molten surface to solidify into planetary crust, and how long does it take for that crust to develop into tectonic plates?
2answers
193 views

### How long ago was the first limestone formed?

It is readily apparent from the fossil record that the first limestone was laid down hundreds of millions of years ago, but how long ago was the very first limestone formed? It could be approximately ...
1answer
52 views

### What are today's methods in calculating the Local Magnitude of earthquakes?

I'm no expert and barely have any idea about this. But I want to know if the methods in calculating the Local Magnitude can only be done manually? I mean manually by first reading a seismograph, ...
0answers
35 views

### What are the favourable conditions for the formation of porphyry copper deposits?

Favourable condition for the formation of porphyry copper deposits is : 1. Extremely low oxygen fugacity in initial magma 2. High water content in initial magma 3. Crystallization of magama at deep ...
3answers
169 views

### Why isn't $\ce{H2O}$ evenly distributed in Earth's atmosphere?

I frequently read $\ce{CO2}$ have a spatially constant concentration sadly rising and at 415ppm at present. That concentration do not vary a lot spatially I think. You will find ~415ppm at Argentina ...

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