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8
votes
3answers
6k views

Is Atlanta too far inland and too far above sea level to be affected by the comet in “Deep Impact”?

In "Deep Impact", the president says that "New York City, Boston, Atlanta, Philadelphia, all will be destroyed". New York and Boston are on the water and would be in danger from a tsunami of any size, ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

How long does one touch on a stalagmite/stalactite lasts?

There is a discussion about whether touching a stalagmite or a stalactite would stop it from growing or not: https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090629155053AAYFhCM . The results are that ...
12
votes
1answer
481 views

Where and how can seismic data for earthquakes and volcanoes be downloaded?

I need it in this format. I went to USGS and IRIS websites but couldn't understand the downloading procedure
18
votes
2answers
785 views

Are there secondary causes of sea level change?

Aside from the fraction of water stored as ice on land and temperature of the water, are there other factors that change sea level, and if so what are is the magnitudes of the these changes? For ...
5
votes
3answers
155 views

coriolis force in atmospheric/ocean modeling

The Coriolis force is not a real force, but depending on the reference system and how it does refer to an inertial system. Could this Coriolis force as widely used in atmospheric/climate modeling be ...
18
votes
1answer
504 views

What is the importance of mixing caused by outgassing in the ocean?

I have been asked the following question for which I have no clear answer: What is the relative importance on mixing of the vertical flow of gases (e.g., Oxygen produced by photosynthesis, CO2 ...
9
votes
2answers
4k views

What happens to sea level when a ship sinks?

Let's assume that a ship is traveling on the ocean and it sinks, what is the effect on the sea level? Even if the effect is small, would it go up, down or remain the same?
14
votes
1answer
280 views

Is there a standard definition of a “dry-down” event in hydrology?

When studying the land surface, dry-down periods - periods after rain where the soil moisture is decreasing due to evapotranspiration and drainage - are of great interested, because soil moisture has ...
13
votes
1answer
473 views

Why would volcano eruption cause cardiac arrest?

Following recent eruption of Mt Ontake and the sad news of over 30 people found in 'cardiac arrest', why would the eruption cause it? My initial thought would be that the cause of death would ...
11
votes
1answer
784 views

How much energy is needed to alter the path of a hurricane?

Suppose we spot an Atlantic hurricane very early. How much energy should we expend to alter its track: with nuclear detonations (let's forget about the side effects for the moment)? with a large ...
6
votes
1answer
154 views

About moving ice bergs northwards to slow down all the melting a tiny bit. ( Clearing away navigation hazards is a side effect of this.)

I read somewhere someone someone had the idea to try to move a 'small' iceberg with giant tugboats used to move oil-rigs. I thought if an Iceberg could be moved, why not move it $NORTHWARD$ maybe ...
13
votes
1answer
102 views

GOES Visible Channel - asymmetry between morning and afternoon

In the GOES-13 Visible channel, there seems to be a morning/afternoon asymmetry in the data. I'm wondering what might cause this. In this example data, the morning is the lower branch, and the ...
3
votes
2answers
150 views

Regarding forest fire season and using robotic devices for proactive efforts before any fires

For many years there are terrible forest fires in the U.S. (for example); I was wondering about pro-active measures ( I'm sure there are many). One possibility is using a small army of robots that are ...
10
votes
2answers
924 views

How do I calculate Per capita $\ce{CO2}$ emissions?

I need to find the per capita $\ce{CO2}$ emissions for Canada in 2010 (expressed in kg/day). I know that Canada had $\ce{CO2}$ emissions of 0.55 (Gt) and a population of 34 million in 2010. I am just ...
16
votes
1answer
2k views

How much would the Greenland landmass isostatic rebound contribute to long term climate change?

In reading the question What would the geology and climate of a supposed landmass near the pole be like, assuming a thoroughly warmer planet?, it came to mind that another factor may cause a shift in ...
8
votes
1answer
4k views

Is it theoretically possible to artificially create amber?

It is said of amber that it requires thousands of years of time and much pressure to produce amber from tree resin. This was also said of diamond as well, but we now produce artificial diamonds by ...
11
votes
1answer
2k views

Why is colder seawater more compressible?

I know compressibility is related to the pressure and temperature of the water parcel, but what is the physical/molecular reason as to why colder water is more compressible?
24
votes
3answers
15k views

Why is there a seasonal cycle to the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere?

I'm doing some homework on the increase of $\mathrm{CO}_2$ in the atmosphere. On one of the graphs it shows the amount of $\mathrm{CO}_2$ peaks in May and has a low in November. Why is this? Shouldn't ...
25
votes
3answers
26k views

Why are alpine river water green - blue?

I recently visited Slovenia where I saw several rivers with a strong blue-green color. Here is an example from one of the tributaries of the Soča river near Kobarid. The locals refer to it as an "...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Slope of Saturation vapor pressure versus temperature-A parameter in Penman's equation

How is mm of Hg per degree Celsius converted to kPa per degree Celsius? I also need the equation for computing the value of A (slope) in mm of Hg per degree Celsius.
22
votes
3answers
22k views

Where can obsidian be found?

Where is obsidian found? Is it typically found on the surface or underground? If underground, how far under (meters or feet would be perfect)? Also, is it found everywhere on Earth, or just in areas ...
18
votes
1answer
48k views

How long until Earth's core solidifies?

How much longer does Earth have until the core turns solid? Does global warming change these estimates at all?
13
votes
1answer
4k views

What is it about ancient craton geology that results in associated kimberlite pipes containing economic diamond deposits?

According to the Australian Geological Survey Organisation paper Kimberlite and lamproite diamond pipes (Jaques, 1998), economic deposits of volcanically-formed diamonds are restricted to ancient ...
15
votes
1answer
210 views

Break in human nitrogen input in 1990s

I'm in an AP Environmental Science course, and while reading part of the chapter in my textbook about the nitrogen cycle, I saw this picture. What I was wondering is what caused that dip in the ...
15
votes
1answer
4k views

How much fossil fuel came from the Carboniferous?

It is said that most of the fossil fuels in existence today (coal, oil, gas) came from the Carboniferous period. A unique set of circumstances lead to the creation of fossil fuels, which depends on ...
7
votes
0answers
369 views

What's the contribution of different types of river sources? [closed]

There are different types of river sources, most people might think of springs, melting snow or glaciers, but other types of sources can include wet meadows or marshland. In terms of volume, what is ...
11
votes
1answer
913 views

What evidence is there for geological mechanisms that formed the Siberian traps flood basalt?

The Siberian Traps are the modern day remnants of the flood basalt event. Its eruptions is widely believed to be a major contributing factor of the Permo-Triassic extinction event. In reading ...
11
votes
1answer
1k views

How old is Casiquiare canal?

Casiquiare canal is the world's largest bifurcation. Since such a large bifurcation seems unlikely to be produced and even less likely to stay for centuries, I wonder how old it is and why all the ...
28
votes
2answers
2k views

What sort of climate zones would be present if Earth was tilted like Uranus?

The three main climate zones on Earth are tropics, temperate and polar. Due to Earth's axial tilt, the three zones experience different seasonal patterns: The tropics experience 2 or 4 wet/dry ...
18
votes
1answer
268 views

What percent of volcanoes are glaciated?

I have not been able to find an estimate of how many known volcanoes host perennial ice masses, and it would be very useful to me. Does anyone know of any attempts to do this?
11
votes
1answer
150 views

What is the mechanism behind changes in oxidation state (of iron, for example) as magma rises?

From this answer, I learned that rising magma may change oxidation state, which I wasn't aware of. In [#1], the authors state in the abstract The conventional view holds that the oxidation state ...
13
votes
1answer
2k views

How do you calculate the depth of penetration in a Schlumberger array?

In a resistivity survey, how do we calculate the depth of penetration for a Schlumberger array?
11
votes
1answer
164 views

What efforts have been made to separate the microseismic events related to wind-related ocean waves from the components of volcanic origin?

I have read the question What generates the microseism? and it's accompanying answer. In [#1, cited below], they use the azimuth values of seismographic activity on the flanks of the volcano ...
10
votes
3answers
5k views

Is the atmosphere becoming thicker?

Is the atmosphere getting more dense with various gases, car pollution (200 million cars just in North America), factory pollution, more water vapor and denser cloud cover? If so could a "thicker" ...
16
votes
1answer
307 views

Potential explanations of Red Sea crossing

I am looking for a believable explanation of the Red Sea Crossing in the Bible. This would involve either strong winds(which is mentioned in the Bible) or plate tectonics which could cause land to ...
9
votes
1answer
142 views

What are the factors that dictate a given topology for seismometer placement around a volcano?

The image below (borrowed from [#1]) shows the topology of the seismometers around the volcano Stromboli. In the text, they explain the following: The seimometers were set on the flanks of the ...
11
votes
2answers
3k views

Zeolites, odor control, and the witchcraft of sunlight

Various companies offer "volcanic crystals" or "volcanic rock" available in small mesh bags for odor control. The best description I have found is that these are made up largely of Zeolites. All of ...
14
votes
1answer
138 views

Does Contwoyto Lake empty into both Bathurst Inlet and Chantrey Inlet?

Contwoyto Lake is a large lake in northwestern Nunavut. Descriptions of it say that its primary outlet leads to Bathurst Inlet. Does the lake also have an outlet that leads to Chantrey Inlet, ...
26
votes
3answers
3k views

Equinoxes and solstices: start of the season or mid-season?

In the United States, the upcoming autumnal equinox is marked on most calendars as the "first day of autumn." Similarly the solstices are commonly called the "first day of summer" and "first day of ...
9
votes
1answer
148 views

What makes the conditions at the core/mantle boundary ideal for aluminum to combine with other elements besides oxygen?

Recently, steinhardite was accepted as a new mineral by the International Mineralogical Association. It's quite an interesting story in its own right. There's an interesting article in New Scientist ...
9
votes
1answer
392 views

How does the composition of volcanic rock change as it makes its ascent towards the surface?

A schematic for the fluid mechanics of a volcano is represented below. Graciously borrowed from Figure 1 of the reference cited below From the caption of that figure: During explosive eruptions, ...
2
votes
3answers
12k views

Hypothetically, what would happen to the earth if a large hole was drilled through the center?

This may be a slightly unusual question. I know it wouldn't be possible, but what would the short and long term effects be, if a large (say, 1 mile diameter) round hole appeared, and went straight ...
10
votes
1answer
3k views

Lake inflow-outflow problem

The evaporation from a lake is to be calculated by the water balance method. Inflow to the lake occurs through three small rivers, A, B and C. The outflow occurs through the river D. Calculate ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

Looking at ocean depth/latitude profiles of dissolved oxygen and nitrate. Why is dissolved oxygen low when nitrate is high?

I was looking at a depth profile of a segment of the Atlantic Ocean. What is the relationship between dissolved oxygen and nitrate? When nitrate is high, dissolved oxygen is low and vice versa. I've ...
3
votes
3answers
973 views

Regarding the melting glaciers and icebergs, why isn't the extra water vapor in the atmosphere mentioned in discussions of global warming?

As is reported on the major news networks, many glaciers and big icebergs are melting, which reportedly causes a tremendous increase in the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. Now a lot of ...
16
votes
2answers
3k views

Why is aerodynamic resistance defined inversely?

When I think of wind resistance, I always think of the friction co-efficient, in $\mathrm{ms^{-1}}$, because that's always the way that it was presented in highschool and undergraduate physics. But ...
10
votes
1answer
122 views

Are there any high-resolution urban CO2 concentration data sets?

I gather that higher-than-ambient CO2 "domes" can form above urban areas, enhancing other local air pollution. Are there papers or datasets of average CO2 concentrations down at ground level (say 0-20 ...
11
votes
2answers
1k views

Why are alkali basalts found at rifting centres and on top of 'plumes', whereas MORBs are generally tholeiitic?

So I was essentially wondering why it was that the basalts on top of 'plumes' at 'hotspots' (sometimes called OIBs, ocean island basalts) and at continental rifting centres are enriched in alkaline ...
10
votes
1answer
576 views

Why is a layer of the subsoil so dark on this construction site?

I have this construction site right outside my house, which I would like to give you some geographical background about before asking my question. Have a picture first though There used to be ...
10
votes
2answers
941 views

Why is q used for specific humidity?

$q$ is the symbol used for specific humidity in many textbooks and papers (at least in meteorology and climatology, I'm not familiar with it in other disciplines). Where does this symbol come from, ...

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