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7
votes
1answer
203 views

Why is the warm phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation associated with stronger El Niños?

This is a question inspired by the post at Cliff Mass Weather Blog: "Is a Super El Nino Coming Next Winter?". There is something else. You ever hear of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation? This is ...
12
votes
3answers
289 views

What are the scientific consequences of the lost of the Nereus submersible?

The Nereus submersible was lost at sea while exploring the Kermadec Trench at 10,000 meters during a May 2014 research cruise. During its life, it was planned for the ROV to help investigate the ...
9
votes
0answers
99 views

How much does the Meridional Overturning Circulation strengthen the Gulf Stream?

While the Gulf Stream is a western boundary current (WBC), one professor told me that the Gulf Stream is stronger than it should be just by using theoretical calculations of WBC. How much is the heat+...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

Where to find an accurate Mercator Projection world image?

I'm sorry if this doesn't fit "Earth Science" too well. No idea where else to ask this! Can anyone help me find an accurate world map in Mercator Projection? It doesn't need political borders or too ...
11
votes
1answer
118 views

Why would a suite of related rocks have one anomalous sample?

I have a suite of rocks that have nearly identical major element chemistry, but a single sample has quite different trace element concentrations. All the rocks are trachydacites. I know the analysis ...
10
votes
1answer
503 views

How was the Marinoan Glaciation triggered?

The Marinoan Glaciation (a.k.a. Elatina Glaciation) was a glaciation that is thought to have occurred towards the end of the aptly-named Cryogenian period at ca. 650Ma. It is particularly known as one ...
12
votes
1answer
2k views

Is there any correlation between La Niña/El Niño and seismic activity?

I've read in the past that extreme precipitation levels may have an effect on seismic activity, and wondered if anyone has ever analysed the La Niña / El Niño cycles to see if there are any ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the difference between a high-resolution model and a regular model run?

So we have high-resolution models like the HRRR (High Resolution Rapid Refresh). But what exactly is the difference between a high-resolution model and a regular model? I realize that the higher ...
10
votes
1answer
164 views

Sediment layer chronology

In the new Cosmos series, Neil DeGrass Tyson in explaining different ways the age of the world has been determined, shows how sedimentary layers at the Grand Canyon are a fossil record of a lot of the ...
23
votes
4answers
2k views

Does the strength of Earth's magnetic field influence its climate?

The strength and orientation of Earth's magnetic field varies with time. Does this variation of the magnetic field have any influence upon climate? For example, is there any correlation between ice ...
11
votes
1answer
186 views

Fine particulate matter - Why the lack of attention? What can be done to tackle it?

If fine particulate matter as a pollutant from industrial or natural sources (e.g. a desert) can be such a cause for concern in terms of (further) desertification as well as health impacts, is there a ...
15
votes
2answers
596 views

Will model resolution have an effect on model spin-up time?

In terms of uncoupled AGCM studies, I've seen people use periods within a decade (say, 5 years) as spin-up time, but I also see some people take tens of year as spin-up in some recent studies. So I'm ...
11
votes
1answer
261 views

Use of Neodymium in Paleoceanography

$\varepsilon_{Nd}$ (i. e. the relative deviation of $\frac{^{143}Nd}{^{144}Nd}$ from a standard) is often used as a proxy in paleoceanography to identify the basin of origin of oceanic currents. But ...
16
votes
1answer
121 views

Is the poleward migration of the maximum intensity of cyclones a result of tropical expansion or are there some other contributing factors?

In the recently published article by Kossin et al. (Nature, 2014, dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13278), they show that there is a trend toward poleward migration of the location of tropical cyclone (...
13
votes
2answers
1k views

Model types: Robust diagnostic versus prognostic

I wonder whether someone knows a clear definition/description of 1) Robust diagnostic models Forcing with data from initial state aimed at future predictions? 2) Prognostic models Tie model ...
12
votes
1answer
283 views

Project Mogul: Does upper atmosphere indeed have a sound waveguide channel?

While the project was deemed a failure (see below), does the upper atmospheric acoustic waveguide exist? What are the propagation losses for low-frequency sounds? Where can one find further ...
18
votes
1answer
342 views

What are the physical upper bounds on the magnitude of an earthquake?

Given what we know about the physical mechanisms underlying earthquakes, what do the theoretical upper bounds on the magnitude of an earthquake look like? What physical phenomena impose those upper ...
17
votes
3answers
549 views

Are there any techniques for imaging the deep Earth besides seismic waves?

It is well-known that we can learn a lot about the structure of the lower crust, mantle, and core by observing the ways in which they refract different kinds of seismic waves. Do we have any other ...
12
votes
1answer
277 views

Where does the biggest land-based ice cap reside?

I'm thinking biggest in volume, regarding which area of the planet will contribute more to a raising in sea level - were the ice in those regions to melt. I can basically think of to candidates, ...
22
votes
3answers
616 views

Is there any explanation for the large amount of sea ice around Antarctica in 2014?

As can be seen from the below data, for the past year or so (2014), sea ice surrounding Antarctica has been well above normal. Currently, Antarctic sea ice is at an all-time record high for this time ...
6
votes
1answer
102 views

Why does the meridional overturning circulation take the convoluted path that it takes?

Why does it take the very weird loop that it takes in the Pacific Ocean? And also in the Indian ocean too?
7
votes
1answer
777 views

What is “qflux” and why is it important for climate models?

Evaluation of the Ocean Q Flux is an example of qflux used in the CESM model. Why is it important?
7
votes
1answer
172 views

How was the atmospheric/oceanic circulation different prior to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama?

Did El Niño extend all the way to the West Coast of Africa? Did the meridional overturning circulation exist back then? Was there another overturning circulation that existed?
9
votes
1answer
100 views

How much is Iceland/Norway/Western Europe warmed up by the Meriodional Overturning Circulation?

A shutdown in the circulation was associated with the Younger Dryas stadial, also referred to as the Big Freeze, so I'm curious how much warmer Western Europe is due to the MOC, and how much heat (in ...
8
votes
1answer
87 views

Does the meridional overturning circulation slow down the temperature increase from global warming?

Does it result in an increased exchange of surface heat and deepwater heat, which, in turn, help increase the amount of CO2 and heat that the deep oceans absorb? Related-On-Wikipedia: Meridional ...
6
votes
1answer
97 views

How does the meridional overturning circulation affect sedimentation rates in the North Atlantic?

There's a lot of downwelling in the region. Does this increase sedimentation rates?
5
votes
1answer
114 views

How common is it for warm fronts to be responsible for record high temperatures?

Warm fronts are associated with an increase in temperature and precipitation. But are they often associated with record high daily maximum temperatures, given that they often result in an increase in ...
8
votes
2answers
188 views

What determines the differences in results between various weather models?

It's often said that the ECMWF model is more accurate than the GFS. But what are the reasons why? Also, how does the NAM compare with these two and other forecasting models?
4
votes
0answers
40 views

What determines the eastward speed that mid-latitude high pressure/low pressure systems move at?

Do they move at the group velocity of Rossby Waves? Or do they move at the phase velocity of Rossby Waves? Or some other speed?
4
votes
1answer
472 views

How are jet streaks formed?

"Jet Streak Dynamics I: The four-quadrant model" - explains their effects on frontogenesis. But how are they formed to begin with?
11
votes
1answer
561 views

Why is Montana warmer than Wyoming?

The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) data shows the mean temperature from 1971-2000 for Montana was 5.97°C (42.74°F) and Wyoming's was 5.54°C (41.98°F). Montana is at a higher latitude, so this ...
9
votes
1answer
142 views

Why are some theories as to the cause of glacation less popular among the scientific community?

There are a few theories as to the causes of glaciation. There's the Milankovitch Theory, which says that there are cyclical changes in Earth's orbit and in the tilt of Earth's axis that occur over ...
11
votes
1answer
445 views

What would happen if we could revert $\mathrm{CO}_2$ production but took it too far?

So recently, scientists managed to produce fuel basically out of thin air (water, air and sunlight). And in a discussion I had with a friend, the question came up, what would happen if you took that ...
9
votes
2answers
365 views

Is the Arctic sea ice volume increasing?

According to the graph below, Arctic sea ice volume has been decreasing from 1979-2012: Though this graph from the ESA’s CryoSat satellite show that the volume of Arctic sea ice increased 50% from ...
28
votes
8answers
3k views

Is earthquake prediction possible?

After the Tohoku and East Coast quakes, I skimmed over several books discussing the validity of earthquake prediction as a discipline, yet found no significant breakthroughs. What should change in our ...
13
votes
1answer
584 views

Where can I obtain ocean wave data of the Southeast Asian region?

I am interested in obtaining ocean wave data (preferably from actual measurements), such as wave height, period, and direction, in the Southeast Asian region. Where can I obtain them?
41
votes
6answers
97k views

Are Richter-magnitude 10 earthquakes possible?

The largest earthquake since 1900 according to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was Richter-9.5 magnitude quake in Chile in 1960. Are magnitude 10 earthquakes possible? If so, what is the ...
22
votes
1answer
2k views

Why do Earth and Venus have different atmospheres?

Venus appears to be the closest to Earth in mass, density, size, etc. - though they clearly have different atmospheres. Why do Earth and Venus have different atmospheres?
8
votes
1answer
570 views

How is the radiative efficiency of a given gas (like a given CFC) analytically calculated?

E.g. the gases listed at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/tssts-2-5.html . Do they calculate them analytically or theoretically?
22
votes
1answer
558 views

Why are most peninsulas oriented north-south?

Weird question, bear with me. Most large peninsula on Earth are oriented southwards (and most of the rest northwards), much fewer east or west. Some examples: Florida, Californa peninsula, Yucatan, ...
10
votes
1answer
171 views

How would a Mars rover identify a microbialite fossil?

I recently read of a company in Canada using robotic technology to study freshwater microbialites. Their claim is that greater understanding of terrestrial microbialites could help in the search for ...
11
votes
1answer
200 views

How can scientists be confident of isotope ratios in past eras and varied locations, used for radiometric dating?

Radiometric dating relies on past isotope ratio predictions being very reliable. However, this is not necessarily so. For example, in Uranium forensics, 235U and 238U ratios are about the same for ...
12
votes
1answer
97 views

Why are methane spectroscopic parameters harder to determine and relatively poorly known, compared to other Earth trace gases?

In atmospheric remote sensing of methane, a dominant source of error is the uncertainty in spectroscopic parameters. For example, in the retrieval algorithms described by Batchelor et al. (2009), the ...
12
votes
1answer
93 views

What lithologies are deemed most suitable for the storage of nuclear waste

I have visited storage- and test facilities that are within salt and clay (Opalinuston) lithologies. What are other lithologies that are considered for the storage of nuclear waste and what are their ...
23
votes
0answers
414 views

Is it possible for a sting jet to form over a continental landmass?

Sting jets are thought to be responsible for some of the most damaging winds associated with extratropical cyclones in the mid-latitudes. So far they have only been confirmed in the European region, ...
17
votes
3answers
8k views

If 75% of radioactive material remains, how many half-lives have elapsed?

Radioactive element A radioactively decays into material B. If 75% of A and 25% of ...
16
votes
6answers
731 views

Does volcanic activity fluctuate?

According to this person's surmises, volcanic activity appers to be increasing. However, according to this report, volcanic activity is probably not increasing. My question is: Does Volcanic activity ...
7
votes
1answer
218 views

What definition of “seamount” is used by the largest utilised databases of seamounts?

Appears that answering what seamounts are is a non-trivial question. My take is what matters is data, since authoritative opinions on the topic are at best subjective. As such, my position is the ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

What is a seamount? [closed]

Per Oxford Dictionary of Earth Sciences: Seamounts are isolated, submarine mountain rising more than 1000m above the ocean floor. The sharp, crested summits of seamounts are usually 1000-2000m ...
13
votes
3answers
10k views

What is the tallest fully underwater seamount in the world?

I am wondering what is the tallest fully underwater seamount in the world ? When I say the tallest, I mean the one that is the nearest of the sea level. EDIT : The highest that I found would be at ...

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