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3 views

I a very huge Earthquake would appear anywhere on Earth can waves emerge to come together again on the opposite side?

Suppose that a super-powerful Earthquake appeared (or does one say happened in English?) anywhere on Earth, and which couldn't even be measured on Richter's scale. And suppose the quake was mainly ...
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0answers
7 views

Stability Parameter $\zeta$ definition

Let $L_{obu}$ denote the Obukhov length, $z$ denote the height of measurement and $h_c$ denote the canopy(obstacle) height. I have seen two definitions of the stability parameter: $\zeta = z/L_{obu}...
1
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1answer
37 views

Reference units for CO2 concentration in the atmosphere

I discovered here a set of yearly historical atmospherical CO2-concentrations from year 0 - 2014. Since they haven't mentioned which measure they used, I'm not sure whether it is right to talk about ...
6
votes
2answers
368 views

Does the geothermal activity influence the climate in Iceland?

Iceland has a much more temperate climate than its latitude (~65 degrees) would suggest, thanks to the North Atlantic Current bringing relatively warm water/air so far up north. There is a lot of ...
1
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1answer
17 views

What is the origin of cleating in coal?

Why do some coals show cleating and some not? Is cleating in coal related to coal's plant source or depositional process or post depositional processes?
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0answers
31 views

Advection Fog or____________

If there is snow on the ground in the fall season, at a location 50 km away north of a warmer body of water to the south and that location is receiving fog, what is causing the fog that is occurring ...
0
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1answer
52 views

Commonality of body parts in species [closed]

When one follows the path of evolution of complex life over 500 million years in the Phanerozoic Eon, common body parts begin to appear from the Cambrian and other periods all the way through to the ...
1
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3answers
56 views

What is this (possible) fossil from the triassic/jurassic boundary?

My son recently found this: while walking at Waterloo Bay in Northern Ireland. It looks (to my untrained eye) like it could be a plant fossil. Is this correct? If so, is it possible to tell anything ...
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0answers
24 views

Why don't we fly all the way to the back of the plane when it's moving/accelerating? [closed]

This may seem like a stupid question coming from a stupid person, because that's exactly what it is. when flying in a commercial airplane moving at fast speed in high altitude, Why don't all people ...
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0answers
34 views

Can someone identify this rock my son found for me? [closed]

My son found this rock on a beach it is white and has shiny / sparkly patches in it.
1
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1answer
54 views

How to open old GOES-1 satellite image files downloaded from NOAA CLASS

This is the first time I have ordered satellite imagery via the NOAA CLASS system using the shopping cart, so I am a complete novice. I have requested and downloaded old GOES-1 images from May 1979, ...
1
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1answer
23 views

Does Climate Data Store provide daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data?

I have been meaning to download the daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data from the Copernicus Climate Data Store, but couldn't find it. I need the data on pressure levels and currently I am ...
3
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1answer
48 views

How to solve libnetcdf.so.12: cannot open shared object file in pyferret?

My pyferret was working perfectly until I had installed netCDF4 and now it is throwing up this error ...
0
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0answers
47 views

What rock is this?. Found it in Sedona, Arizona in a stream [closed]

![enter image description here] This rock is dark gray on the outside and light red in the inside of the holes. This rock weighs 80 grams and is 17 cm in length. There were multiple rocks of all sizes,...
1
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0answers
28 views

What's the origin of particulate matter (pm10, pm2 5) [closed]

I would like to ask about origin and inventor of particulate matter pm10, pm2.5. Who published and defined this formulas and when. Thanks in advance!
3
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0answers
16 views

Extracting point data from ERA5 CDS API

I have been extracting ERA5 data through the Web API. Now I am shifting to CDS API. In the web API I used the below code to download time series data at a particular lat/lon. In the CDS API, I can't ...
1
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2answers
100 views

Why is the ice on a frozen lake sometimes cracked?

The YouTube video Skating Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake - BBC News shows a very heavily cracked lake. It doesn't just appear to be a fault line. It appears to be an actual crack that started ...
0
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0answers
25 views

Google earth historical imagery date

I am working on a small creek in Colorado using historical imagery via Google earth. I want to know if the imagery date at the bottom of each image on google earth is the date the google acquired the ...
8
votes
1answer
102 views

How do I start with Modular Ocean Model version 6 i.e. MOM6 on my ubuntu linux machine?

I am learning ocean modelling and have started with MOM6. I needed guidance on where to start from and how to run the model on my local machine (Ubuntu) to perform various tasks such as regridding or ...
0
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1answer
46 views

Weather Forecast [closed]

I am working on an experimental weather station that has a minimal set of sensors: GPS (which gives me the location, date and time); Thermometer (which gives me the air temperature); Barometer (which ...
3
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3answers
116 views

How large is the area covered by coordinates XX°YY'ZZ“N/XX°YY'ZZ”E?

As stated in the title, I wonder how large the area covered by certain coordinates actually is, when they have the accuracy XX°YY'ZZ", for example: ...
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0answers
45 views

Reflected radiation from increased CO2 : how was this calculated

The IPCC claims that the reflected radiation from incresaed CO2 heats the Earth at a rate of 5 W m-2. How did the contributing researchers came out with that result?
4
votes
1answer
89 views

History of the Arctic Ocean

Much of the Arctic Ocean is fairly shallow compared to other oceans. There must have been times in the past during severe ice ages that a lot of what is now the ocean bed was above sea level. When was ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

How to check the recurrence intervall of heavy rain events

Heavy rain or flood events have recurrence intervalls. I.e. 100 year, 50 year or 25 year events. However, with increasing data and global warming and other factors these intervalls change. How can I ...
0
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2answers
61 views

Conditions of Thunderstorms

Why do some heavy rainstorms and hailstorms not produce any lightning or thunder at all when I thought that these conditions of heavy rain and hail are right to bring lightning and thunder but don’t ...
2
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0answers
61 views

Sandstone Layer Question

I have been exploring the sandstone of southern Utah for many years and I have a question about the area around Sidestep Canyon (near Wahweap, near Page, AZ). There are many amazing hoodoos there and ...
0
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1answer
68 views

Result of floating-iron-balls in the mid-pacific?

I had an idea to make green islands from mid-pacific plastic: Release a million tons of floating iron balls there, which will stay in the same regions as the plastic and hopefully cause a veritable ...
-1
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0answers
16 views

Help me to calculate Critical Success Index (CSI) to compare two datasets for selected drought years

I want to compare the performance of ERA5 precipitation data against my reference data for its performance in detecting drought using SPI method.Drought is defined when SPI value is =<-1. I want to ...
1
vote
2answers
112 views

Is it possible to get trapped in a circle of water in a rip current?

According to the YouTube video Rip Currents: How to Survive the Deadliest Ocean's Trick, a rip current occurs when there are two circles of water spinning close to shore in opposite directions such ...
24
votes
2answers
4k views

How do oases form in the middle of the desert?

I am wondering if there are any theories about the formation of oases, and I am also curious about why an oasis can even last for a very long period of time. I have heard that fresh water exists on ...
4
votes
1answer
28 views

Why is ferret giving me error that the region is not 2D while plotting

I have downloaded ERA5 data and am trying to plot temperature variable. The problem I am facing is that even after providing a 2D area for plotting, ferret is giving an error saying that the region ...
1
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2answers
47 views

How much does the weight of urban structures (buildings) affect the compaction (permeability, porosity, density) of alluvial sediments below a city?

I live in Van, Turkey. Van City is situated on an alluvial plain beside Lake Van. General geological structure of the area can be seen on pages 43-44 in this conference book. One of the images is ...
1
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1answer
55 views

On La Vagabonde what Citizen Science is Possible? [closed]

The Catamaran La Vagabonde is a high tech vessel that's designed to be as carbon neutral as possible. Subject to the constraints of space, time and safety, what citizen science projects would be ...
1
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0answers
47 views

How to measure upwelling rate using velocity fields

Using; Angular speed ($Ω = 10^-5$ $s^-1$), Depth of layer = $60 m$, Eddy diffusivity ($A_z=10^-3$ $m^2/s$), and velocity field $(u,v)=Ω(y,-x)$ Can the upwelling rate at the centre be estimated and ...
3
votes
1answer
39 views

How to convert the units of specific cloud liquid water from ERA5 (kg/kg) to kg/m2?

I am trying to initialize my model with the cloud liquid water data from ERA5. My model IITM-ESM which evolved from CFSv2 takes in the cloud liquid water information in kg/m2. However the ERA5 ...
7
votes
2answers
72 views

Where to get temperature sounding model forecast data?

I want to know the current lapse rate for a given point in the US. In other words, I want "live" temperature data at various altitudes. Live is flexible -- I'm generally OK with a forecast which is ...
4
votes
0answers
47 views

How can methylmercury in the ocean be reabsorbed into the atmosphere?

The Sacramento Bee news article Toxic fog may be poisoning some of California’s mountain lions, study says says Algae in the ocean convert mercury to methylmercury, its most toxic form, which can ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

GOES image: parallel trains of clouds. What to make of them?

Here is a GOES visible image from today, 2019-12-01 about local noon, around Nova Scotia. Note the parallel trains or streaks of clouds, running approximately northwest to southeast. A few hours ...
0
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0answers
38 views

Are Iron Meteorites a Good Guide to the Composition of the Earth's Core?

Occasionally, very large nickel/iron meteorites strike the Earth, and on examination it is apparent that they were once part of a much larger body which had differentiated into a metallic core and ...
2
votes
2answers
107 views

Is Australia the largest island?

I had participated in a quiz recently and one of the questions was 'which is the largest island in the world?'. I wrote Australia as the answer remembering that it was the 5th largest country in the ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

How to interpret precipitation probability?

Below is the Dallas precipitation forecast I just got (requested from Google at 10am, Nov 29, 2019). From this, what is the probability that a 10cm (diameter) cup placed in a Dallas park from 4:00pm ...
4
votes
0answers
64 views

Is there any link between the weekly human cycle and weather?

I am interested in the linkage between the cyclical timing of human activity, and whether that has a direct effect on weather. Most obvious to me is the weekly cycle, which is observed by most of the ...
3
votes
0answers
42 views

Finding dimensions to relate fluid components

How can a relationship between diffusivity, buoyancy frequency, and dissipation rate be established? The diffusivity equation: $∂c/∂t+κ∇^2 c=0, ∂/∂x+∂/∂y+∂/∂z=∇$ Buoyancy frequency: $N^2=-g/ρ ∂ρ/∂...
2
votes
1answer
119 views

Could Rumblings From Plutons be as Ominous as Rumblings From Volcanoes?

Mount Kinabalu in North Borneo is a 10 million year old pluton. A pluton is a magma plume from the mantle which was not able to reach the surface and erupt as a volcano, but solidified underground and ...
1
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3answers
75 views

How to calculate maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures?

A quite simple question that I hope someone can help me with. I have a massive database of hourly minimum and maximum temperatures, from many automatic weather stations. I need to estimate the average ...
1
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0answers
57 views

What the negative values in ERA5 soil moisture represent? [duplicate]

I am using ERA5 soil moisture for drought analysis. I do not understand what negative values for soil moisture means, could someone please offer an explanation?
1
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0answers
46 views

Inquiry, Is this Crystal? [closed]

I'm Erfan from Yemen, I found this stone in my village's mountain, it looks not normal stone, it's shinning like a crystal and headlight can penetrate it. There are hundreds of it in the mountain. ...
2
votes
0answers
72 views

Small earthquake happening every night at the exact same time

I experience this weird feeling for the last three months. Every night, at exactly 3AM I can feel small earthquake and I could not find anything on the internet related to it. Does anyone have any ...
1
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0answers
18 views

Is the association of fluorescent minerals calcite, fluorite, and apatite with fluorescent rare-Earth minerals a coincidence?

If I understand this answer and this comment correctly, minerals like calcite, fluorite, and apatite are "commonly associated with (Rare Earth Element) REE deposits", and like some REEs also fluoresce ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

sea-land breeze system

I am currently in the midst of creating a model for the ocean. If I were to construct a model of the sea-land breeze system, should I include the effects of the planetary rotation in the model? These ...

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