# All Questions

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### What is the origin of cleating in coal?

Why do some coals shows cleating and some not? Is cleating in coal related to coals plant source or depositional process or post depositional processes?
10 views

If there is snow on the ground in the fall season, at a location 50 km away north of a warmer body of water to the south and that location is receiving fog, what is causing the fog that is occurring ...
40 views

### Commonality of body parts in species [closed]

When one follows the path of evolution of complex life over 500 million years in the Phanerozoic Eon, common body parts begin to appear from the Cambrian and other periods all the way through to the ...
33 views

### What is this (possible) fossil from the triassic/jurassic boundary?

My son recently found this: while walking at Waterloo Bay in Northern Ireland. It looks (to my untrained eye) like it could be a plant fossil. Is this correct? If so, is it possible to tell anything ...
22 views

### Why don't we fly all the way to the back of the plane when it's moving/accelerating? [closed]

This may seem like a stupid question coming from a stupid person, because that's exactly what it is. when flying in a commercial airplane moving at fast speed in high altitude, Why don't all people ...
32 views

### Can someone identify this rock my son found for me? [closed]

My son found this rock on a beach it is white and has shiny / sparkly patches in it.
53 views

### How to open old GOES-1 satellite image files downloaded from NOAA CLASS

This is the first time I have ordered satellite imagery via the NOAA CLASS system using the shopping cart, so I am a complete novice. I have requested and downloaded old GOES-1 images from May 1979, ...
22 views

### Does Climate Data Store provide daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data?

I have been meaning to download the daily mean of ERA 5 reanalysis data from the Copernicus Climate Data Store, but couldn't find it. I need the data on pressure levels and currently I am ...
47 views

### How to solve libnetcdf.so.12: cannot open shared object file in pyferret?

My pyferret was working perfectly until I had installed netCDF4 and now it is throwing up this error ...
46 views

### What rock is this?. Found it in Sedona, Arizona in a stream [closed]

![enter image description here] This rock is dark gray on the outside and light red in the inside of the holes. This rock weighs 80 grams and is 17 cm in length. There were multiple rocks of all sizes,...
27 views

### What's the origin of particulate matter (pm10, pm2 5) [closed]

I would like to ask about origin and inventor of particulate matter pm10, pm2.5. Who published and defined this formulas and when. Thanks in advance!
15 views

### Extracting point data from ERA5 CDS API

I have been extracting ERA5 data through the Web API. Now I am shifting to CDS API. In the web API I used the below code to download time series data at a particular lat/lon. In the CDS API, I can't ...
98 views

### Why is the ice on a frozen lake sometimes cracked?

The YouTube video Skating Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake - BBC News shows a very heavily cracked lake. It doesn't just appear to be a fault line. It appears to be an actual crack that started ...
24 views

### Google earth historical imagery date

I am working on a small creek in Colorado using historical imagery via Google earth. I want to know if the imagery date at the bottom of each image on google earth is the date the google acquired the ...
102 views

### How do I start with Modular Ocean Model version 6 i.e. MOM6 on my ubuntu linux machine?

I am learning ocean modelling and have started with MOM6. I needed guidance on where to start from and how to run the model on my local machine (Ubuntu) to perform various tasks such as regridding or ...
45 views

### Weather Forecast [closed]

I am working on an experimental weather station that has a minimal set of sensors: GPS (which gives me the location, date and time); Thermometer (which gives me the air temperature); Barometer (which ...
112 views

### How large is the area covered by coordinates XX°YY'ZZ“N/XX°YY'ZZ”E?

As stated in the title, I wonder how large the area covered by certain coordinates actually is, when they have the accuracy XX°YY'ZZ", for example: ...
44 views

The IPCC claims that the reflected radiation from incresaed CO2 heats the Earth at a rate of 5 W m-2. How did the contributing researchers came out with that result?
88 views

### History of the Arctic Ocean

Much of the Arctic Ocean is fairly shallow compared to other oceans. There must have been times in the past during severe ice ages that a lot of what is now the ocean bed was above sea level. When was ...
58 views

### How to check the recurrence intervall of heavy rain events

Heavy rain or flood events have recurrence intervalls. I.e. 100 year, 50 year or 25 year events. However, with increasing data and global warming and other factors these intervalls change. How can I ...
57 views

### Conditions of Thunderstorms

Why do some heavy rainstorms and hailstorms not produce any lightning or thunder at all when I thought that these conditions of heavy rain and hail are right to bring lightning and thunder but don’t ...
61 views

### Sandstone Layer Question

I have been exploring the sandstone of southern Utah for many years and I have a question about the area around Sidestep Canyon (near Wahweap, near Page, AZ). There are many amazing hoodoos there and ...
68 views

### Result of floating-iron-balls in the mid-pacific?

I had an idea to make green islands from mid-pacific plastic: Release a million tons of floating iron balls there, which will stay in the same regions as the plastic and hopefully cause a veritable ...
16 views

### Help me to calculate Critical Success Index (CSI) to compare two datasets for selected drought years

I want to compare the performance of ERA5 precipitation data against my reference data for its performance in detecting drought using SPI method.Drought is defined when SPI value is =<-1. I want to ...
112 views

### Is it possible to get trapped in a circle of water in a rip current?

According to the YouTube video Rip Currents: How to Survive the Deadliest Ocean's Trick, a rip current occurs when there are two circles of water spinning close to shore in opposite directions such ...
4k views

### How do oases form in the middle of the desert?

I am wondering if there are any theories about the formation of oases, and I am also curious about why an oasis can even last for a very long period of time. I have heard that fresh water exists on ...
28 views

### Why is ferret giving me error that the region is not 2D while plotting

I have downloaded ERA5 data and am trying to plot temperature variable. The problem I am facing is that even after providing a 2D area for plotting, ferret is giving an error saying that the region ...
47 views

### How much does the weight of urban structures (buildings) affect the compaction (permeability, porosity, density) of alluvial sediments below a city?

I live in Van, Turkey. Van City is situated on an alluvial plain beside Lake Van. General geological structure of the area can be seen on pages 43-44 in this conference book. One of the images is ...
55 views

### On La Vagabonde what Citizen Science is Possible? [closed]

The Catamaran La Vagabonde is a high tech vessel that's designed to be as carbon neutral as possible. Subject to the constraints of space, time and safety, what citizen science projects would be ...
47 views

### How to measure upwelling rate using velocity fields

Using; Angular speed ($Ω = 10^-5$ $s^-1$), Depth of layer = $60 m$, Eddy diffusivity ($A_z=10^-3$ $m^2/s$), and velocity field $(u,v)=Ω(y,-x)$ Can the upwelling rate at the centre be estimated and ...
39 views

### How to convert the units of specific cloud liquid water from ERA5 (kg/kg) to kg/m2?

I am trying to initialize my model with the cloud liquid water data from ERA5. My model IITM-ESM which evolved from CFSv2 takes in the cloud liquid water information in kg/m2. However the ERA5 ...
71 views

### Where to get temperature sounding model forecast data?

I want to know the current lapse rate for a given point in the US. In other words, I want "live" temperature data at various altitudes. Live is flexible -- I'm generally OK with a forecast which is ...
47 views

### How can methylmercury in the ocean be reabsorbed into the atmosphere?

The Sacramento Bee news article Toxic fog may be poisoning some of California’s mountain lions, study says says Algae in the ocean convert mercury to methylmercury, its most toxic form, which can ...
37 views

### GOES image: parallel trains of clouds. What to make of them?

Here is a GOES visible image from today, 2019-12-01 about local noon, around Nova Scotia. Note the parallel trains or streaks of clouds, running approximately northwest to southeast. A few hours ...
38 views

### Are Iron Meteorites a Good Guide to the Composition of the Earth's Core?

Occasionally, very large nickel/iron meteorites strike the Earth, and on examination it is apparent that they were once part of a much larger body which had differentiated into a metallic core and ...
106 views

### Is Australia the largest island?

I had participated in a quiz recently and one of the questions was 'which is the largest island in the world?'. I wrote Australia as the answer remembering that it was the 5th largest country in the ...
38 views

### How to interpret precipitation probability?

Below is the Dallas precipitation forecast I just got (requested from Google at 10am, Nov 29, 2019). From this, what is the probability that a 10cm (diameter) cup placed in a Dallas park from 4:00pm ...
64 views

### Is there any link between the weekly human cycle and weather?

I am interested in the linkage between the cyclical timing of human activity, and whether that has a direct effect on weather. Most obvious to me is the weekly cycle, which is observed by most of the ...
42 views

### Finding dimensions to relate fluid components

How can a relationship between diffusivity, buoyancy frequency, and dissipation rate be established? The diffusivity equation: $∂c/∂t+κ∇^2 c=0, ∂/∂x+∂/∂y+∂/∂z=∇$ Buoyancy frequency: \$N^2=-g/ρ ∂ρ/∂...
118 views

### Could Rumblings From Plutons be as Ominous as Rumblings From Volcanoes?

Mount Kinabalu in North Borneo is a 10 million year old pluton. A pluton is a magma plume from the mantle which was not able to reach the surface and erupt as a volcano, but solidified underground and ...
75 views

### How to calculate maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures?

A quite simple question that I hope someone can help me with. I have a massive database of hourly minimum and maximum temperatures, from many automatic weather stations. I need to estimate the average ...
57 views

### What the negative values in ERA5 soil moisture represent? [duplicate]

I am using ERA5 soil moisture for drought analysis. I do not understand what negative values for soil moisture means, could someone please offer an explanation?
46 views

### Inquiry, Is this Crystal? [closed]

I'm Erfan from Yemen, I found this stone in my village's mountain, it looks not normal stone, it's shinning like a crystal and headlight can penetrate it. There are hundreds of it in the mountain. ...
72 views

### Small earthquake happening every night at the exact same time

I experience this weird feeling for the last three months. Every night, at exactly 3AM I can feel small earthquake and I could not find anything on the internet related to it. Does anyone have any ...
17 views

### Is the association of fluorescent minerals calcite, fluorite, and apatite with fluorescent rare-Earth minerals a coincidence?

If I understand this answer and this comment correctly, minerals like calcite, fluorite, and apatite are "commonly associated with (Rare Earth Element) REE deposits", and like some REEs also fluoresce ...
62 views

### sea-land breeze system

I am currently in the midst of creating a model for the ocean. If I were to construct a model of the sea-land breeze system, should I include the effects of the planetary rotation in the model? These ...
108 views

### Formation of Iceland

Iceland sits atop a divergent ocean-ocean boundary. But there are not many islands which are formed along a divergent boundary. Why is it so? Why do not mid ocean ridges often rise above the sea ...
42 views

### Volcanism and Earthquakes in Borneo [closed]

Mount Kinabalu is a 13,400 foot mountain in North Borneo formed by volcanism about ten million years ago. What caused this volcanism, why has volcanism ceased in Borneo, and what was the cause of the ...
25 views

### Looking for info on a very heavy snow that fell in Airdrie AB in May of about 1992

I have been looking on the internet and can't find the title subject. Three friends and I spent 2 days snowed in a strangers house in Airdrie AB during May , about 1992. We are talking about close to ...
167 views

### Origin of Andaman and Nicobar islands

Are Andaman and Nicobar islands in Indian ocean a continuation of Alpide-Himalayan orogeny or are they volcanic in origin?

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