# All Questions

5,340 questions
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
11 views

### Lightning activity day curve - why it has high and narrow peak?

Atmospheric potential gradient changes during the day, as different areas of lightning activity come under Sun. This illustration from "The Carnegie Curve" by R. Giles Harrison shows ...
14 views

### Question on the derivation of a prognostic equation for the mean concentration (Assume horizontal homogeneity in X)

In deriving the prognostic equation for the mean quantity of pollutant C, as shown in my solution below: Am I right in that I do not need to separate T (temperature) into its mean and turbulent parts ...
36 views

### regeride netcdf file to template netcdf file resoulution

how can I regrid my NetCDF file into another NetCDF file resolution? change the file number 1 or 2 or 3 (file1.nc,file2.nc,file3.nc ) into resolution template file (wrfinput_d01.nc) . I have attached ...
239 views

### Temperature change in Earth atmosphere models?

NASA's page about Earth atmosphere models gives a weird equation about temperature change in different atmospheric layers. One of the formulas looks like this: Can someone explain to me what this ...
54 views

### What's the official reason why it became so hot in the Kola borehole?

The Kola drill went 'only' a third the way to the mantle, so its deepest point was still closer to the surface than to the mantle. Why did the drillers experience 180 deg Celsius when so deep, where ...
18 views

### Vertical air speed

Assuming that the divergence varies linearly with the pressure between the surface (1000 hPa) and the tropopause (200 hPa). Can someone tell me how do we calculate the vertical speed on the pressure ...
55 views

### Cave's entry and exit points [closed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave 1 Will there be always an exit point for a cave, i.e. there is a dead end so a single entry and exit point for the cave? 2 Can there be multiple entry points and a ...
8 views

### SC7 and SC10 Lithology Classifications

I am looking for the full names of the lithology classifications SC7 and SC10. According to the FAO's guidelines for soil description SC3 e.g. refers to silt-, mud-, claystone. What do SC7 and SC10 ...
21 views

### Flux density and albedo

To save the Earth, the surface of the Earth has been covered by silver foil. The foil has a albedo of 0.9. What is the flux density emitted from the surface of the Earth (assume temperature of 50 deg ...
60 views

### If we could green the Sahara, would it be able to sustain itself?

Let's say at some point in the future we have an abundance of fresh water (for example because we have enough energy to power many desalination plants) and we can turn the Sahara into green land by ...
40 views

### CO2's rise up into the atmosphere

CO2 is heavier than air (1.51 while oxygen is 1.1 and nitrogen is 0.97), however when combusted, it will initially rise until it's temperature gets closer to that of air (about 1000 feet), then it ...
96 views

### Why is starting a minor nuclear winter considered an implausible way to combat global warming?

At a superficial level, it seems like we could exploit nuclear winter (the long-term aftermath of a nuclear war) to counterbalance climate change via global warming, and there are a few articles about ...
36 views

### Variation of the atmospheric pressure

By Hydrostatical Law, $p_a = \rho gh$, at a given $h$. However density varies with altitude and with temperature. Temperature varies by altitude. $g$ constant varies with altitude. How to express the ...
24 views

### Would Venus resume it's plate tectonics if we somehow reintroduced surface water and sped up it's rotation? [closed]

Assume that we're talking a terraformed Venus with an earth like atmosphere so no risk of the water simply boiling away before being allowed to permeate the lithosphere.
42 views

### How did Mount Evans become a mountain?

Multiple websites state that the mountain, which is in Colorado, was formed by an intrusion of magma about 1.4 billion years ago, forming a batholith. On the other hand, the rocky mountains are said ...
32 views

### How long van you stock water? [closed]

When you stock drinkable water in a plastic reservoir: how long does it take before it isn't drinkable anymore? what causes it to stop being drinkable? And can you do something about it?
38 views

### Tides - High or Low - More dangerous? [closed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tide Which is considered more dangerous High or Low Tide? Dangerous from Human beings lives. I mean Human beings going inside the beaches, seas water when there is a high ...
31 views

### Horizontal momentum flux in the surface layer

Given the question below, how would the kinematic momentum flux be at the surface layer? For letter a, why would it be that way (positive, negative, or 0)? Based on the answer below: I’m not sure if ...
31 views

### Recommendations for books on boundary layer Meteorology?

Does anybody have any recommendations on books tackling Boundary layer Meteorology? I've seen the book by Roland Stull and Arya, but are there any other more updated ones that are as good as these two?...
53 views

### Weather produced by symmetric cold core cyclones

I know that, although rare, there are symmetric cold core cyclones (with a few of them even having a shallow cold core). They encompass some occluded extratropical cyclones, some dissipating tropical ...
10 views

### wrfchemi file with 30 timestep [duplicate]

I creat wrfchemi file for my wrf-chem, my wrfchemi file has 30 time step, frames_per_auxinput5 = 30, 30, auxinput5_inname = "wrfchemi_d", auxinput5_interval_m = 60, 60, frames_per_auxinput7 =...
62 views

### Will the definition of the second be changed?

(Please excuse my English) A well known fact about Earth's rotation(around its axis) is that the rotation is slow down due to the tidal friction. And because of it, the length of Day is slowly ...
21 views

### What is this red glassy rock [closed]

I found rocks looking like this in my backyard but cant get to know what they are or how to find out. Below are pictures I don’t know if there’s more info I should mention. If there’s anything please ...
28 views

### Does the Sun and Moon basically appear to “move on the sky” identically regardless of location and date? [closed]

For a long time, I've been trying to use Stellarium (simulation) and many visualizations and animations in order to get a good idea of how the Sun and Moon move across the sky, as seen by a human from ...
24 views

### How to generate inputs for the MUNICH model from the VEIN model

MUNICH is the Model of Urban Network of Intersecting Canyons and Highways (MUNICH) (Kim et al., 2018) and VEIN is the Vehicular Emissions INventory model (Ibarra-Espinosa et al, 2018), an R package. ...
31 views

### Is Hygenic Earth Energy feasible?

This company: https://proton.energy/ Is trying to inject oxygen into old oil wells for it to combust and extract only hydrogen using steam reforming and a filter. Making steam reforming happen ...
79 views

### Would the climate still rise when we reduce our carbon footprint down to zero?

Every electrical device consumes electric energy and almost every one of them I can think of produces heat as a byproduct. This also applies on every kind of machine powered vehicle. Even our bodies ...
25 views

### How to account for second life usage of lithium ion batteries in a life cycle analysis?

I am looking to conduct a life cycle analysis to investigate the total greenhouse gas (GHG) contributions from lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The first part of their lifecycle is relatively ...
52 views

### IPCC digital references

I'm tidying my citations for my thesis, and I'm facing the task of sorting out the references for the IPCC reports (all of which have very long lists of authors). Does anybody know where there are any ...
21 views

### Manually changing symmetry

I have two crystal structures, one in R3m and one in Cm symmetry. Both structures also differ in stoichiometric ratios, 𝐴𝐵𝐶4 and 𝐴2𝐵2𝐶8, respectively. Both structures look about identical, with ...
42 views

### What are good examples of how software helps solving today's environmental problems? [closed]

I'm collecting examples and inspiration of how existing software products or applications of any kind - non-profit or commercial - directly help solving or preventing environmental problems like GHG ...
29 views

### How many years does it take for rivers to form?

I've looked this up as best as I could and couldn't find a clear answer. I've seen for example articles on the age of several rivers as being the oldest ones, but nothing regarding the opposite. Could ...
41 views

### Why do cold-core lows slope towards the cold air with heigth? How to show mathematically that wind intensifies with height in this case?

I understand that from the hypsometric equation, in a cold core low the pressure gradient must increase with height, because in the center the isobars will be closer together: quente = hot, frio = ...
7 views

### Calculate and plot the feature importance of the input dataset of a random forest classification within Google Earth Engine (GEE)

I run a random forest classification for agricultural land use and other land cover classes (12 classes). My dataset for 2019 consists of a Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 monthly time series, statistical ...
76 views

### Why does radioactive dating work on specific rocks?

As I understand it, radioactive dating measures time by what portion of a radioactive isotope has decayed. Weren't all the natural radioactive isotopes created during the formation of the solar system?...
54 views

### Can we store maize along with husk and kernal? [closed]

I'm a maize farmer and I'm almost ready for harvest. I'm planning to store my harvest for some time. Below are my questions: How long can I store my harvest? Can I sun dry my harvest with husk and ...
29 views

### Can I average the two RMM values?

The RMM values are sometimes quite different. Can I average the values of RMM1 and RMM2 and use it as an index for MJO?
8 views

### What happens to all the shards of broken glass that get recycled? [migrated]

I searched for recycling glass and there are no results. https://www.chestercountyswa.org/DocumentCenter/View/1646/New-Mixed-Paper-Guidelines?bidId= What happens with the broken glass in the recycling?...
24 views

### How are Quaternary alluvial deposits differentiated in subglacial latitudes?

The USGS maps of coastal California label alluvial deposits as Qyf and Qof — the “younger” and “older” fans of coarse sediments. But in areas of the earth that never saw Quaternary glaciation (like ...
69 views

### Is an Earthquake Large Enough to Cripple the Entire West Coast of North America Possible?

I have an idea for a novel I want to turn into a reality, and I'm starting some research first to make my book at least plausible in very specific conditions. The main aspect of the story would be ...
24 views

### Is there a conventional list of pollutants to consider for calculations? Or an updating one even?

In researching economic damage from various pollutants, I often find that it's very random sources that inform me of various pollutants I need to be mindful of in calculations. Is there any kind of ...
31 views

### Can a Humidity Differential move PM2.5 Pollution?

Observations There is a higher level of PM2.5 pollution outside of the house. Readings are in the 80-150 range due to wildfires. (PM2.5 levels determined by sensors in PurpleAir.com's sensor network) ...
15 views

### Why REE concentration in a melt due to fractional melting is less than in a melt of same source rock due to batch melting?

I plotted this ree data for batch melting and fractional melting for the same source. From the plot we can see that the melt due to fractional melting is more depleted in REE than the melt due to ...
42 views

### Will California become a subduction zone in the distant future

California is one of the few places in the world that lie on a transform fault. My question is why considering the fact that North American Plate is moving westward shouldn't California be a ...
42 views

### Is it possible for Mexico to have a magnitude 9 earthquake?

Everyone has heard of the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the potential threat it poses. However, I have heard nothing about The Cocos Subduction Zone, even though it caused a devastating earthquake over ...
23 views

### Why and how do quartz crystals change from cloudy/translucent to clear/transparent?

Two pieces of quartz people have given to me at different times have become gradually clear over the space of a few years. Previously they were very cloudy, translucent without any detail visible ...
36 views

### How do I find the temperature measured at 350 hPa?

You are flying 2.5 km over the ground while your mates are flying up at 350 hPa. All the way between you there are clouds. If you measure that the temperature outside is 4 celsius, what temperature do ...
33 views

### Weather data of very low visibility

I am looking for a database or api that stores historical data of very low visibility conditions. The data needs to be reliable and consistent without too many gaps and in an interval of 1 hour. The ...