8

The data that you are having are called emission fluxes. If these data are available as global averages then one can calculate global mean concentration by multiplying the residence time of the species with emission flux. However, at the city or grid level, it is not straightforward to calculate concentration from emission fluxes. In order to calculate, ...


4

A thermal inversion is defined as when the temperature of the air increases with height. By default, there always exists an inversion at the tropopause due to the exothermal Chapman cycle. But let's ignore that, given the context of the question. Let's take a look at the thermodynamic equation and see how the stability changes. The diagnostic equation for ...


3

I think there is a bit to unpack in your question, starting with the definition of terms. Just starting off with the title question, yes - examples include the 1948 Donora Smog event, and the 2006 Delhi Smog event. The use of the word disaster is usually reserved for catastrophes, not exceedances. There are a couple of problems with just claiming that ...


3

You mention "volume" which is the crux of the problem: the surface mixing layer changes height throughout the day as solar heating influences the surface. Consider that the same emission rate can cause different concentrations at different heights and at different times of day and year. Meteorology drives all mixing and deposition, so whatever ...


2

The POLLUTID key is used to specify some regular options. Some examples: PM2.5 can only evaluate averages greater than 24 hours (if you try to generate hourly averages it throws an error). NO2 forces the use of options to simulate the conversion of NOx to NO2. SO2 triggers the use of a 4-hour half-life for SO2 decay in urban zones. All pollutants (gases ...


2

Crop burning is a major cause. Crops are burnt Lal across Thailand between December and march and air movements bring large concentrations south to Bangkok. Even today islands as remote as Koh Phangan are 135 on AQI. Can't imagine tourism can work with crop burning.


1

In the USA there are two classifications of airborne pollutants. They are Criteria Air Pollutants There are 6 separate air pollutants. These make the bulk of the regulation, especially for the Clean Air Act. Each pollutant has different standards to adhere to. Examples include lead, ozone, and particulate matter. Hazardous Air pollutants This is a list ...


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