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The freezing point of carbon dioxide is -78.5C. The temperature at which carbon dioxide sublimates is not a fixed value. It instead is a function of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. That value of -78.5° C is the temperature at which CO2 sublimates given a partial CO2 pressure of one atmosphere. The temperature needed to have CO2 sublimate given a ...


6

Glaciers move by two processes: Internal deformation Basal sliding This figure (made for my candidacy exam), exemplify both processes as if we were following a single block of ice within a glacier: Basal sliding is when the entire glacier slides together over the bedrock, aided by the lubrication of ice water between the glacier and ground. Internal ...


6

Glaciology is a large field of research, and I cannot include all aspects in a short answer. I'll try to give some concepts that can help you in your understanding of the cryosphere. Glaciers are, per definition, moving due to gravity towards lower altitudes. There are some exceptions, e.g. rock glaciers are the stagnant remain of a moving glacier. Large ...


6

The cave is created by warm water, so the ice has been replaced by the water. It is common to find areas under the front of glaciers that have been melted away by warm water. Warm water here means just warmer than the ice. The thing that's making this news is the scale of the area that has melted away. This is the situation scientists have been ...


6

The lack of oceanic and atmospheric currents going into and around Antarctica from equatorial latitudes means that much less heat is transported from the tropical latitudes to Antarctica compared to Svalbard. Therefore, at equal latitude (i.e. equal solar isolation), temperatures in the south are much colder. In Antarctica, at 75°S latitude most of the land ...


5

As to the questions of the flights: McMurdo is about 3.500 km from the next airport (Dunedin in southern New Zealand), while Longyearbyen is only 950 km from Tromsø. It simply is due to the distance and the entailed costs and risks of such a flight. Antarctica being a continent completely surrounded by water allows for specific climatic conditions. First of ...


5

I can't be sure, but I strongly suspect that the radial lines in the first two images are the result of a bug in the software used to draw the map, probably resulting from vector polygons that are described in an inappropriate coordinate system going around, or too close to, the south pole. It's impossible to guess at the meaning of the blue lines in the ...


5

According to the current World Magnetic Model 2015 v2 (new one to be released on 10 December 2019!), Longitude: 166.6863° E Latitude: 77.8419° S Elevation: 10 m Date: 2019-11-25 Declination (+E | -W): 141.5232° (-0.1829°/yr) Inclination (+D | -U): -80.3929° (0.0399°/yr) Horizontal Intensity: 10,396.8 nT (34.7 nT/yr) North Comp (+N | -S): ...


5

-98°C is as cold as it can get on Earth, in isolated places, where air and surface radiation are in equlibirum in the polar winter and no exchange happens Scambos et al 2018. Given the low atmopsheric CO2 in cold phases, extremely low precipitation rates and an isolating polar vortex around Antarctica and no isotopic signal in cores it can be doubted that ...


4

The paper basically combines multiple datasets to figure out the changes in ice surface elevation and ice thickness at tidal and multi-year timescales. That way they were able to study grounding line migration, and the melt rate of the glacier and its corresponding ice shelf from above and below. Then they were able to make inferences of the processes ...


3

During an ice age little CO2 will reach the arctic,it will be absorbed by sea water in all the oceans,This will create a positive feedback,lower CO2 level in the atmosphere will make it even colder so the liquid water will absorb even more CO2. Cold water can hold large amounts of dissolved gasses,When the ice age ends large amounts of CO2 will be released ...


2

Try the long game: Start reading up on the research that is being done. For the interesting ones, start corresponding with the authors asking questions about the work. They have to be good questions, showing that you know what you are talking about. Look at who funds each researcher. Check the papers for those 'thank-yous' that give credit to various ...


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