18 votes
Accepted

How bad is geo-engineering?

The bad part about geo-engineering are the unknown unknowns. Our climate models are wrong. All models are wrong, but some are useful.. Our models are useful, but not quite useful enough to trust ...
gerrit's user avatar
  • 11.7k
17 votes
Accepted

Why is WRF most often configured at 3:1 nesting ratio?

To understand why the nesting ratio of 3 is preferred to the nesting ratio of 2, it is important to understand the following two features of WRF: 1) Grids are Arakawa C-staggered: mass points are at ...
milancurcic's user avatar
  • 4,983
13 votes
Accepted

What is the formula used for atmospheric visibility?

I calculate surface visibility from WRF output using a calculation that I adapted from DTC's Unified Post Processor, specifically from their Fortran routine found in ...
milancurcic's user avatar
  • 4,983
11 votes
Accepted

Temperature change in Earth atmosphere models?

There's some kind of explanation about the units under the picture. The formula is based off the average temperature in degrees Celsius (measured over the entire year, and the entire Earth), which is ...
Glorfindel's user avatar
10 votes

On the light difference between morning and afternoon

I am asking why the light of a clear day is not symmetrically changing centered at noon. Trying to attribute this to a single cause misses the point. There are multiple causes. Other than lighting ...
David Hammen's user avatar
  • 23.6k
9 votes

Does finer input data lead to a better model accuracy?

My experience with the WRF is in tropical cyclone simulation, but here are some things to consider: Smaller scale information might already be resolved in your higher resolution initial conditions, ...
jgadoury's user avatar
  • 315
9 votes
Accepted

Interpolate Gaussian grids to regular fixed grids using bilinear interpolation?

climate data operators (CDO) define grid We define a lat-lon target grid with 1°x1° grid cell size 30x30 grid cells starting at 40°N and -10°E (=10°W): ...
daniel.heydebreck's user avatar
8 votes

How bad is geo-engineering?

Seconding eveything that @gerrit mentioned. Additionally, another major problem with geo-engineering is that once we've started these processes and essentially borrowed time to offset mitigation ...
Trevor J. Smith's user avatar
8 votes
Accepted

Why does computation cost increase 24 times when the spatial resolution doubles?

I can't answer why there's a 24x increase, according to the textbook - but it may well be the case for a specific model. In general, If you double the resolution of a 3D model in each dimension, you ...
Semidiurnal Simon's user avatar
8 votes

On the light difference between morning and afternoon

I believe the effects you are talking about are due to scattering by dust and water vapor in the atmosphere. During the night winds are lower and wet areas don't dry out as fast as during the day. ...
verisimilidude's user avatar
7 votes

Does finer input data lead to a better model accuracy?

Yes, of course finer input data can lead to better model accuracy, but only if the model's conceptualization is close to the mark. Of the many problems of climatic model misinterpretation, I would ...
Gordon Stanger's user avatar
7 votes

How does the tornado chaser locate the spot?

It starts by identifying days with good overlay of shear and surface-based instability. In the US we have the Storm Prediction Center that helps indicate such days looking at models. Generally the ...
JeopardyTempest's user avatar
7 votes
Accepted

Calculate precipitation from WRF model output

Use (1) Precipitation, as it is the sum of convective and non-convective precipitation, integrate it over one day, voilà. converting [$kg/(m^2 s)$] (precip): $$ precip [kg/(m^2 s)] \cdot dt [s] \cdot ...
Lukas's user avatar
  • 438
7 votes
Accepted

How to calculate the solar radiation at any place, any time

Look at the pysolar docs (http://pysolar.readthedocs.io/en/latest/) under "Estimate of clear sky radiation". The algorithm does not return zeros at night, but instead just plugs those ...
Jareth Holt's user avatar
  • 1,381
7 votes

How thin is our atmosphere relative to the size of Earth?

The answer to your question depends on where one defines the edge of the atmosphere. The Earth's atmosphere is layered. The thickness, density of composition of each layer varies. The five layers are: ...
Fred's user avatar
  • 24.7k
6 votes

Take all the CO2 in the atmosphere and put it into a layer on the surface of earth, how thick would the layer be?

Ok, based on the comments above, this is where I am at... earth's radius is $6371 \text{ km}$ earth is a sphere There is approximately $3 \cdot 10^{15}$ kg of CO2 in earth's atmosphere The density ...
Nick H's user avatar
  • 221
6 votes

Why are inversion layers so important in meteorology?

Farrenthope is correct, but I would like to add some detail. An inversion occurs when the air is warmer than the ground. It is called an inversion because it is the opposite of what occurs during the ...
BarocliniCplusplus's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

Python, R or etc.?

In my opinion, python is a more established global language that is used by many more disciplines/users, compared to R. This can be advantageous because examples/tutorials are everywhere and you can ...
f.thorpe's user avatar
  • 13.6k
6 votes
Accepted

What is the atmospheric pressure at the deepest point of the Kidd mine?

From the book Environmental Engineering in South African Mines, The Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, 1989, pp 451-455. The equation required is: $P \ = \ P_{atm}\cdot e^{\frac{-gMh}{1000R\...
Fred's user avatar
  • 24.7k
5 votes

Why are inversion layers so important in meteorology?

Temperature inversions are important to meteorology and pollution because they are the boundary for atmospheric mixing. If there is a strong inversion, the air above and below an inversion do not ...
f.thorpe's user avatar
  • 13.6k
5 votes
Accepted

Running WRF with ECMWF GRIB2 model levels

I finally solved this problem with the following steps: Download the ECMWF data separately for model level variables (Q,T,U,V and geopotential) and surface variables. In this way, you will get 'pure' ...
Peter9192's user avatar
  • 201
5 votes

How to compute du/dx and dv/dy in moisture flux convergence?

I imagine you have a horizontal grid (x,y) and wind components u(x,y) and v(x,y). Normally we do 1-degree of latitude constant (y-dimension) and equal to 110000 m. So your ...
ouranos's user avatar
  • 637
5 votes
Accepted

Correlation and causation

Convergent cross mapping (CCM) is a recently developed tool to answer the question you've asked. It's based on tools developed in nonlinear time series analysis and dynamical systems theory. It allows ...
Z W's user avatar
  • 432
5 votes

How does temperature impact the elevation distribution of orographic precipitation?

Examining two extreme cases, one very cold and the other very warm, the amount of precipitable water in the very cold one will be far less than that in the very warm one. Even fully saturated, the ...
DavidH's user avatar
  • 348
5 votes

How thin is our atmosphere relative to the size of Earth?

But when we look at some diagrams, Earth's atmosphere is thick. For instance, when someone says that the atmosphere is a thin sheet of air, does he/she take in to account the thick layer thermosphere ...
Jean-Marie Prival's user avatar
5 votes

A problem of the 2-Layer hydrostatic model

Let's say our goal is to find $\eta$ which is the displacement of the fluid relative to its resting position at $z = H_2$. We find \begin{equation} \begin{split} p_2 - p_1 &= \require{cancel} \...
Joscha Fregin's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

Why air parcel is on a circular trajectory when considering Coriolis force

The parcel in question is not moving in a straight line. It is a particle at rest in the reference frame rotating earth. A "fixed" observer in space would see a particle moving in circles ...
Joscha Fregin's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Why are "ground level" air quality monitors really on rooftops?

In order to put your question in perspective, you need to consider atmospheric mixing and the size of the system you are curious about. The troposphere is several kilometers thick and the mixed layer ...
f.thorpe's user avatar
  • 13.6k

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