10

tl;dr: The Earth receives 40,000 tons of dust from space every year, but looses 95,000 tons of Hydrogen and 1,600 tons of Helium every year as well. After all additional effects are balanced, the Earth looses about 50,000 tons a year. It seems a similar question was asked in Astronomy Stack Exchange, and this short answer links to the BBC News article Who, ...


8

There's not much context, but my guess is that this was a cavum cloud (a.k.a. punch hole or fallstreak), that was caused by an aircraft. The UK Met Office describe how these form: They form in clouds of supercooled water droplets, water below 0 °C but not yet frozen. These water droplets need a tiny particle, a nucleus, to freeze or to be cooled below -...


7

The Carboniferous was when the growth of woody plants took off. Non-plant life had not yet evolved the ability to consume lignins, the key chemical components that makes woody plants "woody". Lignins are rather hard to decompose. Despite high volcanic activity, carbon dioxide levels fell by a factor of over four during the Carboniferous, from over sixteen ...


7

Lake breezes(similar to sea breezes) are fundamentally a feature of mesoscale meteorology and the peer reviewed reference Small Lake Daytime Breezes: Some Observational and Conceptual Evaluations details both the observational studies of lake breezes and the conceptual understanding behind the formation of the lake breeze. Since OP's question is How big ...


6

You cannot leave "temperature outside", as temperature is the key factor to know if the balloon would pop or not. Let's set up some assumptions about the problem so we can calculate something: The gas inside the balloon behave according the ideal gas law: $PV=nRT$ That the balloon can hold a differential pressure of 30 mmHg (=4000 Pa) as found in this ...


6

It went into: Limestone Mostly made out of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) Coal Oil and gas Living biomass Subducted into the mantle Occasionally coming back as diamonds Or as volcanic gas All images public domain from here


6

There's nothing inexplicable about that photo. It's got a few uncommon features, but nothing unknown. In the image below, I've drastically distorted the brightness curve to make things more obvious: Primary arc. This is the classic "internal reflection" rainbow that you learn about in school. Secondary arc. This one forms when light is reflected twice ...


5

To complement @DavidHammen answer and address the point "where did so much oxygen come from?" I will elaborate on David's final remark The end result was a gradual increase in oxygen levels The short answers to "where did so much oxygen come from?" is: mostly from volcanos in the form of $\ce{CO2}$. To understand this, we have to consider that the ...


5

It is not actual water what is lost to space, because in the high atmosphere water usually dissociate into other molecules or ions. The oxygen ion outflow is frequently assumed to be a proxy for the loss of water from the planetary atmosphere. In terms of global outflow rates for the Earth the rate varies from $10^{25}$ to $10^{26} s^{-1}$, depending on ...


5

The short answer to your question is yes all charge particles (positive or negative), independent (like electron, proton) or attached to other materials like cloud droplets, molecules, atoms, etc. when in motion produce magnetic field. If two charged particles of same charge are moving in opposite direction then they cancel out each other's magnetic field. ...


5

If plants were growing poorly when atmospheric CO2 was 200ppm, it was probably because Earth was in the middle of an ice age and covered with glaciers, not because plants were starved of carbon dioxide. All things being equal, increasing the amount of carbon dioxide available in the atmosphere can benefit some plants, but the problem is that all things do ...


4

Volcanic eruptions effectively inject large quantities of aerosols in the upper layers of the atmosphere, increasing Earth's albedo and reducing the intensity of the solar radiation reaching the surface. Such reduction would indeed lower the solar energy available to solar panels. These effects of volcanic eruptions have been studied by Gao et al. (2008) ...


4

Not in any significant way. As an analogy, if you are looking for a suspect responsible for knocking down the trees in a forest, you shouldn't worry about someone carrying a Swiss army knife, it just isn't the right tool. HAARP has a power of 3.6 MW, which is a lot, but nothing compared with the energy in a modest storm. As an example, a single lightning ...


4

Pollution shouldn't contribute to produce freezing rain. It might have an impact in the precipitation rate and location but not on the likelihood of freezing rain. Freezing rain requires not only that the near-surface temperature is below freezing, but also that there is a temperature inversion that provides above zero temperature in the atmospheric layers ...


4

The volume of carbon dioxide in the atmospheric column becomes uniform at altitude because the sources and sinks for CO2 are generally at ground level and, as it rises, CO2 becomes well-mixed into the atmosphere. This is why, for example, David Keeling began the measurements for what would become known as the Keeling Curve at a station 3.3 kilometers above ...


4

chlorophyll is green because that was the part of the spectrum that was left when plants evolved. The bulk of the spectrum was already being harvested by other photosynthetic life. there is actually a wide variety of photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll is just one of many. You may want to check out the purple earth hypothesis. Sauce


3

To ask why chlorophyll is green is a bit like asking why haemoglobin is red. That is just the colour of them, in the case of haemoglobin due to the iron content and in the case of chlorophyll probably due to the magnesium atom at the centre of every chlorophyll molecule. As you very likely know, the function of chlorophyll is to carry out photosynthesis, ...


3

I think answering your questions in reverse will make more sense. The "size" of PM is typically the aerodynamic/inertial impaction size, as you guessed. My standard reference for this is this paper. Their figure 8 is a rough schematic of where particles of different size deposit in the lungs. Things with very large or very small inertial impaction size get ...


3

I have gone through both the references - The effect of jet streak curvature on kinematic fields and the background reference in that paper - Isolation of the inertial gravity component in a nonlinear atmospheric model and neither of those references mention any connection to a Cartesian based NS and defining curvature in that coordinate space. To me the ...


3

Based on the state of the discussion in the comments I was not sure whether this has an answer now, but I stumbled over it, and I think I can give a short answer from which one can learn a lot. I'll base my discussion on polar $(\rho,\phi)$ coordinates, for the sake of clarity. In classical mechanics we use for the position vector $$\vec r= r \vec{e}_r = r \...


3

There are various charts but not exactly what you want. This one combines burning, industry and cement but shows land sources and sinks separately: CarbonBrief, Le Quéré, C. et al. (2016)


2

There is no "standard volcano" or "standard volcanic eruption". However, to perform the calculation you want to do, you could use the "typical" of "average" volcanic eruption. The characteristics of the "average" volcanic eruption can be found by calculating the average parameters of many volcanic eruptions. Such averages are not often reported, because ...


2

Strong upwelling-favorable winds (like the ones described) cause coastal upwelling in the following manner: Winds in these systems flow parallel to the coast (with the coast to the left in the northern hemisphere or to the right in the southern hemisphere) and generate upwelling dynamics. Surface Ekman balance is setup (in deep enough waters) with water ...


2

I can not comment on whether your understanding about the formation of the atmosphere (your first paragraph) is correct. However, given that the complete atmosphere lied at the surface at some point, it is possible to calculate the amount of energy to lift this towards its current state. The calculations will be done for a small surface area of one meter ...


2

Dr. Robert Strangeway kindly shared with me the poster he presented at AGU fall meeting 2017, the one I cited in the question based in the abstract only. I've included below some of the key parts of the poster with some text highlight added by me. He focus on Oxygen loss as a proxy of water loss. And the answer to my question that can be derived from this ...


2

No, the weight of the cloud can't be zero; it has to be about the same as an equivalent volume of air. If a parcel of air-plus-visible-matter is lighter (less dense) than the air around it, it will rise; if it's heavier (more dense), it will fall. Clouds are visible because of water droplets or crystals (or smoke particles or whatever) suspended in the air. ...


2

As you probably realise, the Earth's early atmosphere was mainly composed of CO2, as are the atmospheres of Mars and Venus to this very day. You are right in thinking that most of this CO2 was removed by biological activity; if all the earth's fossil fuels and limestone rocks were converted back into CO2, we would have an atmosphere similar to that which ...


2

There are some problems with your request, and maybe some misunderstandings. Misunderstanding: You actually need more than pressure to get wind vectors. Wind speed is nonlinear, and is dependent on more than just wind. Even if you had observations of pressure, that will only tell you how the wind is changing due to the pressure gradient force, and not due ...


2

This is very unusual and I've never seen it before, though I have seen other rainbow effects such as double and triple rainbows. What they all have in common is a mist of water droplets lit up by the sun. If you have ever seen a dew drop (and who hasn't) you will have noticed that when the sunlight struck it a pretty coloured light came from it. When you ...


2

Yes, you are right, the title says it all. The presence of greenhouse gases, of which there are several, allows radiant energy from the sun to pass through the atmosphere but hinders the longer wavelength, infra red, thermal radiation from getting back out again, thus acting like the glass in a greenhouse. CO2 is a less effective greenhouse gas than methane, ...


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