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I am familiar with this phenomenon. In London, in winter 1947, I remember being able to see sunspots with the naked eye. The sun was very orange, like the one in your photo. The reason I was able to see sunspots was,of course, that the London sky was polluted with fumes and the winter sun was low on the horizon, so the rays had a greater thickness of ...


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I assume that the sentence in the book mainly refers to subsidence as an adiabatic process. This sinking motion has a maximum which is at a height well above the surface, simply for the reason that air flow can not penetrate the earth's surface. Therefore maximum adiabatic heating rates occur well above the surface as well. The precise height where this ...


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90% of earths atmosphere is from 0-10000m this means an increase of 0,001%. But this is wrong the melting ice will be replaced by air so there will not be any change in volume. Ice have a larger volume than water have so the result will be a very slight drop in air volume. I have not taken hight for air under pressure in the ice here but you get the point,...


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chlorophyll is green because that was the part of the spectrum that was left when plants evolved. The bulk of the spectrum was already being harvested by other photosynthetic life. there is actually a wide variety of photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll is just one of many. You may want to check out the purple earth hypothesis. Sauce


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To ask why chlorophyll is green is a bit like asking why haemoglobin is red. That is just the colour of them, in the case of haemoglobin due to the iron content and in the case of chlorophyll probably due to the magnesium atom at the centre of every chlorophyll molecule. As you very likely know, the function of chlorophyll is to carry out photosynthesis, ...


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The maximum vapor pressure in air is a function of the temperature and not of the total pressure. So when you humidify air at 12°C you get a maximum vapor pressure of approximately 1.4 kPa. However, when the air is humidified at 140 kPa the vapor pressure is still only 1.4 kPa. Therefore, you have a water/air ratio of 1.4/140= 1%. Therefore, for every mol ...


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As you probably realise, the Earth's early atmosphere was mainly composed of CO2, as are the atmospheres of Mars and Venus to this very day. You are right in thinking that most of this CO2 was removed by biological activity; if all the earth's fossil fuels and limestone rocks were converted back into CO2, we would have an atmosphere similar to that which ...


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I suppose the answer depends on total lifecycle emissions as well as landfill environmental cost. For plastic I assume PP or PETE. For styrofoam production is based on polystyrene so some styrene emissions. For lifecycle costs, emissions for manufacturing as well as energy (coal or gas power plant) need to be considered. Also are either recycled and in ...


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