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7

How can the air in the Earth's shadow scatter blue light if it doesn't get any direct illumination, and any indirect illumination getting back there should be VERY depleted in blue (i.e. mostly red light)? You're completely right. If you simulate light scattering only, you'll get exactly this result: a sandy-colored sky, with a bit redder belt of Venus, and ...

3

First, let's acknowledge this fact: $$c_p=R+c_v \tag{1}$$, where $R$ is the specific gas constant. This means that $x=R/c_p$. Rearranging the equation, we can see that $$P+I=\int{c_p\left(\frac{P}{P_{00}}\right)^{R/c_p}\Theta dM}\tag{2}$$ Notice that $\left(\frac{P}{P_{00}}\right)^{R/c_p}$ is the Exner function. By extension,$$P+I=\int{c_p T dM}\tag{3}$$ If ...

2

welcome to ES. I'm not experienced in Chemical Transport Model, so my reply will be more on "general terms" and I'd be more than happy to see more specific answers. That being told, in my experience with land surface and hydrological models, the spin-up period is heavily model- and application- specific. In some applications, for hydrological ...

1

NO, it's not a very major sink on our planet, red is the extra carbon from human activities: https://jancovici.com/en/climate-change/ghg-and-carbon-cycle/wont-the-carbon-sinks-absorb-the-extra-co2/ Cool theory about Venus. It lacks a strong magnetosphere, so the solar wind carries away more light elements like hydrogen, and water vapor, the solar wind has ...

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