7

How can the air in the Earth's shadow scatter blue light if it doesn't get any direct illumination, and any indirect illumination getting back there should be VERY depleted in blue (i.e. mostly red light)? You're completely right. If you simulate light scattering only, you'll get exactly this result: a sandy-colored sky, with a bit redder belt of Venus, and ...


4

Assuming you are talking about ethanol: it is a common chemical substance, generated naturally from e.g. rotting fruits. So any pollution from hand sanitizers should be negligible. What happens to the alcohol in the atmosphere is an interesting sequence of reactions. I took the info below from an article (see link below). In the air, ethanol is oxidized ...


3

First, let's acknowledge this fact: $$c_p=R+c_v \tag{1}$$, where $R$ is the specific gas constant. This means that $x=R/c_p$. Rearranging the equation, we can see that $$P+I=\int{c_p\left(\frac{P}{P_{00}}\right)^{R/c_p}\Theta dM}\tag{2}$$ Notice that $\left(\frac{P}{P_{00}}\right)^{R/c_p}$ is the Exner function. By extension,$$P+I=\int{c_p T dM}\tag{3}$$ If ...


2

I've found two sources for molecular hydrogen. The photolysis of formaldehyde (See chemical formula 10 and see Novelli et al. 1999) Anthropogenic sources. While it isn't a source I think I should mention the exosphere. The exosphere is not very dense, so hydrogen (probably) doesn't react with anything. Since it is the lightest element, it probably doesn't ...


2

Besides man-made sources, hydrogen can be produced naturally through a process called serpentization. Mafic and ultramafic rocks, which are rich in magnesium and iron silicates, react with water to produce a variety of breakdown products summarized in the Wikipedia article on serpentine Serpentinization is a geological low-temperature metamorphic process ...


2

The Martian nightglow comes from molecules in the atmosphere that react with solar radiation, carry it over to the night side, and give off the energy they gained as ultraviolet light as they free-form stable compounds. From https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/goddard/2020/mars-nightglow: The diagram explains the cause of Mars’ glowing nightside atmosphere. ...


2

welcome to ES. I'm not experienced in Chemical Transport Model, so my reply will be more on "general terms" and I'd be more than happy to see more specific answers. That being told, in my experience with land surface and hydrological models, the spin-up period is heavily model- and application- specific. In some applications, for hydrological ...


1

NO, it's not a very major sink on our planet, red is the extra carbon from human activities: https://jancovici.com/en/climate-change/ghg-and-carbon-cycle/wont-the-carbon-sinks-absorb-the-extra-co2/ Cool theory about Venus. It lacks a strong magnetosphere, so the solar wind carries away more light elements like hydrogen, and water vapor, the solar wind has ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible