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This question is a little vague, with multiple aspects, but I shall do my best. Computing resources Some universities have their own clusters or supercomputers. But many countries also have regional or national facilities. For example, ARCHER2 is the latest iteration of the UK's national supercomputer service. Small amounts of computing time are available ...


3

Another UK perspective here to supplement Semidiurnal Simon’s answer (which reflects my experience too). The UK research community is dominated by a single family of models known collectively as the Unified Model. The code for these is owned by the UK's national weather and climate modelling center, the Met Office, and used gratis under license by academics....


3

First, let's acknowledge this fact: $$c_p=R+c_v \tag{1}$$, where $R$ is the specific gas constant. This means that $x=R/c_p$. Rearranging the equation, we can see that $$P+I=\int{c_p\left(\frac{P}{P_{00}}\right)^{R/c_p}\Theta dM}\tag{2}$$ Notice that $\left(\frac{P}{P_{00}}\right)^{R/c_p}$ is the Exner function. By extension,$$P+I=\int{c_p T dM}\tag{3}$$ If ...


1

Yes, the wind cells are just a toy model, where we can suppose that the homogenity of the Earth and other things. But there are other things and Earth isn't same on the all points, so the instantaneous winds don't follow their cells. Of course, it is possible (by pure statistics) that sometimes in the Earth history, the majority of the winds was aligned with ...


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