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Carbonaceous aerosols are formed by a mixture of substances with different chemical, physical, and optical properties. Certain organic substances are mostly transparent to sunlight and therefore do not contribute to Earth warming or cooling. Other substances are mostly reflective, therefore their presence in the atmosphere contributes to Earth's cooling. ...


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Yes, you are right, the title says it all. The presence of greenhouse gases, of which there are several, allows radiant energy from the sun to pass through the atmosphere but hinders the longer wavelength, infra red, thermal radiation from getting back out again, thus acting like the glass in a greenhouse. CO2 is a less effective greenhouse gas than methane, ...


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Solar irradiation is a measure of the energy delivered by the sun per unit area, watts or joules per square metre for example.. It is often recorded over a specific time period, so it is very much to do with solar radiation, but not exactly the same thing.


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I don't know of any mechanism by which cosmic rays can produce substantial amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. Cosmic rays are fast protons and atomic nuclei from the sun and other stars bombarding the upper atmosphere, and have all kinds of subtle effects. They produce small quantities of beryllium 10, for example, but not substantial quantities of CO2. ...


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I think you’re not far off with your understanding, but maybe I can put in a few comments to make things clearer. I often get confused because most diagrams for the Earth energy budget and net radiation balance show more infrared leaving the surface than is ever supplied by solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere in the first place… As you can see, ...


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