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Yes, there are horizontal radiation fluxes. These can change the heating rate by 10-40 K hr$^{-1}$. They also change depending on the extent of the atmosphere you may be considering. One can also imagine that they are a bit stronger during the sunrise and sunset, when the sun is not directly overhead and the beam has a larger horizontal path length. There is ...


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Yes. You don't even need concrete or black paint, just a plowed field will do, or grass vs forest, a south facing slope... (Ask anyone who's done much sailplane flying.) How high the convection will reach depends on a lot of factors. Hereabouts (east side of the Sierra Nevada) you can easily thermal to 14,000 ft (~4500 m) or more. (Going higher requires ...


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In principle: yes. But i won't give exact numbers for a mere km², though i'd expect a skilled paraglider under optimal atmopsheric conditions to be able to make some use of it ;-) Actually, gliders use industrialized areas exactly because of this, a low albedo created by asphalt, concrete, dense construction/building. How high and strong the resulting ...


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The yearly average Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) is around 145–345 W/m², as measured by the AIRS instrument: Source: Wikimedia Commons contributors, "File:AIRS OLR.png," Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Now, this is an average that includes both day and night. How much does it vary? This depends on the location. ...


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Yes, you are right, the title says it all. The presence of greenhouse gases, of which there are several, allows radiant energy from the sun to pass through the atmosphere but hinders the longer wavelength, infra red, thermal radiation from getting back out again, thus acting like the glass in a greenhouse. CO2 is a less effective greenhouse gas than methane, ...


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