# Questions tagged [climate-change]

Questions about changes of the climate system, including questions about global warming.

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### Why does this resource give no insolation change since Roman times?

This grapher says that the sun watts/me has not changed in 2200years. (0.0022 Ma ago until 0 Ma ago) Why the invariance seeing as we approach glacial minimum? years ago/insolation W/m2 2200 342....
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1 vote
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### What consequences of the global climate change are expected in the next 50 years?

It is known, that due to global warming, the average temperature on Earth over the past 100 years has increased by 1.2 degrees. At the same time, I heard that earlier the temperature of the Earth was ...
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1 vote
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### Shorter Showers Effect on Environment

I was told that if I take a shorter shower it will impact the environment positively. That extra water saved could be used for struggling countries or other uses. As a result, I should take a 5min ...
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### Climate Change Solutions - Pros and Cons

I am beginning my research on climate change and am not familiar with all of the problems that can occur. At the same time, I know there are potential solutions to react to climate change. For example,...
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### How can a single layer atmospheric model for the greenhouse effect be consistent with adiabatic temperature gradient and optical depth considerations?

I'm completely lost...In an elementary course on meteorology, we recently learned how to explain the greenhouse effect in terms of a simple single-layer atmosphere model. Based on the image below ...
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### Why is dependence of radiation forcing on CO2 concentration logarithmic?

As a newbie on climate science and meteorology I'm trying to understand the almost logarithmic behavior of CO2 concentration on radiation forcing $$F(c) = A \cdot \ln \frac{c}{c_0}$$ and why there is ...
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1 vote
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### Convert methane emissions calculated with GWP100 to GWP20

Given a figure of 1 tonne of CO2e methane emissions, where the CO2e figure is calculated using the 100-year global warming potential, is it possible to do a straight conversion back to tonnes of ...
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### How can carbon flows be modeled mathematically?

In this video Earth's carbon cycle is investigated with a bit of maths. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIOrF0-R33o It is in German, but the idea behind I can describe easily: There are reservoirs of ...
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### IPCC AR6 References

Does the IPCC publish its references (i.e. the references used in the report, not citations for the reports or chapters themselves) beyond what is in the PDFs of the reports themselves? I'm looking ...
1 vote
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### How to simulate rainfall for a 1 in 100 year storm event?

I have information about total rainfall during a 24-hour, 1 in 100-year storm event for a location. (source: https://hdsc.nws.noaa.gov/hdsc/pfds/index.html). I would like to use this information and ...
72 views

### How to demonstrate the warming effect of CO2 at home?

Is there any simple experiment which can be done to show empirical evidence that carbon dioxide causes the greenhouse effect? I'm imagining something simple like two sealed fish tanks, one filled with ...
1 vote
31 views

### Where Do I FInd IPCC RCP Global Mean Temperature Predictions?

We have written a free textbook at (http://climate-change.world). Its main focus is on the social science side of changing emissions. We are not atmospheric scientists, so all we want to do is to ...
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### What exactly does point-of-no-return for carbon emissions mean?

I think I have heard that if the carbon emission raises a small amount above the current, it would be "point of no return". I heard it a long time ago, so I just searched Google and the top ...
55 views

### How does dredging help the rivers that have gone dry?

How does dredging help the rivers that have gone dry? If you dig deeper, that small, and fixed, amount of water is just going to go lower, isn't it? That just what my layman's logic says, at least. ...
42 views

### How do melting glaciers dry rivers?

How do melting glaciers dry rivers? Unless there's less precipitation during winter, I don't see how it affects the volume of water of the rivers that glaciers feed into. If it's cold, water ...
47 views

### How is sea level rise due to a glacier melting calculated?

There's news going around (e.g. link) that the melting of the Thwaites glacier may cause sea levels to rise by 10 feet. Is that true and not exaggerated? How is the calculation made? They said the ...
21 views

### What was the physical environment like in the Fertile Cresent between 10k BCE and 1 CE?

Mesopotamia was part of the Fertile Crescent, and Assur was an Assyrian city in Mesopotamia for roughly 1500 years, but it looks like this now (barely any vegetation, pure desert): What was the ...
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### Why Climate Change (CC) or Global Warming (GW) does not take into account the actual heat from human combustion processes? [duplicate]

Are there any papers or calculations of how much we could be warming the atmosphere by these processes?. Please also share any clues to find those numbers if you have. The volume of a car engine ...
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56 views

### Is there a relationship between pressure drop and sea level rise?

Climate Fresk is a NGO which publishes a card game aimed at educating people about climate change. Card 33 (page 16 of this pdf file) reads (emphasis mine): Cyclones and atmospheric waves bring wind, ...
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### How much carbon dioxide does war release?

I'm wondering how much damage the Russian invasion of Ukraine has done to the climate, in particular how many tons of carbon has been released into the atmosphere. I'd be surprised if it isn't ...
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1 vote
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### Does visible light warm the earth?

I read that most radiation reaching us from the sun is visible light. Yet, heat can only be radiated away from earth as infrared. Is this correct? If so, why can the oceans (say) absorb heat from ...
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### Is ocean pasture restoration a real solution to quickly mitigate climate change?

In this youtube video American entrepreneur Russ George claims that - based on research of oceanographer John Martin and some experiments he made in British Columbia - pouring mineral dust into the ...
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### Aerosol injections to manage European heatwaves?

The heatwave that hit Europe in July was not only highly unpleasant (40°C), but has been predicted to be an exceptionally onerous medical, agricultural and economic burden. As someone outside of the ...
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1 vote
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### Global change or climate change [closed]

I was just wondering whether it wouldn't make more sense to describe climate change as global change. After all, it is not only the air temperature that has been changing in recent years, but also ice ...
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### Why is the global warming potential of methane and ozone so much higher than CO2?

When sources describe global warming potential of different gasses, such as in this paper on radiative forcing, methane and tropospheric ozone respectively are given GWP values of around 29 and 65. ...
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### Maximum Air Temperature Decrease Over Time

Based on the maximum air temperature Time series plot plot below. What could be a possible reason(s) for Maximum Temperature to ...
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### Change in vapour pressure due to climate change

I was just wondering how much the vapour pressure has changed due to climate change. Because with changing temperatures, the vapour pressure also changes; this is described by the Clausius-Clapeyron ...
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250 views

### Why is the Northern Hemisphere warming faster than the Southern Hemisphere?

Hi I just found the NOAA table. It clearly shows that the N. hemisphere has warmed much more than the southern hemisphere since 1880! https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/monitoring/monthly-report/global/...
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8k views

### Why had climate change not been proven beyond doubt for so long?

I just read the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report and noticed that this is the first (or first very significant) report to state that climate change exists and can no longer be scientifically disproved. ...
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### What's the effect of space launches on climate?

Do space launches warm or cool the surface temperature (admittedly, for a little bit)? This BBC article presents it as an emerging climate problem but also says If the amount of black carbon expelled ...
61 views

### Change in thermohaline circulation due to climate change

The melting of the North Polar ice masses removes a driving factor from the thermohaline circulation, known as the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic. I wonder how much the thermohaline circulation has ...
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### Empirical adjustment factors for generating sub-daily precipitation values (for IDF curves)

I am trying to generate an Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curve using 6-hourly precipitation data. These curves are used to estimate the return period for a rain event with a specific intensity (...
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1 vote
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### Describe changes in atmosphere data - mathematical solutions

I interpolated isotopic data (2H or 18O) from 1970 and plotted it on a map. I did the same with data from 2010. The interpolated data are gridded data which have changed over time. Up to now I have ...
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136 views

### Countering climate change skeptics that point to previous warming episodes

If the question is a bit confusing, what I'm asking is if there is scientific evidence to counter an argument against climate change that I had come across. The person said that climate change is not ...
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1 vote
36 views

### Change in evaporation in the North Atlantic since 1890

Hi I was wondering if there are any good open Access models of the oceans from the 1890's to, lets say 2100! I have already found the site but I am looking for more alternatives: https://esgf-node....
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1 vote
70 views

### Milancovich analysis

I would like to show the change in temperatures since 1960 until today. I have thought about creating two time blocks, e.g. from 1960-1970 and from 2010-2020! Then I want to average the data of these ...
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76 views

### How quickly climate zones are shifting due to climate change!

Hi I was wondering how fast the climate zones (according to W. Köppen) have shifted in the last 22 years. It is well known that the zones shift about 100-200 km to the north or south for each degree ...
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32 views

### Are natural or artificial pools of water (like ponds) carbon positive, negative or neutral?

Are natural or artificial pools of water (like ponds) carbon positive, negative or neutral? They store carbon, but anaerobes release methane, don't they?
1 vote
76 views

### Would the Climate change in Southern Africa by Filling Lake Makgadikgadi Evaporation Pans with water from the Zambezi and Chobe Rivers?

I have Macro question, and have enquired and discussed this topic with numerous people. My background is more in Economics and Finance, and read a very interesting article if I am not mistaken 10-15 ...
18 views

### What is the connection between climate change and phosphorus and positive feedback loop?

So what is the connection between climate change and phosphorus and what are some examples of potential feedback loops of this connection. I think a very common response is probably the leakage of ...
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### How does the increase in CO2 concentration model explain the extreme lower colder temperatures

With burning of fossil fuels resulting in increased CO2 concentration, I get how increase in CO2 leads to a hotter planet and global warming because Earth's heat balance has been affected by CO2 ...
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### How quickly can global means surface temperatures react to changes in CO2?

I am interested in whether short term (approximately decadal) variations in atmospheric CO2 would be observable in the consequent variability in Global Mean Surface Temperatures (GMSTs) as a result of ...
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### Universal or Ordinary Kriging?

Hi I am creating an isoscape model in which I am plotting 2H and 18O of precipitation. Until now I have always used ordinary kriging for the interpolation, but I am somewhat dissatisfied with the ...
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108 views

### How does water vapor cool the troposphere?

I have read about the Fixed Anvil Temperature (FAT) hypothesis and wonder why radiative cooling decreases with decreasing water vapor mixing ratio. Doesn't this stand in contrast with the fact, that ...
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### Which variogram method for ordinary kriging?

I want to plot atmospheric data (2H and 18O) on a map and use ordinary kriging for the interpolation. Now I have the question how to quantify which variogram method (Gaussian, exponential spherical) I ...
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275 views

### Would covering part of Lake Mead with large sheets of bubble wrap reduce the amount of water lost to evaporation?

I have been recently thinking about how the water level of Lake Mead keeps dropping due to its high water evaporation rate brought on by recent years of historical drought conditions. The continuous ...
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### Is it possible to reliably infer the anthropogenic contribution to the post-industrial rise in $\ce{CO2}$ from $^{14}\ce{C}$ observations?

There have been several papers [failures of the review process] that have argued that the post-industrial rise in atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$ is primarily a natural phenomenon, or have sought to minimise ...
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1 vote
68 views

### Urban heat island effect during winter time?

Say a given populated area is considered an "urban heat island", this would mean that during summer, temperatures will be higher in that area. But what about winter? One could argue that ...
42 views

### How does carbon dioxide accumulate in the upper atmosphere if it is heavier than air [duplicate]

I am not a scientist but how does carbon dioxide make its way to the upper atmosphere form fossil fuel burning if it is heavier than oxygen (air), especially as the air is thinner in the upper as you ...
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