The unit is different.
The British data is in gram per passenger per kilometer travelled, while the US data is in gram per passenger per mile traveled.
1 mile = 1.609 km
So if you take the long haul flight, 102 g/km (UK) = 164 g/mi, which is almost similar to the US figure of 166 g/mi.
[I apologise for this long & somewhat scrappy answer. It may contain significant errors, for which I apologise as well.]
How long something persists in the atmosphere once it's there depends, obviously, on how it gets removed from the atmosphere and also if anything is adding it to the atmosphere. Different things we might consider pollutants will ...
One example of the slow carbon cycle: Surface uplift of Tibet and Cenozoic global cooling
Continental weathering on a global scale influences ocean chemistry and imposes a net drawdown of atmospheric CO2 that modulates global climate ... . This observation, in addition to seawater Sr records that suggest an increase in continental weathering after ca. 40 ...
The question is too generic to be specifically answered in few lines.
The answer to this question is the history of climate change science itself.
You can find a good essay here:
Historical Overview of Climate Change Science
But to understand it, you probably need to start from here:
Understanding and Attributing Climate Change
IMHO even in these essays ...
There are multiple ways of determining this, but the simplest, which doesn't require any high-tech monitoring devices on exhaust pipes and the like, is simply to determine how much fossil fuel (coal, oil, &c) is mined each year. This economic data is readily available from for instance the CIA World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-...
According to this NASA documentation,
the fast carbon cycle, before anthropogenic climate change had started, had these main characters:
8 big carbon reservoirs (places "where the carbon stays"), indicated with the following "storage units":
deep ocean reservoir (37,000)
fossil carbon reservoir (10,000)
reactive sediments reservoir (6,000)
soil carbon ...
Yes, stopping extracting fossil fuels from the deep soil and starting pumping carbon into the deep soil is a feasible and relatively easy solution to stop global warming.
By assuming that anthropogenic global warming is caused by the rise of greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere (let's say mainly CO2),
in order to ...