79

The IPCC do mentions solar minimums and maximums, as part of extremely careful treatment they do of the reconstructions and predictions for the changes in solar irradiance. The Assessment Report 5, Working Group 1, Chapter 8, have a whole section (~4 pages) dealing with solar irradiances. If the IPCC don't mention grand solar maximums/minumums that often, ...


78

In a nutshell: The radiation that enters is shortwave radiation from the sun. Solar radiation is dominated by visible (as well as UV and near infrared) radiation with a wavelength mostly between 0.2 µm and 2 µm. This wavelength is determined by the temperature of the Sun, in the order of 6000 K. For visible radiation (roughly between 0.4 µm and 0.7 µm), ...


70

The problem is the increase in the rate of sea level rise. I pulled out some approximate numbers from the figure you presented: Can you see now how the sea level is rising much faster today than a century ago? Sea level rise, as well as climate change are normal things on Earth history. However, most times they happen at a very slow rate, allowing ...


50

Your middle school physics perhaps hasn't gotten to thermodynamics yet. The three laws of which can be summarized as 1) You can't win; 2) You can't even break even; 3) You can't leave the game. The crucial point here is that heat engines don't actually work on heat, they work on temperature differences. So you can't really "collect" heat and turn it into ...


49

In 2010 anthropogenic emissions (not including land use change) were approximately 9167 million metric tonnes. Your data on trees holding 13 lbs (5.9 kg) of carbon per year equates to 169.6 trees per metric tonne of emissions. So to take up all of the emissions from 2010 you would need 1,545,000,000,000 trees. A mature forest has only about 100 trees ...


43

Arctic ice, around the north pole floats on top of water. When it melts it does not add to sea level rises and likewise for other ice on water, as illustrated in this video and this video. Ice on land is a different matter. Ice on Greenland, Antarctic land & glaciers around the world will add to sea level rise because any melt water will eventually end ...


42

There are indeed a lot of positive feedback mechanisms, i.e. a warm climate leads to a warmer climate. From this Wikipedia article, they are: Carbon cycle feedbacks Cloud feedback Gas release Ice-albedo feedback Water vapor feedback However, there are also a few negative feedbacks (same source): Blackbody radiation Carbon cycle Lapse rate Impacts on ...


40

Your question about water vapour is quite a common one among people learning about the greenhouse effect. Once you discover the relevant proportions of water vapour and CO2 in the atmosphere, it's perhaps natural to assume that the CO2 can't be playing a major role. In reality it doesn't work like this, for at least a couple of reasons. First, let's look at ...


40

I want to know if that article has been refuted anywhere Yes. You can read all about it in the blog post James Taylor misinterprets study by 180 degrees. In short, the original paper was designed to test the view of "professional geologists", which in this case are members of the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of Alberta. The vast ...


40

I think the main question has already been answered. But I would like to add to the fallacy that: History shows solar activity is the main driver of our climate, among other factors. The Sun is undoubtedly the main source of energy for the planet and its climate. However, variations in solar activity are not the main cause of variations in climate. The ...


39

There looks like legitimate cause for further study, preferably by scientists breathing air under 950 ppm $\small\mathsf{CO_2}$ (this study showing a 15% decline in cognitive ability at this level). Because it is not known what mechanisms are involved in this decline in cognitive ability it is not clear if there are threshold levels, with step changes in ...


38

You just read the news too fast. WMO announced that, after evaluation by a committee, they have validated the 18.3°C temperature recorded in February (i.e., in summer) last year: GENEVA, 1 July 2021 (WMO) - The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has recognized a new record high temperature for the Antarctic continent of 18.3° Celsius on 6 February 2020 ...


36

Does human body temperature impact climate change? Directly? It's not even a blip. The Earth's population is 7.6 billion. With each person radiating about 80 watts (basal metabolism), that's about 600 gigawatts, or 760 gigawatts using a round figure of 100 watts. That sounds like a lot, but it's only a tiny fraction of the 18 terawatts consumed by humanity, ...


35

"So much work"? Actually, compared to the global rate of greenhouse gas emissions, it's a case of "so little work"! From a scientific perspective the 'economists' solution' of carbon trading was always unlikely to achieve the required carbon cuts, as has been verified by their ineffectiveness over the last decade or so. As farrenthorpe points out, the rate ...


35

The comment is saying that the authors are making a fallacy as follows: Temperature increase will be associated with an increase in tropopause height. Using instrument/dataset X, we fail to measure a tropopause height increase. Therefore, there is no temperature increase. The fallacy here is that instrument/dataset X is not suitable to measure tropopause ...


34

Quoting from John Russell's response to this article, "This is arrant nonsense!" Russell concludes with How did this paper get through the peer-review and editorial review processes? What technical standards were applied to determine the apparent merit of its contents so as to justify its inclusion in a reputable journal? Just because something is ...


33

Using the latest numbers from the 2013 IPCC report (Ch. 4, the Cryosphere), Antarctica contains 58.3 m of sea level equivalent (sle) and Greenland 7.36 m sle. Remaining glaciers provide an additional 0.41 m sle. In total and adding very minor contributions from permafrost etc. the total comes out to approximately 66.1 m sle. EDIT: Just to be complete: If ...


29

Firstly it is worth demonstrating that 97% of climate scientists agree that climate-warming trends over the past century are very likely due to human activities. W. R. L. Anderegg, “Expert Credibility in Climate Change,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Vol. 107 No. 27, 12107-12109 (21 June 2010); DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1003187107. P. T....


29

Collecting thermal energy is really hard. As others have said, things like heat pumps exist for moving heat around, but the laws of thermodynamics (which are fairly fundemantal in physics) require that moving heat around will always generate more heat. Now, the amount of extra heat generated can be less than the amount of heat that's being moved - so if we ...


28

There has always been a strong north-south rainfall gradient from approximately the Golan Heights (high rainfall), through Judaea and southwards into the arid Sinai desert. We know that this gradient once had a higher rainfall because there are abundant rainfall harvesting and groundwater collection structures, built by the Nabatean civilization about 400 BC ...


25

The sea is not the only thing that rises, the sea floor can also rise and fall in accordance with the underlying geology. Oceanic tectonic plates sink as they age (and thus get colder and denser), the Solomon islands happen to be on a sinking section of the ocean floor and at the same time the sea level is rising. Keep in mind many of those islands have a ...


25

Gerrit's got the technical answer; I'm going to answer for a layperson. There are two ways objects lose heat. The first, and the way people are most familiar with, is conduction. Something touches something else, and the hotter material transfers some of its heat to the colder material. It's why you rapidly lose heat if you wade into cold waters: your ...


25

Because the energy transition has not yet been sufficient to reduce annual carbon emissions. From Our World in Data, here's annual total CO2 emissions, by world region: Since the 1960s, growth in low-carbon energy sources has only grown from about 6% to about 16% (source)-- not enough to make a dent, given that total energy use has grown faster than that. ...


24

As the abstract makes clear, the finding of Cook et al. (2013) is not really "97% of researchers agree..."; rather, it is "97% of peer-reviewed publications agree". They didn't just go through some directory of climate researchers asking them what they thought. They read the abstracts of all 11,944 publications they found on the topic, and classified them ...


24

The short answer is yes, it's possible. And it can also reduce harm. Summary of the changes Here's a brief summary of the changes that happen when electricity is generated from a wind turbine, rather than from a fossil or nuclear plant: energy is taken out of the wind further upwind than it would otherwise be there is more turbulence just downwind from the ...


24

This phenomenon is known as global dimming. It was due to the particles and aerosols mostly released by combustion of fossil fuels such as diesel. Those particles block the radiation from the sun, so they have a cooling effect. For some decades this effect counterbalanced the warming effect of greenhouse gases, although it is no longer the case at a global ...


23

Your premises are flawed due to the lack of two critical details: Population rise; the sheer number of people on the planet that are consuming resources has risen to 7 billion people. Standard of Living; a greater percentage of people in the world live a "Western" style, which consumes more goods per capita. You should study something like the Global ...


23

Runaway climate change is, given our current state of knowledge, only something that could be confirmed in historic context - in the rear-view mirror. Inconveniently, there's likely to be a much-diminished version of human civilisation around to observe it, if and when it does happen. In other words, it's too early to tell if we've passed a catastrophic ...


22

To add to Gerrit's excellent answer, I'd like to add a couple more Images. Images always help clarify things for me. Firstly, this one shows the spectrum light coming from the sun in red. The peak is in the visible range*. It also shows the thermal radiation from the earth in blue. This is in the infrared range. Below, it shows how different gases allow ...


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