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Do the calculation for 1 mol of CO$_2$ 1 mol of CO$_2$ weighs 49 grammes = 0.0049 kg 86400 seconds in a day, so 864000 * 0.0049 = 423.36 kg/day/m$^2$ The surface area of the globe is 5.1 x 10$^{14}$ m$^2$ - so 423.6 * 5.1 x 10$^{14}$ = 2.16 x 10$^{17}$ kg/day Convert from kg to Megatons, 10$^9$ kg in a Megaton - so we get 1 mol CO$_2$/m$^2$/second = 2.16 x ...


"Ship of opportunity" weather observations have contributed to global data collection exercises since the dawn of meteorology as a science. There are many national and international initiatives that collect data and the data already inform weather forecasts and climate models. The practice is summarised in


"The Warming Papers" edited by David Archer and Raymond Pierrehumbert is good for historical context. It is basically a collection of classic journal papers, starting with Fourier and Tyndall, but it also covers key papers on climate modelling, ice cores and the carbon cycle etc.

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