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The oceans have a huge effect on the climate and temperature of the various regions of the world. Climates fall into two categories: marine and continental. In Britain we have a marine climate, which protects us from the extremes of the European continental climate. Our winters are milder, our summers cooler, because of the proximity of the Atlantic and the ...


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I don't know of any mechanism by which cosmic rays can produce substantial amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. Cosmic rays are fast protons and atomic nuclei from the sun and other stars bombarding the upper atmosphere, and have all kinds of subtle effects. They produce small quantities of beryllium 10, for example, but not substantial quantities of CO2. ...


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Assessing sea levels is a complicated business, as there are a number of factors which can affect sea level relative to a fixed point on land. For a start, land levels rise and fall; in some places land is lifted up by plate movements or volcanism, in other places it may fall. Rising and falling atmospheric pressure makes very temporary local changes. The ...


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The question may generate primarily opinion based answers but while it is open one would like to present the following information. At the outset most of the people I know in the field work in NWP and the reason people avoid higher mathematics(by that I mean looking for analytical solutions or pure math based projects such as you mention topology or ...


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The wikipedia article List of weather records explicitly states This list does not include remotely sensed observations such as satellite measurements, since those values are not considered official records.[1] Reference 1 in that article, a web archive link to a page on World Meteorological Organization Global Weather & Climate Extremes, adds that (...


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Ultralow Surface Temperatures in East Antarctica From Satellite Thermal Infrared Mapping: The Coldest Places on Earth p. 6127 says: Validation studies of MODIS c5 and c6 LST for nonpolar regions, while limited, suggest that the surface temperature data are generally within 1 °C of the in situ measured thermal emission temperature (Wan, 2014), although ...


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I submit the argument that it wouldn't have much an effect on the scale you're inquiring. A 5km wide impactor (like the Manicouagan was calculated to be) in the massive ocean, wouldn't do much damage. I do think you're right in suggesting there would be some effect, but I don't think it would be on a scale to change the climate. I also think that such an ...


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