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8

There's not much context, but my guess is that this was a cavum cloud (a.k.a. punch hole or fallstreak), that was caused by an aircraft. The UK Met Office describe how these form: They form in clouds of supercooled water droplets, water below 0 °C but not yet frozen. These water droplets need a tiny particle, a nucleus, to freeze or to be cooled below -...


8

You are right, you can't get cloudbase height without 3D data. You can do that using radiosondes. However, if your weather station has a ceilometer, then you don't actually need many calculations. However, they are usually quite expensive. If you want a real rough calculation, you can just use the Lifted Condensation Level, which is more valid estimate ...


6

Under the right conditions (in a basic sense, locally high relative humidity; see also this discussion on this site regarding contrail formation), the clouds initially formed by contrails may persist for hours and spread outwards to form larger areas of cirrus cloud. Additionally, NASA's Contrail Education Project website has some specific examples here ...


5

The short answer to your question is yes all charge particles (positive or negative), independent (like electron, proton) or attached to other materials like cloud droplets, molecules, atoms, etc. when in motion produce magnetic field. If two charged particles of same charge are moving in opposite direction then they cancel out each other's magnetic field. ...


4

This doesn't aim to be a complete answer, but after putting a juicy bounty at Aviation SE on the question "Can pilots tell if a cloud or fog is made out of water droplets or ice crystals when flying through it?", the answer seem to be: No, they can't. And all the things to look at to detect ice clouds doesn't seem to be useful if you don't have a plane at ...


4

From atmospheric soundings. For my area: http://weather.uwyo.edu/cgi-bin/sounding?TYPE=GIF%3ASTUVE&TIME=current&STNM=60018 Selection from map: http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/sounding.html A how-tos: http://www.csun.edu/~hmc60533/CSUN_103/weather_exercises/soundings/smog_and_inversions/Understanding%20Stuve_v3.htm https://www.eoas.ubc.ca/...


2

These are weakly formed gravity clouds or density clouds. Clouds are formed from condensation, which is just tiny water (and other gases) droplets and vapor. As such, these tiny droplets and vapors will flow like ripples on the surface of water in a slow breeze. What you're seeing here is light-action wave ripples in the atmosphere and the resulting effect ...


2

I just want to add couple more points that are not covered in the excellent answer above by dplmmr. It is the fact that lenticular clouds do not form in the trough part of the wave because that corresponds to air that is warming but they do form in the crest of waves as air parcels condense. How does one obtain the trough and crest of the Mountain wave that ...


2

I think it could be artificially formed. The parallel background clouds are natural formations; I have seen such formations over Hereford so straight, extensive and parallel that they looked artificial, but weren't. However, the transverse cloud in your photo runs contrary to the natural airflow. One possibility is that an aircraft flew cross grain through ...


2

Maybe you can use infrared satellite images to get the cloud-top temperatures and estimate the height of them over vertical temperature profiles (e.g. radiosondes). But this ís just workingg for the clouds at the top. You can't see what's beneath them unfortunately.


2

Yes. The types of clouds formed are dependent on the profile of temperature and the profile of water vapor. During the summer, there is more radiative flux, which produces more buoyancy. Hence more buoyant clouds (cumulus-type) are formed in the summer than in the winter. Instinctively you may recognize that you get more thunderstorms during the summer than ...


2

No, the weight of the cloud can't be zero; it has to be about the same as an equivalent volume of air. If a parcel of air-plus-visible-matter is lighter (less dense) than the air around it, it will rise; if it's heavier (more dense), it will fall. Clouds are visible because of water droplets or crystals (or smoke particles or whatever) suspended in the air. ...


1

The cloud is inherently white/gray (it's clear water droplets). It's shadowed from the red light to the west, but exposed to the blue light from the rest of the (apparently mostly clear) sky, so it is mostly illuminated with blue light, and that's what it will reflect. As another answer observed, there are also perceptual effects. Your eyes aren't ...


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