12

The authoritative sources for your data are: ASOS: Automated Surface Observation Systems at airports, and MADIS: the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System, from NOAA Those are collections based on calibrated, maintained equipment, with good geographic coverage. And Wunderground already archives them, so it's a matter of selecting and using those,...


12

You might like to check World Cave List which has a pretty extensive list of caves, their depths, and lengths. For example: This list has been automatically produced from our World Caves Database. Total depth and length of all caves currently collected in the database: Number of caves = 2424 Caves deeper than 300m = 1075 Caves longer than 3kms = 1628 ...


9

The most important reanalysis datasets covering until present time (I'm excluding the others that stop some years before present time) currently available are: ERA5 by ECWMF: 1979-present (soon 1950-present), temporal resolution of 1 hour and spatial resolution quarter degree (0.25 x 0.25); CRU by the UEA: 1900-present (some variables 1850-present), ...


9

No. One should not attempt to validate raw in situ measurements with reanalysis data. Reanalysis data contain partial information from observations, but are mostly model fields and are provided at very coarse resolution (~1$^\circ$ longitude). In situ measurements are subject to very local, small scale effects, and have different meaning from reanalysis. One ...


8

Many meteorological stations are assimilated into NOAA's reanalysis. You should be careful with this approach as the raw data you have might have been already included in the hindcast. The reanalysis includes the data in an statistical way. In general, the reanalysis does not match the data at any point, but tries to minimize the global difference between ...


7

The best open-source and free geospatial database is in my opinion PostGIS. It is easy to use and has a huge support group (also for example at https://gis.stackexchange.com/) It also connect to all sorts of different open-source programs and web-interfaces which should make data editing, viewing and sharing easy. It can handle the date-line and the poles:...


5

When I need data about past and future projected land use change, I usually refer to the global dataset that was developed for the global climate simulations CMIP6. The dataset is the Land Use Harmonization V.2 LUHv2 and it was developed by researchers at the University of Maryland. Reading the supporting document of the dataset, among others, the ...


4

For the US, there are several sources: Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) MRDS is a collection of reports describing metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources throughout the world. Included are deposit name, location, commodity, deposit description, geologic characteristics, production, reserves, resources, and references. It subsumes the original MRDS ...


4

I agree with Speissburger that PostGIS (an extension of Postgre) has excellent Geospatial support. In the open source world, this would also be my recommendation. (MySQL claims to have some geospatial support but it is very limited in capabilities) For completeness, Microsoft's SQL Server also has good geospatial support - I think it was introduced as an ...


4

Unless they are large or famous earthquakes, I doubt you will find the waveforms for specific earthquakes. What you will find is a ton of seismic data: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/data/?source=sitenav which you can request. Once you have requested (downloaded ect) the waveforms (probably in seed format) you will need to analyze the waveforms themselves to ...


3

One direction to look in might be the various GIS systems that exist to forecast the amount of light that will reach photovoltaic (solar panel) installations. I don't know about the US, but I would be very surprised if there isn't one - try googling for "PV GIS" or similar. Now, that will give you insolation (illuminance) in W/m2. It may be further broken ...


3

Official meteorological stations should have well-calibrated thermometers. In any comparison between models and measurements, the measurements would be the reference, not the models. One way I can see to validate ground-based in-situ temperature measurements is by carrying an SI-traceable thermometer to all the sites. Unfortunately, you cannot do this ...


3

By your edit, it seems you are more interested in the "big data" side of the science. Model reanalyses contain large amounts of historical weather data, so that is a safe bet for ample amounts of data. NOMADS, which is a service provided by the National Weather Service is a good resource for model data. There is another version of NOMADS for operational data;...


2

Wind speed, direction, temperature (highs and lows only or time of day?) And do you want this for all over the Earth or just regional, like the continental US? If this answer is correct, there are roughly 30,000 weather stations across the globe, 365 days a year that's about 11 million rows of data per year. That's a large enough database where you'd ...


1

I have found an archive of small-scale charts encompassing part of Africa here.


1

Were to find hourly data will depend on your location, as you will probably need to access the national weather network of the country of your interest. Global climatic databases usually record data on daily basis. Like the Global Historical Climate Network, you can search for all the station in that network and query snowfall data in the KNMI Climate ...


1

I would suggest the National Interagency Fire Center, which keeps statistics in a variety of formats as well as lists of historical fires. For instance, you can see a list of historically significant fires as far back as 1804 here. In general, the closer you get to present, the more information about fires there is. Other websites with historical ...


1

One possible example could be the study of ice cores in Antarctica where scientists are trying to determine changes in concentrations of gases like carbon dioxide over a period of time . Such variations serve as indicators for other Climate related factors such as Temperature. This record was a key contribution to climate science. One, it revealed how past ...


1

ACCA Manual J: Residential Load Calculation, look in the back and they have a table of BIN temperatures for most U.S. Cities.


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