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13

Is it possible that the recent droughts are signs of epic crust failure? No. Even though your 5 points do not make much sense, I'll try to answer it anyway. There are no continental plates. There are lithospheric plates, consisting of both continental crust and oceanic crust. While it is true that arches in construction (buildings and bridges) are held "up"...


6

This event is "super historic" only because of its proximity to the coast. It is fairly common to get flash flooding in the mountains and deserts of Socal at least a few times each summer, due to the Southwest Monsoon. This event was different in that a dying tropical system moving north off of the coast of Mexico interacted with a trough off of the ...


6

Revised answer TL;DR After having just heard from two experts who actually work in this field(firestorms and dry lightning) in Australia I believe the lightning seen is what is known as "dry lightning" comes from isolated thunderstorms and sometimes storms associated with minor troughs and fronts that come through Australia and also originating from a ...


4

Since you asked for an intuitive explanation, my thoughts would be that due to predicted increasing sea and global temperatures, the models used might be predicting a corresponding increase in monsoonal moisture or duration. From Climate of India : In India a tropical wet and dry climate is more common. Noticeably drier than areas with a tropical ...


3

The SPI statistic can be considered a standard normally distributed random variable $SPI \sim N(0,1)$. Thus the expected value, or mean, of the SPI statistic is $0$, and its standard deviation and variance are $1$. If the mean of the distribution is zero, then by the central limit theorem, you would expect that the limit of your sample mean (the mean of ~...


3

Your question covers a lot of ground and maybe should be broken up into parts. Written human history is only a few thousand years old. Over most of that period there's been a gradual cooling. Source. You also have to say where. European farming is probably more susceptible to cold spells. Middle Eastern farming to drought and hot spells. USA ...


3

To answer the question Are there any known or suspected historical i.e. Holocene climatic warming associated with negative impacts on human populations? One recent (actual) example that come to mind is the sea level rising. Here we see that since the early satellite measurements in 1993, sea level rise was about 8 cm. On the same page, less reliable ...


3

Lately, a couple of scientific discussions came up and challenged the conclusions of Goldstein et al., 2011 (see Katz & Starinsky comments to Torfsteins’s et al., (2015) paper, in EPSL) A recent paper by Neugebauer et al. (2015) published in Climate of the Past discussions, interprets the gravel layer (which was presented as the main evidence for dry up ...


3

The Dead Sea salt is almost equally Mg-chloride and Na-chloride at about four times normal sea-salt salinity. This combination is extremely hygroscopic whilst, at this ultra low elevation and high temperature, there is very high humidity. People who try to towel themselves dry after swimming in the Dead Sea find that they can't - the salt absorbs atmospheric ...


2

There isn't a lot written on this yet. A search of FAO, UNESCO, World Bank and Asia Development Bank should turn up answers for specific regions. Keep in mind that climatic modelling is generally quite accurate for temperature, but woefully inaccurate in terms of regional water resources assessment. One should rely as much upon instrumental evidence-based ...


2

Maybe it's outside the scope of your question (I.e. droughts) but the lack of rainfall associated with warming climates does (and is) affecting saline water intrusion along coastal aquifers, which inevitably affects our fresh water access...!


2

Drought is not comparable to earthquakes and hurricanes because of the difference in time scale involved. We can generally consider earthquakes and hurricanes to be discrete events at a point in time. Drought, however, has a significant and variable time component. For example, you might consider a year of severely below average rainfall to be a drought but ...


1

What does 'forcing' mean? The PDSI is calculated from model output data. Models do not predict all relevant variables but some data need to be provided externally from the user. These externally provided data are denoted as "forcing" because they "force" the model to move in one direction (colloquially speaking). You might also call it "drive" a model -- ...


1

One can't order these hazards without being much more precise. What energy threshold do you regard as an earthquake? There is micro-sismicity over most of ther planet for most of the time. The area affected deceases as the magnitude gets larger. And what do you regard as the spatial extent? The slippage footprint, or the area suffering some event magnitude? (...


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