The composition of Moon rocks is pretty much the same as that of Earth. However, none of the processes that concentrate specific minerals in one location (i.e. into a mineral deposit useful for mining) exist on the Moon. This is due to the lack of tectonic activity. Therefore in the Moon you would expect the rocks to be much more homogeneous than on Earth. ...
It is unlikely anything other than salt would be derived from sea water.
The largest deposit of gold is dissolved within the worlds oceans - in terms of tonnes of metal. The problem with extracting the gold from sea water is the concentration is so low it is uneconomic to do so. It's why we keep mining hard rock sources of most metals. This problem exists ...
I'd like to expand on jamesqf's answer. But first,
lit side of the moon and the dark
There are no "lit" and "dark" sides of the moon. It rotates, and whatever is dark now will be lit in two weeks time. There are definitely near and far sides of the moon though.
The problem with the Earth is that it's a dynamic planet with plate tectonics, continental ...
There are craters on the Earth, Arizona's Meteor Crater being perhaps the best-known example. The reason that there aren't a lot more (obvious) ones is that the Earth has lots of dynamic processes, ranging from weather to plate tectonics, that gradually erase them. The Moon doesn't have these things, so craters last for billions of years.
Which Earth minerals would Moon colonists miss the most?
tl;dr All of them.
As mentioned in the other answers here, it's about economics. Extracting an element from a mineral requires energy, chemical processes, equipment, waste management, etc. This has to be done per amount of rock. The more of the element in interest you have in your rock, the more ...
Feels like a space-ex question and I think a fair bit is likely to be missed in my post, but it's a fun question, so:
The biggest problem with the Moon is no atmosphere. Other problems are no protection from UV light, protection from cosmic rays and very fine, small and jagged lunar dust. Annoying stuff, gets into everything.
Getting stuff from Earth ...
biologically produced ones like coal and other petrochemicals. Marble, limestone, Diatomaceous earth, and other such minerals are candidates as well.
Manganese oxides may be a good candidate the biologically formed ones have several unique industrial applications due to having an unusual microstructure. It is also most easily mined from seafloor sediment.
I think the question arises in part from the misconception that on the near side of the moon (the "lit" side as it was referred to) the Earth fills much of the sky and blocks most incoming impactors. (Do correct me if I am wrong.)
That is incorrect. The Earth is ~12 Mm in (polar) diameter and ~360 Mm from the moon. Using the small angle approximation ($tan \...
For (a) through (c), consider the differences between the geoid and the reference ellipsoid, in addition to the barycentre.
For (d): A slightly higher perigean spring tide than usual, meaning in some geographical locations perhaps an amplitude difference of inches rather than millimetres.