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The volume of a sphere is $\small\sf{\frac4 3\pi R^3}$, where $\small\sf{R}$ is the radius. The volume of Earth with the 4 cm deep iridium rich layer is, $\small\sf{V_{Ei} = \frac 4 3\pi (6.378\cdot10^6)^3}$ $\small\sf{m^3}$ = $\small\sf{1.086 \ 781 \cdot 10^{21}}$ $\small\sf{m^3}$ The volume of the 4 cm deep iridium rich layer is, $\small\sf{V_i = \frac ...


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I agree with the comments; some upfront research would be good here, even at a basic level. A good place to start is this Wikipedia article, which gives not only atmospheric heights but also other characteristics such as composition and the behavior of molecules. In terms of heights the Wikipedia article suggests 700 km for the lower boundary of the ...


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The reason mountains are higher on Mars than on Earth is the lower gravity on Mars, which is only one third of Earth gravity. Mountains are very heavy things, and on Earth the forces that build them have to fight against gravity, which is constantly trying to drag them down. For the same reason, small asteroids are usually not spherical, because they don't ...


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There is no such thing as the 'Holmes' equation. Comment: Holmes is the person that formulated this equation I has every right to name it as I please. Could someone please validate the Holmes equation There is no such thing as the 'Holmes' equation. To the ideal gas law $$T=\frac{P\mu}{R\rho}$$ if P, ρ and μ are known in order to 'predict' a temperature ...


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Tipping point events have occurred throughout earth's history and parts of the earth system are currently being monitored for signs of abrupt change. Past earth system tipping points include The Great Oxygenation which brought molecular oxygen (O2) into the atmosphere and Snowball Earth events where the earth's surface became ice-covered. Tipping points can ...


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