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You are looking at $\nabla \vec B$-drift here (spoken: grad-E drift). This type of motion can be explained in a simplified way, when imagining a 2-D plane, separated at y=0 with two different magnetic field strengths, $B_z$. Let us say that for y>0, $\rm B_z$ is large and for y<0, $\rm B_z$ is weak. The strong field imparts a small gyro-radius for the ...

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Could you be specific in your question as to what data you need on storms? Do you just need dates when storms occurred, or global geomagnetic index activity levels, or ground magnetic field measurements? Are you interested in the storm effects at Earth, or do you want space-borne measurements of solar activity? You can find lists of some basic info for the ...

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Think of the electric current as a fluid, and a battery or some other source of current as a pump. Change the earth for the ocean. I don't know about the negatively charged earth's surface, but those -500,000 coulombs are an absolute measure of charge. That charge is distributed over some surface, and the earth's surface is pretty big.

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