# Tag Info

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CO$_2$ doesn't significantly interact with solar radiation or UV, and doesn't store any significant amount of heat. What CO$_2$ effectively does is scattering infrared radiation emitted by the Earth, and such radiation is emitted day and night. Let me explain this: All objects emit a type of radiation called black body radiation. And the color (wavelength) ...

8

Yes. Evapotranspiration ($ET$) can be calculated from latent heat ($LE$) by dividing by latent heat of vaporization ($\lambda$) $$ET = \frac{LE}{\lambda}$$ This assumes density of water equal to 1000 kg/m3. Latent heat of vaporization is the amount of energy needed to change a unit mass of water from liquid to water vapor. With LE and λ in units of MJ m-2 ...

5

First some definitions: Latent heat is the heat that leaves or enters a system during a process where the temperature of the system stays constant. Phase changes are prime examples where latent heat leaves (exothermic) or enters (endothermic) a system. Ice melts (endothermic) and water freezes (exothermic) at constant temperature. Sensible heat is the heat ...

5

It is because longwave (LW) correspond to a negligible part of the solar radiation and shortwave corresponds to a negligible part of solar radiation. You can make an experiment yourself using NASA's Radiance calculator. By adjusting the parameters for Earth's and the Sun you will get the following plot of energy flux at different wavelengths (The red line ...

4

Answers will be different because they must be tied to a model of solar evolution, and all models are a bit different. So to answer your question we have to select a model. A pretty standard and trusted one, is the one used in the paper Stellar evolution models for Z = 0.0001 to 0.03. Where Z stands for the metalicity of the star, that for the Sun they ...

3

I'm not sure how accurate you need, but beginning NASA's global 398.2 watts per square meter estimate from their energy budget a rounding down based on temperature variation should give a pretty good estimate. A lot of people have a problem with that number because it's more energy than we get from the sun, but that's because our atmosphere is a kind of ...

2

The greenhouse effect is a process that occurs when gases in Earth's atmosphere trap the Sun's heat. This process makes Earth much warmer than it would be without an atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is one of the things that makes Earth a comfortable place to live. This video explains it very well.

2

Sometimes in meteorology, at least here in the US, we actually call thunderstorms convection, which can confuse the terminology a bit. There is moist convection (e.g., storms) and dry convection (e.g., thermals). Sensible heat (and/or dynamical processes like fronts, orographic lift, or positive vorticity advection increasing with height) initiate the ...

2

It is important to keep in mind the black-body approximated radiation for the Earth and the Sun. Notice how small the long-wave energy radiation is from the sun and how Earth's radiation peaks there. I would speculate that this question has something to do with the fact that Earth's surface is heated by solar shortwave radiation, and that Earth's lower ...

1

Yes, there are horizontal radiation fluxes. These can change the heating rate by 10-40 K hr$^{-1}$. They also change depending on the extent of the atmosphere you may be considering. One can also imagine that they are a bit stronger during the sunrise and sunset, when the sun is not directly overhead and the beam has a larger horizontal path length. There is ...

1

A very simple answer is that it is related to the demands of the vegetation types and their ability to maximize the net radiation. A "perfect" plant that covered the entire surface would theoretically result in a BR of 0 as 100% of Rn is used for photosynthesis and released as ET, such that H=0 and LE=RN and B=H/L. It obviously doesn't work that way though. ...

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