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Starting with question 2): you can use heat to evaporate the water but you need some sort of energy or thermal exchange to cool and condense it back to liquid. My understanding is that reverse osmosis (RO) is more energy efficient overall. Question 1) Brine is only put into the oceans from system that are near the sea, which usually use seawater as a water ...


Dumping the brine in a desert would probably be a viable solution in a few places, but many towns don't have a handy desert nearby. It would need to be a really barren desert,almost devoid of life, which few deserts are. Environmentalists would be aghast if you flooded the Sonoran Desert with brine. Bonneville Salt Flats might be better, but they are used ...


One factor that makes distillation expensive is the alloys necessary for equipment to handle hot brine are very expensive. For ambient temperature osmosis fairly common stainless like 316 is satisfactory although care must be taken in design to avoid crevices and other considerations.


In opencast mining it is dumped on a huge spoil heap, and if the company is environmentally conscientious or wants to avoid penalties, it is used to fill in the hole left when the mining is finished. With underground mining it is also dumped on spoil heaps, and as it is not practical to infill the mine workings, in best practice the spoil heaps are later ...

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