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I've built DIY conductivity probes for subglacial measurements. Unfortunately my sensors remain under ~100m of ice so I haven't be able to recover them to check the calibration, but for the same reason, I've taken multiple measurements to reduce calibration drift, as I'm unable to re-calibrate them. So far, they have produced sensible data for 2+ years, but ...


4

Accelerometers, preferably triaxial (i.e., those that record horizontal and vertical motion). Beyond that your question is indeed a bit too open-ended. Some use many cheap MEMS (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2008GL036572/epdf; https://www.theverge.com/circuitbreaker/2017/7/13/15963996/raspberry-pi-seismograph-early-warning-earthquakes; these are ...


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